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VOL. I.]

those who clothed him with power. If the people
have placed us in authority, it is to promote their
interest, not our own, that we are bound to act.
I will only add, I shall cheerfully concur in such
measures as you may adopt for the good of our
country.
WILLIAM PLUMER.

State of New-Hampshire, June 6, 1816.

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NAUTICAL.

LIGHT HOUSE ESTABLISHMENT.

Extract of a letter from Henry A. S. Dearborn, Esq. Superintendent of Light Houses in Massachusetts, to the Commissioners of the Revenue, dated May 12, 1816.

"I have received satisfactory information that Winslow Lewis has fitted up Cape Look-Out, St. Simon's, Tybee, Cape Hatteras, Charlestown, Georgetown, Cape Fear, and Shell Castle Light Houses, with patent lamps and reflectors, which completes his contract for that purpose. From the knowledge which I possess in relation to the advantages which result from this improvement of the light houses, I am perfectly satisfied that the contract of Mr. Lewis has been executed in the manner contemplated by the government. The light house establishment of the United States is now equal, if not superior, to any in the world. The brilliancy of the lights, and the great distance they are to be seen, are so notorious as to excite the admiration of the mariners who frequent our coast. The saving in oil by the new lamp is more than one half in the several light houses which were fitted up previous to the war.

I have seen ten of the lights, during the night, in this state, which I have often viewed before the improvements of Capt. Lewis, and the contrast is highly creditable to his genius, industry,

and zeal. Nat. Intel.

the Suwarrow Islands, after his ship. He fixed their south latitude at 13 deg. 13 min. 15 sec. and their longitude at 163 deg. 13 min, 4 sec. west of the meridian of Greenwich. Thus these newly discovered islands lie at an almost equal distance from Navigators' and the Society Islands."

The Directors of the American Company at St. Petersburgh have recently communicated to the Imperial Academy of Sciences the subjoined extract, from the journal of the Lieutenant of Marine, Lasarew, relating to the discovery of the Suwarrow Islands:

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PEACH TREES,

As the delicious fruit of this tree has become of late years very scarce in some of the eastern States, by means of the peach tree decaying and finally dying; and as I have for some years (in New-Jersey and this State) been anxious to find out the cause; and having ascertained to my satisfaction that it was not owing to a worn in the I have examined Footac see at almost all ti peach tree at almost all times in the year, and having found a certain insect on the first growth or putting out of the leaves in April, 1815, I was led to inquire if this insect had been noticed before: and not being able to find any person that had ever seen the like, I concluded to wait the return of another spring, to make further discoveries: and about the same time this April last past, I found the same insect make its appearance again. I observed these insects for some time, in which they increased very fast. I then called on a friend in Cincinnati to make it public, and at the same time exhibited to him a sample of the above insect; but this being delayed, I have thought proper at this late hour to make the following statement of my own observations; especially as I have, with much sorrow, perceived the peach trees in this state are becoming subject to decay.

"The Suwarrow, a ship of the Russian American Company, commanded by Lieut. Lasarew, sailed on the 20th October, 1813, from Cronstradt.Low After having touched at England, the Brazils, and New Holland, he sailed from Port Jackson for the Russian settlements in America. On the 27th of September, 1814, his ship was surrounded by a great number of birds, which increased towards sun-set. These birds were so tame, that they began to suspect they were approaching an island The Suwarrow, having slackened sail, steered to the N. N. E. and about 11 at night a low island was perceived to the south and east: although the breakers were heard at a distance, the ship continued driving on, as at the depth of 100 fathoms no ground could be found. On the approach of day light four other low islands were discovered. At the distance of three miles from the shore the sea was more than 100 fathoms deep: when they reached the beach they found these islands inhabited only by birds, crabs, and rats; there were here and there shrubs and cocoa trees, but no trace of inhabitants. Lieut. Lasarew named them

From the Cincinnati Gazette.

These insects appear as the first growth begins to put out, in April. They increase till they be They are very small at come very numerous. first, remain for the most part of the time on the under side of the leaf, and cause it to twist and turn a pale yellow colour. In a short time they turn to a small fly and disappear; there are none to be seen after the 10th or 15th of May. They somewhat resemble the lice on cabbage or broom corn. I have not observed that any thing preys on them except a small worm, which eventually turns to a large fly somewhat resembling a yel

jacket or hornet. My conjecture is that the eggs are deposited in the bud in the fall, and produced by the warm rays of the sun in the spring of the year. Query: do not these insects poison our peach trees, and bring on this decay? If so, men of leisure, would do well to find out some remedy. JAMES WOOD.

Columbia Township, May 16.

TO WOOL GROWERS.

BY MR. ZEDAH HAYDEN, OF BOSTON,

My business, for a few years past, has brought particularly within my observation, the great instability of the sales of sheep's wool of American growth. The demand for the article and price which it has from time to time borne, have beca equally irregular. I have frequently been led to inquire into the cause, and endeavour, in my own mind, to point out measures which might, at least in some degree, tend to remedy the evil.

nure, wind it up as tight as possible with the skin.
side inward. After which it would be well to
put it into a clean dry apartment for a week or
more, for the purpose of drying, before pack-
ing it for market. The most convenient bags
may be made of tow cloth, of from 7-8 to 4-4
wide, of 3 breadths each, from 2 to 24 yards in
length.

Permit me, sir, to suggest to you some of my ideas upon this subject. Should they meet the approbation of the Massachusetts society for promoting agriculture, I doubt not but they will exert their influence in rendering them useful to the public.

The state in which the article has generally been offered in market, I conceive to be one of the most prominent causes of the irregularity in Should this method go into general practice, it its sales. The greater part of our fine wool has, would, I conceive, by rendering it much less. heretofore, been offered in its natural unwashed difficult to determine the value of American wool, state, and of the remainder, very little has been be a great step towards putting it upon a fair comwell washed. In its natural state it is well known petition with that imported, and cause a more rethat the quantity of yolk and dirt varies essen-gular demand. It would also be a suitable order tially, according to the degree and kind of merino for the operation of stapling, a pre-re-quisite to blood, the method of keeping the sheep, &c. It a proper inspection. has usually been wound up in fleece, with the skin side out, which presents the best appearance, and too frequently with all the tag-locks and manure Atiy avioscu.

A second cause is, the admission of foreign wool into the United States free of duty. This gives the manufacturer an advantage at the expense of the wool grower. which, in addition to other discouragements presented by the close of the war, has a tendency to retard the progress of that interest, which, if properly fostered in its infancy, may probably in a few years not only furnish a sufficient supply of wool to our manufacturers, at as low and perhaps lower prices than could be fairly imported, but a surplus for exportation.

As a remedy to this, it is expected by some, that congress will lay a duty on the importation of the article. But as this is of very considerable consequence to the agricultural interest, would it not, sir, be well for some of our most influential agriculturalists to use their endeavors to procure from different states, petitions to congress for this. object, during their present session."

A third cause is the want of sufficient capital on the part of most of our manufacturers, to ena ble them to purchase wool on the short terms of credit usually offered by the growers.

Among that which has been washed, too little attention has been paid to clearing it from taglocks and manure. In some instances, it is believed, deception has been practised, by mixing that of different grades, and marking it according to the highest. In some instances it has been found to contain much sand, and very frequently barn litter, &c. Under these circumstances, it has been extremely difficult for the best judges to determine any way near the real value of the article in all its various states: it could not there. fore be expected of our numerous manufactures, in the infancy of their establishments. They have seldom had the opportunity (to say nothing of its inconvenience) to open and examine all the fleeces of a lot before purchasing. The consequence has been, that they have bought of the same grade, and at the same prices, at different times, that which has varied in its loss on cleansing, from thirty-five to sixty per cent. Many have bought na- The goods are slow in turming. The liberal tive for half-half for three quarters blood Merino, terms on which imported woollen goods are usual &c. They have been so frequently deceived in ly sold, renders it necessary that they should be the article as to produce among them a general equally liberal in their terms, in order to obtain and strong prejudice in favour of that of foreign fair prices. If they hold their goods for cash, they growth. They know the value of Spanish, and must either sell very moderately, or lower than will purchase it, while they approach American they can be afforded; their goods are not of that : as they would a lottery, under the just impression uniform character which will command fair prices that the chances are against them. And this, sir, at forced sales.-Those, therefore, who sell on cannot be wondered at; they might as well pur-liberal terms and make a reasonable profit in their chase corn without measuring, or cotton without business, soon find a respectable capital swallowed weighing, as to pretend or determine the quantity up, and themselves reduced to the necessity of of yolk and dirt in a lot of unwashed wool. taking advantage of liberal terms in their pur chases, or selling their goods on such terms as will give them little or no profit; their capitals, therefore, are not sufficient, though in most cases respectable, to enable them to purchase wool with cash or on a short credit, without forcing the sales of their goods at low prices; thus some have been under the necessity of discontinuing their business, while many others are doubtful to proceed further-this particularly affects the sale of wool at the present time.

The remedy to this lies but in a small degree within the power of the wool growers, and further I shall not attempt to consider it.

Many of them perhaps have not sufficiently considered how much the sale of the wool depends upon the circumstances of the manufacturers, up. on their abilities and success; and the almost inseparable connexion between the two interests. Having been in the habit of making quick sales of the other productions of their farms, they have.

As a remedy for this, I should propose that an uniform method of preparing sheep for shearing and packing up the wool for market, should be recommended to the wool growers, under the sanction of the Massachusetts Agricultural Society, through the medium of the public news: papers. This method, in order that it may be generally adopted, should be too simple to be inconvenient; it might be as follows: Wash the sheep in as warm water as can conveniently be had, (always avoiding that which is salt or brackish,) as clean as practicable; after which let them run in a clean pasture from seven to ten days, as circumstances will admit, for the purpose of renewing, in a similar degree, the yolk or grease which is alike necessary to the preservation of the wool, and the further cleansing it when necessary. During the time of shearing, cautiously avoid barn litter or other dirt. After carefully separating from the fleece all taglocks and ma

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schools, may all boast of notice-many of them, of success.

too confidently expected the same of their wool, || have wondered why it would not command the cash at any time, at something near its value, without duly considering that the demand for it is limited to a particular class of purchasers, whose abilities to purchase are subject to continual variations, according to their success in their

ness.

The streets, which used to suffocate us with dust, or sink us in the mud, are now paving, and handsome footways are putting down."

The asperities of their surface are smoothing busi-away-the old avenues graduated, or new ones opening for use.

Houses are rising in all directions, for business or

They have not perhaps considered that American wool has not yet become an article of merchan-for lodging: the trowel and the axe are continually dize, that its price has not settled down to an ex- heard! The houses improving in style, as well as port value, that when our manufacturers can buy, increasing in number. The old wooden combusthey can sell, and not otherwise, unless at very re-tible buildings gradually succeeded by solid edifices of brick, with incombustible roofs and paraduced prices. They have too generally offered their wool for pet walls. The stores assuming a neater and more cash or short credit only; and manufacturers, un-airy appearance, like those of Philadelphia. Importing merchants arising among us. der the necessity of purchasing, have too frequentof three English cargoes already arrived; and ly bought without a fair prospect of being able to be punctual in their payments. They have, there-more are expected. Wholesale and auction stores fore, a just claim on the wool growers for liberal multiplying; so that the merchants of the interior credit on their wool; and the growers of wool must, y obtain considerable stocks or goods, without I conceive, conceive it for their common interest incurring freights and commission to the north. ~to be as liberal as may be fairly within their pow. er and convenience, in their terms of sale to the manufacturers.

Two

A plan contemplated of opening the river below; vessels of great burthen may then be able to ascend the stream to Rocketts, and lade or unlade A fourth cause which constantly operates against their cargoes at our wharves; Subscriptions for the sale of wool, is the general prejudice which this valuable enterprize will be opened on the 1st exists in the public mind against woollen goods Monday of July; in the mean time a Committee of American manufacture. It cannot be denied, is formed, from the board of Commissioners, to that during the infancy of our manufacturing es-explore the river, sound its depth and bore its bottablishments, many bad goods have been made, and that many have been grossly deceived in the purchase of them. This has produced a prejudice too well founded to be easily removed; which at present very unjustly operates equally against the sale of those of the first quality.

tom.

But so rapid has been the progress of the im-provement in the manufacture of many kinds of goods, that very considerable quantities are now made, which are but very little if any inferior in respect to those of the same kind usually import ed. Should this course of improvement continue,

New manufactures are establishing-The inexhaustible stores of coal near us, of iron near the

that prejudice must in time thereby cease to ex-margin of the river above, and of water adequate ist; but as its operation is particularly felt at the to every description of machinery will necessapresent time, every exertion should be made to rily invite various branches of manufactures. Huncounteract its tendency. Measures more imme-dreds of wheels may revolve; and still there are scites and water sufficient to turn thousands more. diate in their operation are called for. The maThe declivities of the river furnish the full; the nufacturer who offers the best goods as low, at least, as they can be elsewhere found, calls for Blue Ridge and Alleghany, an incessant stream of support. The wool grower should be the first water. As long as the James River flows, so long to step forward in this cause; it is for his interest, will the means of moving wheel machinery abundantly exist. The brooks, many fail at seasons; the and perhaps his duty. river is exhaustless.

Let him clothe himself and family in American cloth, (of good fabric) and thus recommend the protection of his own soil; let all the wool growers thus dress themselves and families, and it is believed the prejudice against American goods of every kind will soon be lost. To this end, would it not be well for some influential man of interest to recommend it publicly, and at the same time point out the places where the best may be ed of warranted quality.

The Dock Company is filled-200 more shares taken, than is sufficient to secure the law. This enterprize completed, vessels of respectable tonnage will all approach the centre of the city.

A steam-boat momently expected to navigate the river.

A new bridge to be thrown over the river; which is expected to be completed by November

next.

Large dams thrown into the river, on the Man. chester shore, calculated for machinery.-An extensive establishment on Harvey's island is forming for a slitting and rolling mill, and nail, machinery. One forming by Mr. Haxall, near his elegant manufacturing mill, also for the working of Iron. An extensive saw-mill, establishing a few miles obtain-above the city.

A large Air-furnace for iron castings already in blast-Steam engines, and works in brass, em braced in the scheme.

From the Richmond Compiler, May 30. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT. Richmond awake!-We congratulate the citizens of Richmond, on the spirit of improvement which is moving over our city. Some enterprises are going on; others projected. Trade, manufactures, the fine arts, the embellishments of the City,

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Carpenters, brick-layers, stone-masons, carriage-makers, blacksmiths, flocking to our Cityand the field of enterprize, not yet full.

A cotton factory, on a large scale in operation on the banks of the canal. Its doors supported by arches of brick-and so little timber employed, that fire cannot communicate from one room another-A plan entirely new, and worthy of

to

ment of fire.

imitation in a country where manufactories are extensive back country, does she boast of! It supcontinually falling victims to the desolating ele-plies her markets with the richest staples of Virginia; her merchants, with exports to enable them to trade directly with the markets of Europe. Men of genius, of enterprise and skill, of industrious habits and honorable minds! you are into enter the field which is spread before

Other manufactories are contemplated, more are invited to settle here. Such as require the use of water, of fuel, and of iron, must flourish on this spot. A Glass-house is spoken of. There is im-vited mense scope not only for this ingenious art but us. for Snuff-mills, Oil-mills, the manufactories of knives and forks, scythes, the iron materials for houses, &c. &c.

Public edifices, improving in number and style. An elegant Court-house is rapidly advancing.The temples, set apart for the worship of God, rising around us in chaste and elegant simplicity.

From the Philadelphia Gazette.

THE EMPORIUM OF THE WESTERN STATES.
No. I.

Two spacious and handsome houses are building
on an empty Square, for the two Virginia banks.
A Theatre in agitation, where the young
the gay may find some succedaneum for gross
sensualities and dangerous dissinations..

At a period like the present, when a general peace enables the nations of Europe to call into exercise for the promotion of agriculture and maand|nufactures the labour of the great mass of their population, and when our foreign commerce is embarrassed by heing brought into competitior A Museum promising to rise under the auspices with the mercantile enterprize of the world, it is of Mr. Warrell-10,000 dols. contributed by him-incumbent upon all who have at heart the wealth self and associate-and a respectable proportion of and prosperity of the country, to turn their atten200 dols. shares already subscribed for the pat-tion to its internal resources. By a reasonable aprons of the institution--an institution which may propriation of capital and labour to the improvevield pleasure to the eye, information to the mind, ment of the interior, by a liberal encouragement and diversion for the dangerous intervals of idle- to turnpike roads and canal navigation, the wealth ness-where the curiosities of art and nature, the of this nation may be encreased to an extent alcasts of sculpture, and the productions of the pen- most unparalleled. By artificial aids furnished to cil, may unite their attractions-The Legislature the advantages of nature, distant places can be apof Virginia has encouraged it, by giving it a foun-proximated, and thereby new sources oftraffic dedation on the Public Square-If the munificenceveloped, which without such assistance, on acof the citizens be adequately exerted, it must grow count of the expense of transportation and the into a School of the Fine Arts, where the great length of time consumed therein, can never be men of the country will be seen in marble and on profitably enjoyed.. canvas; and original paintings exhibited for the imitation of our children.

The Capitol to be embellished-the Public Square to be enclosed, laid off into slopes and walks, planted with trees, and calculated to form promenades for the citizen and the stranger.

The object of the present publication is particularly to call the attention of the inhabitants of Philadelphia, to the vast importance which is to be derived from a proper encouragement of the great Turnpike road, which is to connect that city with Pittsburg. We think we can show, that if that road be completed at an early period, it will secure to Philadelphia forever the important privilege of supplying the western states with the

The claims of the young, not forgotten. A Lancastrian School on a large scale, is established. A Brick house for this wise institution, 70 odd by 30 odd feet, will be raised by the autumn; an hon-chief portion of the foreign merchandize which our to the city, and an embellishment to the val- they may require for their consumption. Such a ley of Shochoe Creek. benefit will no doubt be regarded as one of the first magnitude, by our enterprising traders, and especially by those who having on hand an im

The Academy!-is now advancing-but, the finds which were scattered, are gathering together. May we not hope, that the time is not very far dis-mense amount of imported goods without prostant, when the hearts of our citizens will open to pect of immediate sale, must see the important the powerful claims of this desirable institution! advantages which are to be derived from an exYet it is impossible to cast an eye over the im-tensive inland communication. But the merchants provements, which have been mentioned, without alone are not interested. Mechanics and manusensations of gratitude and pleasure. Richmond, facturers have an interest to promote, and above which was so lately an object of pity to her own all the holders of real estate are most deeply concitizens, a bye-word of contempt to others, is ris-cerned. If the commerce of Philadelphia should ing from the bed of sloth into activity and reputa-be transferred to some more advantageous point, tion. She is now an object of praise; an example merchants, manufacturers and mechanics can alto her sisters. so transfer their industry, but real property cannot be removed-With the declension of trade its value must diminish, and thus it may be clearly seen, ho intimately are connected the interests of the owners of houses and lots with those of the merchants.

But much remains to be done-Let us finish the improvements, which have been projected. We want an Exchange, an Athenæum, a large public Library. The Academy must rise from its ruins! The silver plate, which was dug up by a sacrilegious thief and stolen from its corner stone, must once more be replaced, with a determination that no difficulty shall again interrupt the erection of this first of buildings.

The domestic or home trade of a country is of infinitely more importance than its foreign trade. The value of goods circulated by the former, is vastly greater than that which is set in motion by the latter, for it is only the surplus of our produc

Capitalists! we invite you to settle among us! Here is a field for the employment of your capi-tions, after the necessary maintenance of the tal. Richmond is destined to be great. What an whole population is deducted, that forms the

stock which is appropriated to foreign com

merce.

We all know that the wealth and importance of our city must depend upon its commerce, and that its commerce must depend upon the extent of the general consumption of those who purchase there. The greater the amount of foreign merchandise which is annually consumed, the more extensive will be our trade. We all too know, that the consumption of the country must be in proportion to its means, and that the cheaper our western brethren can be supplied, the more will they be able to consume, and that the cheaper they can send their produce to market, the more will they be able to raise.

The question then for us to consider is this are the advantages of situation and capital enjoyed by Philadelphia, such as by a proper cultiva. tion, will enable us to supply the western country with their foreign productions at a cheaper rate than they can draw them from any vier source? We answer that they are, and if Philadelphia does not establish itself as the grand emporium of the western country, it will be because her inhabitants are deficient in that regard for their own interests and for the prosperity of their city, which it would be almost criminal not to possess.

The permanent interests of Philadelphia as a trading city, are in danger of being materially impaired by the western country, drawing its supplies, first from New-Orleans, secondly by the lakes from the British territories, and thirdly thro' the state of New-York.

trust that this appeal to the interests and public spirit of our citizens, will not be without its ef2. fect.

As to New-Orleans, it is already well known that by the introduction of steam-boat navigation, a voyage can be performed from that place to Louisville in Kentucky a distance of 1400 miles in 30 days, and that goods can be transported at an expence of 4 cents per pound. But we shall shew hereafter that if the turnpike to Pittsburg be completed before the commerce of the western waters has become directed to New-Orleans, the expense of transportations from Philadelphia to Louisville will be reduced to 3 1-2 cents, per pound, viz. 3 cents to Pittsburg, and 1-2 of a cent to Louisville.

GEOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL.

Louisiana, [the state] is bounded west by the Sabine and a meridional line from the 32d to the 33d degree of N. lat, northwest by the curve of the 33d degree of N. lat.-northeast by the Mississippi river and territory-east by the Pearl river and gulf of Mexico-south by the Gulf of Mexico; and contains 45,860 sq. miles-population in 1810, 76,556-now estimated at 102,000.

This state is divided into three great natural sections, viz. the northwest-Red River and Ouachita section; 21,649 sq. miles and 12,700 inhabitants. The southwest-Opelousas and Attacapas section; 12,100 sq. miles, and 13,300 inhabitants, Southeast-New Orleans and West Florida section; 12,120 sq. miles and 75,200 inhabitants.

Except the city of New-Orleans, there is no city or village in the state containing more than 1,000 inhabitants. Baton Rouge has about that number. The present population of New-Orleans and its Fauxbourgs is estimated at 28,000.

Louisiana was discovered by Ferdinand de Soto, in 1530, also by the French from Canada in 1674. The first settlement was made at Biloxi in 1699.

New Orleans was founded in 1717. Ceded to Spain by France, 1762. Taken possession of by Spain in 1769. Ceded by Spain to France, 1801; and by France to the United States in 1803; Taken possession of by the United States December 20, same year. Became a state August, 1812.

This state is intersected by many great rivers emptying into the father of waters,' (the Missis sippi) or immediately into the Gulf of Mexico. As they are all falling streams, the invention of steam boats is of incalculable consequence to the speedy settlement of the interior. We shall notice the public lands in this state under another head, mere ly observing at this time that in Louisiana great quanties of the most valuable "sugar lands" in the world are to be disposed of by government.

The chief attention of

As yet but little progress has been made in what may be strictly called manufactures in Louisiana; but the general condition of the country bears a proportionate improvement with the rest of the "Western World." the people has been paid to the cultivation of the cane and cotton. The Sugar plantations are the most profitable establishments. The duty levied by the United States on foreign sugar (now five cents per lb.*) operates as a bounty nearly equal to the original value of the commodity, to the planter of Louisiana. A full supply of this general luxury for home consumption, may be looked for in a few years. The Attacapas country is fine for sugar, and rapidly settling. The whole quan. tity exported from Louisiana and the Floridas in 1802 was only 1,576,933 lbs-the quantity made on the Mississippi river alone, is now estimated at 10,000,000 lbs. Cotton is also a great staplein 1812, 20,000 bales were exported-many more since that time. Tobacco, of a very superior quality, is cultivated in great quantities; and much indigo has been raised. Experiments are making with the Coffee Tree, near or upon the shores of the Mobile, with every prospect of success. turage is abundant westward of the Mississippi, it

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• The duty has been reduced to three cents

As to the trade through Canada, little perhaps need now be apprehended, but with respect to the competition of New York, there exists great cause of anxiety. The public spirit which pervades that state is constantly prompting its inhabitants to improve their internal resources, and a grand canal is now contemplation to connect the head waters of the Hudson with the lakes.By this vast improvement, the transportation of merchandize from the city of New-York to Lake Erie, will be rendered so cheap as to draw an immense portion of our western trade into that direction, where if it be once fixed, it may perhaps be too late for us to repair the evil. A part of Lake Erie, by a very trifling land carriage can be connected with the head waters of the Ohio, and thus will be converted into a new channel an immense extent of trade which by a liberal encouragement to the proposed turnpike at this particular juncture, may be forever retained to Philadelphia. These facts are important, and should be well considered before it be too late-Upon our enterprize or apathy at this critical moment hangs in a most eminent degree, the prosperity and commercial importance of our city-and we

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