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ed of the individual, if he was a collector of that port; he replied in the negative, and observed he was a young navy officer; deponent then asked Mr. Norton, if this procedure was customary; he replied, he had known of no such case before, but presumed it was, as he was so near their shore: the officer then passed midships, and examined the whole of the vessel, the hatches then being removed, he eyed with great care and attention, all the men then on deck, aud left the vessel: on reaching his boat, he put his hand to his eye, and looked very significantly towards those on deck, and then at the vessel.


CHARLES LARNED. Sworn and subscribed before me, the day and year first above written,


Copy of Governor Cass's letter to the commanding
officer of the British vessel Tecumseh.
"Detroit, June 6, 1816.

"The original manuscript, of which the following is a copy, was communicated to me by Mr. King, our late Minister Plenipotentiary at the court of London, in a letter of Dec. 20, 1803. The transaction which it records, although of little extent or consequence, is yet marked in the history of Virginia as having been the only rebellion during the 168 years of its existence preceding or insurrection which took place in the colony the American revolution, and one hundred years exactly before that event: in the contest with the

“SIR-It has been officially represented to me, that, in several instances, within a few days, vessels bound from ports of the United States upon lake Erie, to this place, have been boarded by parties of men from an armed vessel of his Britan-house of Stuart it only accompanied the steps of the mother country. The rebellion of Bacon has nic majesty, lying off Amherstburg. been little understood, its cause and course being

"These parties have entered the vessels while passing through the usual channel of communica-imperfectly explained by any authentic materials tion between lakes Erie and Huron, in one instance hitherto possessed. This renders the present with the avowed object of taking therefrom two narrative of real value. It appears to have been men, under the pretence of their being British written by a person intimately acquainted with its deserters, and in all instances with objects, so far origin, progress, and conclusion, 30 years after as they could be ascertained from the questions it took place, when the passions of the day had and conduct of the boarding officer, which fur- subsided, and reason might take a cool and delinish no justification for a British officer in forcibly too, not for the public eye, but to satisfy the deentering a vessel of the United States.

berate review of the transaction. It was written

"The manner in which this service has been performed, has had no tendency to diminish the effect which the character of such transactions is calculated to produce.

"The conduct of the boarding officer has been arrogant and imperious.

sire of a minister, Lord Oxford: and the candor and simplicity of the narrative cannot fail to command belief. On the outside of the cover of the MS. is the No. 3947 in one place, and 5781 in another. Very possibly the one may indicate the place it held in Lord Oxford's library, and the other its number in the catalogue of the bookseller, to whose hands it came afterwards;. for it was at the sale of a stock of a bookseller that Mr. King purchased it.

"In an aggression like this, the government of the United States can alone determine what course the honor and interest of the nation requires should be taken.

"To bring the authenticity of this copy as near to that of the original as I could, I have most carefully copied it with my own hand. The pages and lines of the copy correspond exactly with those of the original. The orthography, abbreviations, punctuation, interlineations, and incorrectnesses are preserved, so that it is a fac simile, except as to the form of the letters. The orthography and abbreviations are evidences of the age of the writing.

"The author says of himself, that he was a planter, that he lived in Northumberland, but was elected a member of the assembly of 1676, for the county of Stafford, Col. Mason being his colleague; of which assembly Col. Warner was speaker; that it was the first, and should be the last time of his meddling with public affairs; and he subscribes the initials of his name T. M. Whether the records of the time, (if they still exist,) with the aid of these circumstances, will show what his name was, remains for further inquiry,"

J. P. D. D. T. M.

"But until their decision shall be made upon the subject, it becomes my duty to remonstrate against a practice for which the laws of nations afford no pretence: which is inconsistent with the relations existing between our respective governments; and, the continuance of which, must be attended with serious and important consequences. "Very respectfully, sir, I have the honor to be, your obedient serv't,


(Signed) "The Officer commanding his Britannic majesty's vessel Tecumseh,"

writing of Mr. Jefferson, who carefully transcribed it, as he says in the following paragraph prefixed to the manuscript, from the original manuscript now in the possession of Mr. King, of New-York. Mr. King purchased it at a public sale of a bookseller's stock in England, in November, 1801. Its publication will doubtless be gratifying to our readers, perhaps useful to American historians, as the memorial of an event but little known. We have endeavoured to preserve the orthography, abbrevia. tions, and punctuation.


We have been favoured with an opportunity to transcribe the following curious and interesting little history of Bacon's rebellion in Virginia. The copy from which it is taken is in the hand

To the right hono'ble. Robert Harley, esq. her Maj'ties Principal Secretary of State, and one of her most hono'ble Privy Council.


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The great honour of your command obliging my pen to step aside from it's habituall element of figures into this little treatise of history; which having never before experienced, I am like Sutor ultra crepidam, and therefore dare pretend no more than (nakedly) to recount matters of ffact.

Ffrom this Englishman's bloud did (by de. grees) arise Bacons rebellion with the following mischiefs which overspread all Virginia and twice endangerd Maryland, as by the ensuing account is evident.

Of this horrid action Coll. Mason who comanded the militia regiment of ffoot and Capt. Brent the troop of horse in that county (both dwelling six or eight miles downwards) having speedy notice raised 30, or more men, and pursu'd those Indians 20 miles up and 4 miles over that river into Maryland, where landing at dawn of day, they found two small paths each leader with his party took a separate path and in less than a furlong, either found a cabin, which they (silently) surrounded. Capt. Brent went to the Doegs cabin


it proved to be) who speaking the Indian called to have a "matchacomicha weewho i. e. a councill called presently such being the usuall manner with Indians) the king came trembling forth, and wou'd have fled, when Capt. Brent, catching hold of his twisted lock (which was all the hair he wore) told him he was come for the murderer of Robt. Hen, the king pleaded ignorance and slipt loos, whom Brent shot dead with his pistoll, th' Indians shot two or three guns out of the cabin, th' English shot into it, th' Indians throng'd out at the door and fled, the English shot as many as they cou'd, so that they killed ten, as Capt. Brent told me, and brought away the kings son of about 8 years old, concerning whom is an observable passage, at the end of this expedition; the noise of this shooting awaken'd th' Indians in the cabin, which Coll. Mason had encompassed, who likewise rush'd out and fled, of whom his company (supposing from that noise of shooting Brent's party to be engaged) shott (as the Coll. himself informed me) ffourteen before an Indian came, who with both hands shook him (friendly) by one arm saying Susquehanougs. netoughs i. e. Susquehanough friends and fled, whereupon he ran amongst his men, crying out "ffor the Lords sake shoot no more, these are our friends the Susquehanoughs.

This unhappy scene ended; Collo. Mason took the king of the Doegs son home with him, who lay ten dayes in bed, as one dead, with eyes and mouth shutt, no breath discern'd, but his body continuing warm, they believed him yett alive; th' afore nned Copt. Brent (a papist) coming thither on a visit, and seeing his little prisoner thus languishing said "perhaps he is pawewawd i. e. bewitch'd, and that he had heard baptism was an effectuall remedy against witchcraft wherefore advis'd to baptize him Collo. Mason answered, no minister cou'd be had in many miles; Brent replied My dwelling was in Northumberland, the low- yo'r clerk Mr. Dobson may do that office, which was done by the church of England liturgy; Coll. est county on Potomack river, Stafford being the upmost, where having also a plantation, servants, Mason with Capt. Brent godfather and Mrs. Macattle &c, my overseer there had agreed with one son godmother, my overseer Mr. Pinet being Robt. Hen to come thither, and be my herdsman, present, from whom I first heard it, and which all who then lived ten miles above it; but on a Sab- th' other persons (afterwards) affirm'd to me; the bath day morning in the sumer anno 1675. people | ffour men return'd to drinking punch, but Mrs. in their way to church, saw this Hen lying thwart Mason staying and looking at the child, it open'd his threshold, and an Indian without the door, the eyes, and breath'd, whereat she ran for a both chopt on their heads, arms and other parts, cordial, which he took from a spoon, gaping for as if done with Indian hatchetts, th' Indian was more and so (by degrees) recovered, tho' before dead, but Hen when ask'd who did that? answer-"his baptism, they had often tryed the same meanes

Beseeching yo'r hono'r will vouchsafe to allow, that in 30 years, diverse occurrences are laps'd out of mind, and others imperfectly retained.

So as the most solemn obedience can be now paid, is to pursue the track of barefac'd truths, as close as my memory can recollect, to have seen, or believed, from credible ffriends, with concur. ring circumstances;

Yo'r hono'rs

And whatsoever yo'r celebrated wisdom shall finde amisse in the composure, my intire depend-(as ance is upon yo'r candour favourably to accept

these most sincere endeavo'rs of

Most devoted humble serv't,

T. M.

The 13th July 1705.

ed Doegs Doegs, and soon died, then a boy came out from under a bed, where he had hid himself, and told them, Indians had come at break of day and done those murders.




Years 1675 & 1676.

About the year 1675, appear'd three prodigies in that country, which from th' attending disasters, were look'd upon as ominous presages.

The one was a large comet every evening for a week, or more at south-west; thirty five degrees high streaming like a horse taile westwards, untill it reach'd (almost) the horrison, and setting towards the northwest.

Another was, flights of pigeons in breadth nigh a quarter of the midhemisphere, and of their length was no visible end; whose weights brake down the limbs of large trees whereon these rested at nights, of which the ffowlers shot abundance and eat 'em; this sight put the old planters under the more portentous apprehensions, because the like was seen (as they said) in the year 1640|| when th' Indians comitted the last massacre, but not after, untill that present year 1675.

The third strange appearance was swarms of flyes about an inch long, and big as the top of a man's little finger, rising out of spigot holes in the earth, which eat the new sprouted leaves from the tops of the trees without other harm, and in

a month left us.

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But to return from this digression, the Susquehanoughs were newly driven from their habitations, at the head of Chesepiack bay, by the Ci-|| neca Indians, down to the head of Potomack, where they sought protection under the Pascataway Indians, who had a fort near the head of that river, and also were our friends.

Frequent complaints of bloudsheds were sent to S'r Wm.Berkley (then Govern'r) from the heads of the rivers, which were as often answered, with promises of assistance.

These at the heads of James and York rivers (having now most people destroyed by the Indians fight thither from Potomack) grew impatient at the many slaughters of their neighbours and rose for their own defence, who chusing Mr. Bacon for their leader sent oftentimes to the Govern'r, humbly beseeching a comission to go against those Indians at their own charge which his hono'r as often promisd but did not send; the misteryes of these delays, were wondred at and which I ne're heard any coud penetrate into, other than the effects of his passion, and a new (not to be mentioned) occasion of avarice, to both which, he was (by the comon vogue) more than a little addicted; whatever were the popular surmizes and murmurings, vizt. "that no bullets would pierce bever skins. "rebells forfeitures would be loyall inheritances &c.


After this unfortunate exploit of Mason and Brent, one or two being kill'd in Stafford, boats of war were equipt to prevent excursions over the river, and at the same time murders being (likewise) comitted in Maryland, by whom not known, on either side the river, both countrys raised their quota's of a thousand men, upon whose coming before the ffort, th' Indians sent out 4 of their great men, who ask'd the reason of that hostile appearance, what they said more or offered, I do not remember to have heard; but our two comanders caused them to be (instantly) slaine, after which the Indians made an obstinate resistance shooting many of our men, and making frequent, fierce and bloody salleyes; and when they were call'd to, or offered parley, gave no other answer, than "where are our four cockarouses, i. e. great men?

At the end of six weeks, march'd out seventy five Indians with their women children &c. who (by moonlight past our guards hallowing and firing att them without opposition, leaving 3 or 4 decrepits in the ffort.

During these protractions and people often slaine, most or all the officers, civill and military with as many dwellers next the heads of the rivers as made up 300 men taking Mr. Bacon for their comand'r, met, and concerted together, the danger of going without a commiss'n on the one part, and the continuall murders of their neighbors on th' other part (not knowing whose or how many of their own turns might be next) and came to this resolution vizt. to prepare themselves with necessaries for a march, but interim to send again for a comission, which if could or could not be obteyned by a certaine day, they woud proceed comission or no comission."

The next morning th' English followed, but could not, or (for fear of ambuscades) would not overtake these desperate fugitives the number we lost in that siege I did not hear was published,


This day lapsing and no com'n come, they march'd into the wilderness in quest of these Indians after whom the Govern'r sent his procla macon, denouncing all rebells, who shoud not return within a limited day, whereupon those of estates obey'd; but Mr. Bacon with 57 men proceeded untill their provisions were near spent, without finding enemy's when coming nigh a ffort of friend Indians, on th' other side a branch of James river, they desired reliefe offering paym't. which these Indians kindly promised to help them with on the morrow, but put them off with pro

The walls of this fort were high banks of earth, with flankers having many loop-holes, and a ditch round all, and without this a row of tall trees fastned 3 foot deep in the earth, their bodies from 5 to 8 inches diameter, watled 6 inches apart to shoot through with the tops twisted together, and also artificially wrought, as our men could make no breach to storm it, nor (being low land) coud they undermine it by reason of water neither had they cannon to batter itt, so that 'twas not taken, untill ffamine drove the Indians out of it. These escap'd Indians (forsaking Maryland)mises untill the third day, so as having then eaten took their rout over the head of that river, and their last morsells they could not return, but must. thence over the heads of Rappahanock and York have starved in the way homeward and now 'twas rivers, killing whom they found of th' upmost suspected, these Indians had received private plantations untill they came to the head of James messages from the Governo'r. and those to be the river, where (with Bacon and others) they slew causes of these delusive procrastinations; whereMr. Bacon's overseer, whom he much loved, and upon the English waded shoulder deep thro' that one of his servants, whose bloud hee vowed to branch to the ffort pallisado's still intreating and revenge if possible. tendering pay, for victuals; but that evening a shot from the place they left on the other side of that branch kill'd one of Mr. Bacon's men, which made them believe, those in the ffort had sent for other Indians to come behind 'em and cut 'em off.

In these frightfull times the most exposed small families withdrew into our houses of better numbers, which we fortified with pallisadoes and redoubts, neighbours in bodies joined their labours from each plantation to others alternately, taking their arms into the fields, and setting centinels; no man stirr'd out of door unarm'd, Indians were (ever and anon) espied, three 4. 5. or 6 in a party lurking throughout the whole fand, yet (what was remarkable) I rarely heard of any houses burnt, though abundance was forsaken, nor ever, of any corn or tobacco cut up, or other injury done, be. sides murders, except the killing a very few cattle and swine.

Hereupon they fired the palisado's, storm'd & burnt the ffort and cabins, and (with the losse of three English) slew 150 Indians.

The circumstances of this expedicn Mr. Bacon entertain'd me with, at his own chamber, on a visit I made him, the occasion whereof is hereafter menconed.

Ffrom hence they return'd home where writts were come up to elect members for an assembly, when Mr. Bacon was unanimously chosen for one,

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they have large stocks of black cattle and horses, swine and some sheep; they have domesticated poultry in plenty; and having now an abundance of the necessaries of life, their population proportion

who coming down the river was comanded by a
ship with guns to come on board, where waited
Major Hone the high sheriff of Jamestown ready
to seize him, by whom he was carried down to
the Govern'r and by him receiv'd with a supriz-ably increases. By means of some schools, many
of their young people read and write. A great
part of the men have adopted our modes of dress;
and the females without exception dress in the ha-
them who are
bits of the white people. Some
wealthy are richly dressed. They are remarkably
clean and neat in their persons; this may be account.
ed for by their universal practice of bathing in their
numerous transparent streams of water which in
almost every direction run through their country.
Men, women, and children practise bathing, which
undoubtedly contributus to their health. All can
swim, and this is often of great convenience, as no

ing civility in the following words "Mr. Bacon
have you forgot to be a gentleman. No, may it
please yo'r hon'r answer'd Mr. Bacon; then re-
plyed the Gover'r I'll take yo'r parol, and gave
him bis liberty in March 1675-6 writts came up
to Stafford to choose their two members for an
assembly to meet in May; when Collo. Mason
Capt. Brent and other gentlemen of that county,
invited me to stand a candidate; a matter I little
dreamt of, having never had inclinacons to tamper
in the precarious intrigues of govern't. and my
hands being full of my own business; they press't
severall cogent argum❜ts. and I having considera-river
ble debts in that county, besides my plantation
concerns, where (in one and th' other) I had much
more severely suffered, than any of themselves by
th' Indian disturbances in the sumer and winter
foregoing I held it not (then) discreet to dis-
oblige the rulers of it, so Coll. Mason with
self were elected without objection, he at time
convenient went on horseback; I took my sloop
and the morning I arriv'd to James town after a
weeks voyage, was welcom'd with the strange ac-
clamations of All's over Bacon is taken, having
not heard at home of the southern comotions,nate
other than rumours like idle tales, of one Bacon
risen up in rebellion, no body knew for what,
concerning the Indians.

can impede their way in travelling. When the
females bathe they are never exposed: any impro
per conduct towards them would be held in detes-
tation by all. Since I have been first in that nation,
a young white man solicited the hand of a young
She refused his offer, and ob
Cherokee woman,
my-jected, as a principal reason, that he was not clean
in his appearance; that he did not as the Chero-
kees do-bathe himself in the rivers. Ablution
with these people was formerly a religious rite.—
It is not now viewed by them in this light, but it
is nearly allied to a moral virtue. It is unfortu
for these people that they should be held
in contempt by people who in no one respect are
better than they, and have no advantage of them
except in the colour of the skin; and whether this
ought to be so considered, is problematical-for
we have seen savages with white skins.


(To be concluded in our next.)

I have not been an inattentive spectator in view. ing these people in various situations; in their forests, in their houses, in their schools, and in their. public councils. The progress of their children in their schools has been as great as that of any other children, in acquiring the knowledge of letters and of figures.

Nature has given them the finest forms; and can we presume that God has withheld from them corim-respondent intellectual and mental powers of mind? No man who has had public business to transact with them, can have a doubt of the capacity of their minds. Their hospitality in their hou-ses is every where acknowledged; their bravery in the field is also acknowledged by those who acted with them in the late war against the hostile Creeks. It will be acknowledged that where hospitality and bravery reside, they are not solitary virtues.


I have been here several weeks with a deputation of Cherokee chiefs, on business of moment to their nation; they have succeeded in their mission much to their satisfaction in settling the boundary lines between them and the Creeks: this had become necessary to designate the lands acquired by Jackson's treaty, so called.

Ought such a people to be considered as part of the great family of man, or ought they to be considered as having had a distinct origin, and to have been created on an inferior scale, incapable of every valuable improvement? They have already been raised from a state of hunters to that of herdsmen and cultivators of the soil. More than 50,000 of these red people (so they call themselves) are liv

In the year 1809 I had a census taken of the number of the Cherokee nation, which amounted to 12,357. The number of males and females were nearly equal-they have considerably increased since that period, so that including a colony of Cherokees who went to settle on the river Arkan-ing on the south and east side of the Mississippi sas, their number is about 14,500 souls-those who and Ohio rivers. Heaven has placed these people emigrated to Arkansas, as well as those on their under the guardianship of the U. States, with maancient grounds, have made considerable advances ny more north and west of those rivers, not acciin acquiring the useful arts, particularly in the ma-dentally or fortuitously. Heaven has actually nufacture of cotton and woollen cloth. They raise placed them within the limits and jurisdiction of the cotton and the indigo for dying their yarn ; our government. I presume it will never be a they are good weavers, and have at this time up-question of cold calculation with our government, wards of 500 looms; most of the looms are made whether we shall avail ourselves of the value of by themselves; they have more than 500 ploughs- the many thousands of these human beings, and This greatly increased the tillage of their lands; thereby add strength to the republic; or by a



We are indebted to the kindness of Dr. Mitchell for permission to publish the following letter, which is well worthy of a perusal. The copy received, is the hand-writing of a young Cherokee. "There is no doubt, says Mr. Meigs, of these people being capable of receiving, the highest provement." Why should there be any doubt of it, if we believe the history of the Jesuits' success in Paraguay?



ble of receiving the highest improvement. Shall we consign some hundred thousands of these peoI have lately seen a number of letters under the ple whom providence has placed under our care signature of Americanus, published in the Demo- to eternal night and oblivion, without an effort to cratic Press, Philadelphia. Americanus has des- preserve them! If Americanus could see these cended from the high ground to which his signa- people as I have done in the course of fifteen ture would seem to entitle him. It may be sport years, he would not consider them as unworthy of to the writer, to aim his deadly arrows at the ve- cultivation, and in a few years of being blended ry existence of a large portion of the human race, and incorporated with us as part of our rising emjust emerging from barbarity to civilization. In pire; he would say, these are our long-lost bro some of the Indian tribes, civilization is considera-thers-we will have patience with them-when bly advanced already, some individuals of which they go astray we will bring them back, and point tribes are very decent and well-informed; men, out the road, and show them the value of civiliza whose minds and sentiments are too much refined tion; it will make them happy, and will add to to descend to language used by that writer, and il- the strength of the republic. liberally applied to the Indian women without any qualification or discrimination: "Draggletailed, dirty, filthy, blanketted squaws." What a tissue of vulgarity, rudeness, cruelty and injustice! A-him in, he may one day help to defend the house. I will not make any apology for troubling you, b cause you once invited me to correspond with you on the subject of Indian history. I have the honor to be, With very great respect, Your obedient servant, RETURN J. MEIGS.

I have often compared them to the condition of a foundling laid at the door of charity, on which if we turn our back he will perish; but if we take

gain-"You can no more convert an Indian into a civilized man, than you can convert a negro into a white man: the animal configuration and propensities are different." This last declamatory observation, though not quite so vulgar as the first, is equally as void of credibility. That there are some Indians who are well informed, and of decent, handsome manners and deportment, is well known. And as to animal configuration, if there is a difference, it will be found in favor of the Indians: and, if a statuary should want models for the human figure, he will find the most perfect amongst the southern Indian tribes south of the Ohio river. There is no occasion to go to Greece or Italy for models for the sculptor; and if propensities have any analogy to configuration, the Indian must have the best. Americanus is animated on the subject of physiognomy. On this subject, facts are better than declamation. About one half of the Cherokee nation are of mixed blood by intermarriages with the white people.Many of these are as white as any of our citizens. There are some of the aboriginal Cherokees who have never used any particular care to guard their faces from the action of the sun, who have good complexions. There is nothing in nature yet discovered to give these people a distinctive, intrinsically distinctive character, from the great character of man.

vindictive policy consign them to, and hasten their descent to utter extinction.

I have frequently attended at the schools for the instruction of the Indian children-seen them by classes go through their exercises. On these occasions I have seen tears of joy steal down the cheeks of benevolent men, men who rejoice at the diffusion of knowledge amongst those long lost part of the human race.

Dr. S. L. MITCHELL. P. S. I set out to-morrow for the place of my residence in the Cherokee country.

In the township of Montgomery, is laid out the town of Columbus.

If by dissection it can be proved that there is any error, any defect in the nervous system, and that the brain receives no impressions except such as are distorted and vicious and barbarous, then

In the township of Franklin, is Franklinton, the shire town of Franklin county. It is situated on the west side of the Scioto, from which it is separated by a prairie of several hundred acres; no where exceeded in fertility. Franklinton contains a number of houses, four stores, and four houses of general entertainment. A large amount of public military stores are deposited here. Twenty

I will acknowledge that the Indian may have pro-years since the first settlement of this county began in this town. During the last war it was a considerable time the head quarters of the northwestern army; and was a place of great business. The form of the town is nearly square. Its situation elevated little above the highest freshes of the river. The court house is large and commodious.

pensities different from the Europeans and their descendants in this country, and that they are not entitled to the common character, which we in our pride accord to human nature.

From the Ohio Monitor.

Franklin, the most central county in the state of Ohio, has its centre line from east to west, in the latitude of Philadelphia. It contains 22 miles square of territory, divided into fourteen townships, each differing little from five miles square; to wit, Washington, Franklin, Madison, Clinton, Montgomery, Mifflin, Hamilton, Jackson, Norwich, Pleasant, Plain, Sharon, and Truro.

In the township of Sharon, is Worthington, nearly north of Franklinton, at a distance of nine miles; and about a half mile east of the Whetstone, on an elevated and beautiful site. The form of the town is commodious. Its situation

The Cherokees universally believe in the being of God; they call him the Great Spirit; they men-healthy and delightful. There are some elegant tion him with reverence-with them, his attri-buildings. A manufacturing company is establish. butes are power and goodness. They never pro- ed here, designed to be coextensive with the fane the name of God in their own language useful arts, with a large capital subscribed. Some They have no size of words that they can combine of the machinery is in operation, and the residue to profane the name of God. is progressing. The inhabitants are emigrants There is no doubt of these people being capa- from New England, mostly from Connecticut. The

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