« PreviousContinue »
An act for the relief of Moses Turner.
of the senate and clerk of the house of represenAu act for the relief of David Coffin, Samuel || tatives, and making provision for the clerks emand William Rodman, and Samuel Rodman, jun. ployed in their offices.
An act for settling the compensation of the com- An act for the relief of Peter Audrian. missioners, clerk, and translator of the board for An act fixing the compensation of the chaplains land claims in the eastern and western district of of congress. the territory of Orleans, now state of Louisiana. An act to establish post roads.
An act making an appropriation for enclosing An act to allow drawback of duties on spirits and improving the public square, near the capi- || distilled and sugar refined within the United tol; and to abolish the office of commissioners | States, and for other purposes. of the public buildings, and of superintendent, An act making further appropriations for the and for the appointment of one commissioner for year one thousand eight kundred and sixteen. the public buildings.
Resolution directing a copy of the documents An act to provide for the appointment of a sur-| printed by a resolve of congress of the 27th of De. veyor of the public lands in the territories of Illi-cember, 1813, to be transmitted to each of the nois and Missouri.
judges of the supreme court. An act making appropriations for carrying Resolution to indemnify the sureties of commointo effect a treaty between the United States || dore John Rodgers. and the Cherokee tribe of Indians, concluded at Resolution requesting the president to present Washington, on the twenty-second day of March, medals to captain Stewart, and the officers of the one thousand eight hundred and sixteen.
frigate Constitution. An act providing for the sale of certain lands in Resolution requesting the president to present the state of Ohio, formerly set apart for refugees medals to captain James Biddle, and the officers from Canada and Nova-Scotia.
of the sloop of war Hornet. An act supplemental to the act, entitled “An Resolution for printing the laws relative to natuact regulating and defining the duties of the ralization. judges of the territory of Illinois, and for vesting Resolution requiring the secretary of state to in the courts of the territory of Indiana, a juris-compile and print, once in every two years, a rediction in chancery cases, arising in the said ter- || gister of all officers and agents, civil, military and ritory."
naval, in the service of the United States. An act to alter certain parts of the act provid. Resolution authorizing the president of the · ing for the government of the territory of Mis- United States to employ a skiltul assistant in the souri.
corps of engineers.
Resolution relative to the more effectual collec.
The change in timber, which takes place in land in the western district of the state of Louisi.
our forests, has been the cause of controversy, ana and in the territory of Missouri.
which seems to have ended without satisfactory An act making appropriations for the support information. Judge Peters says, “I am charged of the military establishments of the U. States, || by the review makers with impiety and unphilofor the year one thousand eight hundred and six- sophical absurdity, and sentiments which I never teen.
held, to wit, that new and spontaneous producAn act authorizing the payment of a sum oftions are brought into existence by a new order money to Joseph Stewart and others.
of things.' An act concerning pre-emption rights given in
I shall not be umpire between the Judge and the purchase of lands to certain settlers in the the British Reviewers, as what he has written state of Louisiana, and in the territories of Missou- and sanctioned on the subject, ought to deterri and Illinois.
mine the question. But my residence in the An act declaring the consent of congress to acts || back woods induces me to think the changes in of the state of South Carolina, authorizing the city timber, &c. may be very readily explained on council of Charleston to impose and collect a duly || simple and rational principles, and, consequently, on the tonnage of vessels from foreign ports; and such as do not militate against either revelation, to acts of the state of Georgia, authorizing the philosophy, or common sense. imposition and collection of a duty on the tonnage The changes in timber and plants has been, in of vessels in the ports of Savannah and St. Mary's. Il general, well described in the first volume of the
An act to authorize the survey of two millions Memoirs of the Philadelphia Agricultural Socieof acres of the public lands, in lieu of that quan- ty, but the causes which produce this effect have tity heretofore authorized to be surveyed, in the been misunderstood. territory of Michigan, as military bounty lands.
The wisdom of the great Creator is wonderAn act supplementary to the act passed the fully displayed in the formation of seeds. For tlrirtieth of March, one thousand eight hundred the tender texture of them is, for the most part, and two, to regulate trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes, and to preserve peace on the || of' time, as if they were formed of the most dura
ás capable of withstanding the destroying hand frontiers.
ble substances, provided they be permitted to An act to increase tiie salary of the register of the treasury.
* See ad vol. Mem. Phi. Agr. So page 360.
1 See Ist vol. of saine work, for what Mr. Peters has soll on this An act concerning invalid pensioners.
subject, aut also Dr. C. Cadwell's letter to hiin, wbiek was published An act fixing the compensation of the secretary in the sazne book.
remain where nature scatters them; and although n than it is to be found at the present time. But as this is best seen in the back woods, where the the locust seems to be nearly as durable as red rude hand of man has not marred the face of na- cedar, much time bad elapsed since it prevailed ture, still we might have seen in our older settle- -and yellow pine either preceded or followed it, ments, that the seeds of the grasses, (on which for notwithstanding but very few of these trees the support of innumerable animals, great and now appear, the farmers here gather their knots small, principally depend,) have been so con- plentifully, as a substitute for candles, and also structed, that art cannot annihilate them, so fur || for making of tar, where no other traces of the as to prevent nature, when the grounds are left | fallen timber appear: and these knots seem to to be managed by her, from spreading this neces. be nearly indesiructable, for they are often sary provision over the soil : and also, to effect ploughed out of the ground, without the least proper changes of vegetation even there--for appearance of decay upon them. after a bad system of husbandry has impoverished It is a notorious fact, that forest trees, differthe ground so much, that even the seed of white ent from any that have been remembered to grow clover, (which will grow in a very thin soil,) can in the neighbourhood, have taken possession of no longer vegetate: it gypsum be applied, the old fields the cultivation of which appears to ground is quickly covered with that grass ; and have favoured the process-First, by promoting if enriching manure be spread over the clover, it the gradual decomposition of the vegetable subis soon rooted out by green grass, sometimes 4 stances of which a soil, when recently cleared called blue grass, for it is also a hardy native: from its wood, is principally composed; and albut as that plant cannot find sufficier nutriment though this covering is thick, if the soil be deep, in a thin soil, the seed remains dormant until the it becomes very thin, after the vegetable matter ground is enriched.
is reduced to apparent earth. Secondly, the reBut to return to the forest.-Some seeds are gular cultivation destroys all the seeds above calculated to be wafted far by the winds; water those that lay deeply buried; and, thirdly, the sweeps off and carries many of them to distant furrows made by the plough in the last cultiva. shores, and numbers are scattered wide by birds tion, uncovered and brought up the seeds that and quadrupeds; still the effects produced by had lain buried beyond the power of vegetation, those causes are very partial, and very trivial for ages; therefore, it is by no means wounderful for the changes are principally effected by the that the plants grown from these seeds should be seeds of scattering plants, that are always seen different from the prevailing timber in the neighgrowing in greater or smaller numbers amongbourhood. the plants that may happen very generally to In the cases mentioned above, it clearly ap. prevail on the soil where the change is produced, pears, that provision has been made to enable or from the seeds of other plants which had not nature to resume her violated domain, long after for a long time before appeared on the soil, and art had apparently destroyed every vestige of the which had been so deeply buried by a long conti. forest, glade, or prairee, which had been for nued falling of the foliage, as well as the branches ages left to be managed by her, and that this is and bodies of the plants, (which had grown there) effected by seed. could not vegetate until the thickness of this When the timber in our forests is destroyed covering had been reduced by burning the woods by age, tornadoes, or in any other way that has or the cultivation of the soil.
claimed my attention, except those that have been Burning quickly reduces the covering; and as mentioned above, a growth of plants different the Indian, as well as the white hunter, selects from the prevailing timber, commonly takes place. a dry time for setting fire to the woods, the tim- || But as in these cases, the covering over the seeds, ber is also very often destroyed, together with which had been long buried beyond the power all the seed within the reach of this destructive of vegetation, can be but little reduced by the element; and the sun being, freely admitted, | decomposition of it, before a new growth of the seed which had been deeply buried for ages, plants takes place, from the strata of seeds laying vegetate and come up. But the plants that in nearer to the surface; the young plants or trees this case appear, are for the most part different are very generally composed of such kind of timfrom those that were destroyed by the burning ber as was at the time the destruction took place, and from the prevailing timber in the neighbour-thinly scattered, in greater or smaller numbers, hood.
among the timbers that generally prevailed. But when the new crop happens to be one of This determines, that nature sets the example the very durable woods, we have sometimes di- of change-but mark, that, as she is principally rect testimony that similar timber to the young indebted for the means to effect this change in plants had existed there; as the remains of the vegetation, to the seeds grown on the soil where same kind of wood is frequently found among the the change is produced, the changes made by fallen timber.
her are immediately opposed to that very injurious Hence it is, that when log heaps are burned change in the “ locality of seeds, which Mr. in this neighbourhood, where white and spruce Peters endeavours to establish by the changes pines are the generally prevailing timbers, locust which take place in our forests, &c. quickly springs up in abundance where the log Yours, respectfully, heaps were burnt, but no where else in the clear
JOHN LORIAN. ing for the intense heat occasioned by the burn. ing of so large a body of combustible matter, Extract of a letter from Bordeaux to the editor of within so small a space, seldom fails to reduce
the Boston Patriot, duted in May, 1816. the covering sufficiently to admit the seed to
“We have all been highly incensed here on the vegetate, and the remains of the fallen locust, arrestation and examination of col. Fenwick, one clearly proves that this kind of timber formerly || of our most respectable officers, who, covered prevailed, or was at least much more plentiful II with wounds, went to reside for his health at the town of St. Foy, in this neighborhood. The mayor is to make known to the public that the American of that town insulted him, by insisting on his tak- consul and officers in this city were not present, is ing out his eagle from his cockade.—They forced | worthy of notice, as it proves what I have before him to quit the place, and on his arrival here he stated to you, that every occasiou that offers is was arrested by the gendarmes, and conducted eagerly seized to insult and irritate us. A public through the streets like a vagabond to the may: 1| dinner is to be given in a few days by the English or's olhce, where he was examined and questioned | merchants established here to Mr. George Can. in an infamous manner. They wanted to force ning at which all the authorities are to assist. What capt. Stanton, of our army, to take out his cock- | a change. The French authorities of Bordeaux ade, but he refused, and swore he would run the feasting and entertaining the Britishi, who has confirst man through the body who dared to molest| tributed so much to the degradation of their counhim. As the royalists are not noted for their cou- try, and to the destruction of the commerce of rage, they thought proper to let him wear it. || tiis city! But believe me, this is done by the auCol. Drayton was ordered at Lyons by the mayor thorities in direct opposition to the public sentito desist from wearing his eagle-He made an element; for at no period of French history were gant reply, and concluded by telling the agent the bulk of the people of this nation so inveterate sent to him by the mayor, that nothing but force against the English. You will have seen the farce could obligim to conform to their wishes. They between the president and some of the members did not repeat the demand.--These gentlemen, of the legislative body. The latter, suspecting our consul, and indeed all of us, are indignant at the king meant to dismiss them as soon as the de. the conduct of this anglo faction. This city is full bates on the budget were finished, brought for. of Englishmen-lian ireds are establishing com- ward in the midst of those discussions, a project mission houses-others are here for a short time, to regulate the future elections. The president and many have taken country houses in this vici- having his cue from the ministers, opposed the renity. The famous George Canmng has ti ken a port of the committee of elections, in which, though house for his family. He was at the ball given | disgraced in the attempt, he finally succeeded. last evening by the prefect to celebrate the anni. When the discussion on the budget was complet. versary of the first arrival of Louis XVIII. at Pa-ed, and forty-two millions with &cs. were voted. ris. The rooms, I am told, were crowded with to the clergy, together with fifteen hundrell thouEnglishmen. All the foreign consuls were invited sand francs per year to the duke of Berri for his except ours, and not one American was asked. How | services, (say 300,000 dollars) the king, whom the different from former times, when our consuls | royalists call the Solon of the age, dismissed this were the first to be invited. How disgraceful to || humble chamber! Frenchmen to see the apartments of one of their “ The state of the country is wretched indeed; chief magistrates filled with British officers and bread and wine, the staff of the poor, is enhancing triders, while such respectable men as our consui in price; labor is lower than ever ; all the money col. Drayton, col. Fenwick and others are not only the lower classes can collect goes for taxes, while treated with neglect, but insulted. Mr. Hyde de the opulent are gathering into their coffers all Neuville may make as many flourishes as he they can collect, fearing a revolution. One of the pleases, and try all he can to wipe off the stain | best writers on finance in France has proved, that which the conduct of his party towards us has fix- | if the present system of taxation was persisted in ed on them-he will not succeed.
for twenty-four years, the whole territorial value “The trial of the English officers, Wilson, Bruce of France would pass through the public chests in and Hutchinson, for the saving of Lavalette, has that period!! These are the blessed effects of finished; they have been condemned to three " legitimacy." I was in the consul's office yestermonths imprisonment. I send you the trial, whichday the greater part of the morning, engaged in you will find very interesting. They appear to be perusing our gazettes, which he gives us all free Englishmen of the old school.
access to, notwithstanding the authorities here "I send you also one of the Sunday handbills, I have endeavored to prevent it. During that short which are printed and stuck up by the prefect at time, five French officers of different grades, and every church in the department, to instruct the eleven manufacturers of various branches, applied loyal peasants of the state of things, and of the to him for a passage to the United States, most of health of all thc legitimates. You will see, on pè- them in a starving condition. These classes of rusing this Sunday sheet, that Louis 18th pros- | people look with anxious eyes towards the westem trated himself at the feet of the statue of St. Ann, world, regarding it as the only asylum left for but not being able, from the feeble state of his suffering humanity.” health, to perform all the rites due to that saint, his royal brother had the goodness to wash the feet of the statue for him. This will paint to you
SUMMARY-FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC. better than any words I can use, the fanatacism of these poor wretches.
“Disgusted and enraged, our consul is about Spain.--A letter from an officer on board the embarking to return home. We have presented | Mediterranean fleet, states, that Messrs. Hall and him with a handsome address, and given him an Murray, have returned from Madrid, and think elegant dinner in testimony of our regard. He is that Spain will declare war against the United universally esteemed by all of us here.
States. She is said to have an army of 100,000 “ Just as I am finishing this letter, the daily pa- men, many of whom are good soldiers. War is per appears, giving a splendid description of the not, however, considered by the writer as probaprefect's ball above mentioned. After mentioning || ble. all the authorities that were present, it concludes France.McDonald, Talleyrand, and St. Cyr by saying, “ with all the European consuls and offi- ) are said to have been implicated as friends to the cers of distinction." This, though a pitiful attempt || Duke of Orleans, in the late conspiracy in France,
The violence of the ultra royalists, says a private of Independence. The death warrant of J. Smith, letter, the unreasonable pretensions of the return. || for the murder of Carson, has been signed by the ed emigrants, the courriers who screen the bril. || governor of Pennsylvania, and he is to be executliant characters of the revolution from the royal || ed on the 10th of August. An official history of eye, are the causes of the disaffection which ex- the late war is advertised for publication—it is to ists.” Talleyrand and Fouche, those two politi- | contain the official accounts in detail of all the cal scape-goats, are at last overthrown and crush- battles by land and sen. The Spanish governor, ed, and Blacas, it is believed will come again in- || with 1500 troops has arrived at the Havana-he is to power. The celebrated painter, David, and determined to shut the ports against all foreigngen. Chartrand, have been tried, condemned and ers. Lahanal, a distinguished French gentleman, shot. Savary, and l’Allemand have obtained I and M. Vairin, a professor of Mathematics, have permission to embark for the U.S. Dedier has arrived in Kentucky, from France, with their fabeen given up by two of his associates the con- | milies, and have purchased estates on the Ohio. spiracy of Grenoble was intended to extend all over France.
CONSTITUTION OF INDIANA. England. ---Lord Holland in a late debate assert- The following are its leading features. ed that those in favor of the income tax, in Eng- The seat of government is fixed at Corydon for land, and those in favor of the Bourbons in France, nine years. might conveniently find room in Elba, or St Hele- The constitution not subject to amendment til na," and Mr. Coke, at an agricultural meeting ob- || after twelve years, in any one of its provisions, and served “what has been the termination of the never in the one excluding involuntary slavery. present war? you are saddled with a debt of The executive part of the government is to be 800 millions, and you have succeeded in placing composed of a governor with a salary of one thou
L'SURPAR on the throne of France.-Yes, gentle- sand dollars per annum, to be elected by the peo. men, I say a usurper, who is kept there by 30,000 || ple for three years, and may be re-elected once British bavonets. -Let them be withdrawn, and a lieutenant, who is elected in like manner, for a Louis XVIII. would not remain upon the throne like term, and is to receive two dollars per diem, an hour."
during the session of the legislature. Mr. Broughan has given notice of a motion to The legislative part, a house of representatives destroy the records of the income tax, and the land senato--the latter elccted every three years : chancellor of the exchequer has said they should the former annually. Any person is eligible for be destroyed. There is a report of an intended the senate being 25 years old--for the lower Union between the duke of Gloucester and the house 21 years old, holding when clected, no ofprincess Mary.
fice of profit. They are to meet annually on the Algiers.-The British fleet is about to return to first Monday in December, except the first Algiers to obtain a revision of a treaty made by session, which will be in November next. the dey with America, by which, the London The judiciary. A supreme and circuit courts prints say, " an undue advantage has been grant- | -the former, to be composed of three judges, to ed to that nation as it respects the disposal of their il be appointed by the governor and senate for 7 prizes in the dey's ports.- The dey has writien years, to have appellate jurisdiction, and to set at iwo letters to the president of the U. S. one in the seat of government, with a salary of not ex. Arabic, and the other in the Turkish language. ceeding S800 per annum--the latter, to be held
Egypt.-Lady Hester Stanhope, the niece of the in each county by one presiding judge, who is to late Wm. Pitt, is said to be at present the leader be appointed by joint ballot of the legislature for of the Bedowin Arabs. "They regard her as a su- ||7 years, and two associates who are to be elected perior being and she declares she will never for- by the people for 7 years. sake them.
Sheriff, clerks and justices are to be elected by Turkey.The grand senior has accepted the the people--the sheriff' for 3 years, the clerks mediation of England and Prussia, to settle and and justices for 7 years. arrange his differences with Russia.
Militia officers to be elected by those subject to Austria.- The Austrian marine is to be increas- || militia duty-all above a colonel by commissioned to 10 frigates, 20 brigs, and 50 gunboats. ed officers.
Thorc is to be a state bank octublished at the The Macedonian frigate, has, it is said, receiv- seat of government, with one branch for every ed orders to sail for Lima, to demand of the royal | three counties-the branch banks must have Spanish authorities there the restoration of an $30,000 each, in specie, before they can go into American whale ship, seized in Peru for not hav- operation. ing a sea letter which is not required but when The dwelling-house at the Creek Agency, octhe European nations are at war. M. de Neuville | cupied by the family of the late Col. Hawkins, the French ambassador will leave the city in a we understand, has been consumed by fire, tofew days for New-Jersey, where he me:us to con- gether with the furniture and papers, including tinue during the summer. The Swedish minister, his valuable manuscripts. Much of the colonel's M. de Kantzow, is now in the city. The Intelli- || leisure from official duties had been devoted to gencer states that the paymaster general bas, science and literature, and his friends had consince the 10th of April, 1815, placed at the dis- soled themselves at his death with the reflection, posal of his deputies in Tennessee, about 1,200,000 | that his works had not perished, but would surdollars, for the pay of the troops of that state.-- || vive him, to enlighten his countrymen and imGen. Mina, from Spain, has arrived in this country mortalize their author. By this accident the pub. an exile, and Mr. Beasley, late agent for American lic have lost more than his family. No man living prisoners in London, has arrived in this city.- || was more conversant with the character of the The American mineralogists assert that there has North American Indians, or better knew the never been a foul 4th of July since the declaration | habits, customs, and traditions of the aborigines.
No. 22. vol. 1.] WASHINGTON, SATURDAY, JULY 27, 1816. [WHOLE NO. 22. PUBLISHED WEEKLY, BY JOEL K. MEAD, AT FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM.
that the Asiatics found their way to this country ABORIGINES OF AMERICA.
through this strait, another difficulty will arise, There has been, & still is, great diversity of opi. much less easy of solution. Why are the original nion on the subject of the aborigines of this coun- natives of America invariably possessed of a comtry. The origin of every nation is buried in the plexion different from that of the natives of other gloom of obscurity, or amid the wilds of unsatis- | the nations. Buffon* has, indeed, ascribed this to factory conjecture. History is lost in fable, & oralinQuence of climate, and Smith,# an American aytradition only serves to bewilder and confound. thor, to that and other causes. We do not pretend Involved, as this subject must be, in inexplicable to give an opinion, but we would barely suggest, difficulty and embarrassment, we are left only to whether the most suitry clinate will ever convert the guidance of wild, and sometimes irrational the transparent white of Europe into the glossy conjecture, without a solitary fact to conduct is black of Africa, and why the natives of America, through the labyrinth in which we wander. Lord under the same parallel of latitude with thoge of Kaines and Voltaire, with a view, perhaps, to get | Europe, should still preserve the same dingy comrid of these difficulties, have boldly asserted, that plexion. The prodigious difference in language, every nation has had an Adam and Eve of its own, manners, customs, &c. from those from whom they from whom its inhabitants have descended, and are supposed to have derived their origin, and who may have been created at a period coeval even among themselves, is another subject that with our first parents in the bowers of Paradise. has not yet been, and in all probability never But many who are disposed to adhere tenaciously | will be, satisfactorily explained. In addition to to every letter of the sacred volume, regard this those who have endeavoured to prove that the hypothesis as visionary and irreligious, and la- new was peopled by the natives of the old world, bour to account for that variety of complexion, there are soine who assert that the ancients were and that diversity of manners, customs, and habits, || acquainted with it; and in corroboration of this which exist among the original natives of the four hypothesis, adduce what they term facts, which quarters of the earth, on philosophical principles. we do not think it necessary to recapitulate.-They have been industrious in collecting facts to
Others again assert, that America was discovered convince mankind, that this continent was peo
long before the existence of Columbus, and quote pled by the natives of the old world, who, in the authority of Martyr, the first Abbot of Ja
maica, who states that a colony of negroes was process of time, very naturally lost
every vestige of their former complexion, and every trace of| Ciscovered at Quariqua, in the gulph of Darien, their former origin. To a union which, it is said, and of Columbus himself, who states that he found once existed between the Asiatic and American the stern post of a ship lying on the shore at continents, and which thus afforded an easy pas-Guadaloupe. These facts, if incontrovertible, sage to such as felt inclined to emigrate, they would prove that the vessels of the old world ascribe the first peopling of this continent. It might, after getting within the influence of the was stated, says Buffon, in a paper of St. Peters-tradle-winds, have been blown apon some of the burgh, that M. Stoller had discovered, beyond West-India Islands, but it furnishes no evidence Kamtschatka, one of the North-American islands, | of its ever having been known in those countries and that he had demonstrated that he could go
to which they belonged. Another class, ştill more there from Russia by a short passage. Some Je extrordinary, have arisen, who boldly declare suits and other missionaries have also pretendea that America was dicovered many centuries prior that they have recognized in Tartary some sav
to its discovery by Columbus, by Madoc, the son ages whom they had previously catechised in of Owen Guyneth, a Welch king. As this has America; which would induce a supposition that been recently revired and insisted upon in a letter the strait was very small indeed: and P. Charle-|| lately published in the New-York Evening Post, voise, in his “ llistoire de la nouvelle France,”, as
which we have inserted below, we shall, to gratify serts, that this pass is nothing more than a bay, the voyage of Madoc, in the language of the
the curiosity of our readers, give the account of around which one may pass by land from Asia to America. These assertions, however, require
compiler, Richard Hakluyt, published among -
ther confirmation, and the mind must yet wander in
very miraculous things, in 1589. uncertainty and doubt. But should we grant | # snith on Vie carises of the variety in the human complexion, etc