« PreviousContinue »
may bring them to the liberty of the children of fleet by the small brigs and schooners of the AmeGOD!
From the National Advocate.
TO THE IMPARTIAL HISTORIAN OF THE PRESENT AGE.
When you come to that portion of history wherein you are to record the latest exploits of the American navy, let me entreat you, as the herald of truth, to cast an eye over the following facts, and to incorporate them, without any defalcation, into the body of your work. There is something so mean, so base, and so contemptible, in the late attempt of the British Government, to rob the American navy of its just praise in releasing christian captives from the tyranny of the Barbary powers, that unless you examine thoroughly into the matter, your eyes will be dazzled, and your judgment biassed, by the prostituted "Reviews," "Annual Registers,"" Chronological Tables," &c. &c. of that corrupt government, whose authors and editors will not fail to represent it, as having been done entirely through the efforts of Admiral Pellew. The way in which they will do this, may be something like the following. They will say
rican squadron; because this would be tearing away part of the laurel, so basely intended for Pellew's brow, and recording that of an American squadron, which no British fleet ever had achieved (trifling as it really was, when compared to the other exploits of our navy.) They will fail to notice the impression made upon the Dey's mind by the death of his favourite admiral, who was shot dead upon deck by a ball from the Guerriere, and will omit every thing tending to show how the haughty spirit and proud insolence of this barbarous tyrant was brought down by the presence of the American flag. In fine, nothing will be stated as the fruits of our expedition, excepting the release of the American captives; and this, they will say (as before remarked) happened on account of the fear which the Dey entertained of Pellew's fleet. But the impartial historian will remember, that nearly a year had expired between the arrival of the American and British commanders at Algiers, and at the other ports of the Barbary states. That when commodore Decatur fought and captured three of the largest vessels of the Dey's fleet and dispersed the rest; when he compelled this overbearing corsair to agree to such terms as he himself might dictate, and effect"In the early part of 1815, a squadron of Ame-ed the releas, not only of every American, but of rican ships, under the command of Com. Decatur, many foreigners, without paying any ransom for arrived at Algiers, and, after some delay, the com- them, or promising one single cent of tribute to him modore, assisted by an agent of his government, in future from the United States. When such was was enabled to conclude a treaty of peace with the terror which the American squadron inspired the dey, and to effect the release of his captive throughout Barbary, that wherever it appeared brethren. But this was chiefly owing to the ex- the most humble acknowledgements were made, pectation of a British fleet, under Lord Exmouth, and every thing granted which its commander whose threatened arrival at Algiers could not but asked. I repeat, the impartial historian will retend to soften the heart of the dey, as he was well member, that when these important events, so hoaware that this fleet possessed the power of norable to the American navy, occurred, the probringing him to any terms which the noble com-ject of emancipating the christian slaves of Barba mander might choose to dictate. It was on this ac- ry by a British fleet, still slept in the brain of sir count, therefore, that the Americans succeeded Sidney Smith, or, at most, was only handled as a so well in their negotiations with the dey, and not dream of knight-errantry at Viemma, and occasionon account of the contemptible power of their in-ally passed as a toast among the legitimate winesignificant navy, whose force the dey could only laugh at from the top of his castle. The wily But the grand mark of distinction between the barbarian well knew that this grand expedition, operations of the two commanders, commodore under his majesty's flag, was, long before, project-Decatur and admiral Pellew, (now nick-named ed by the gallant Sir Sidney Smith, and, as its ob "lord Exmouth" by the fools of royalty) grows ject was the emancipation of all christian slaves, out of the peculiar manner which each of them he rightly concluded that it might be as well to adopted to effect the release of christian captives. give up the Americans to their own countrymen The first crossed the Atlantic with the avowed inas to ret in them until Lord Exmouth's arriv-tention to pay, or promise to pay, no more tribute al.--Thus glorious was the termination of those to either of the Barbary powers-to chastise them gallant struggles on the part of his majesty's sub-for their insolence towards the American flag-to jects, which had already succeeded in restoring compel them to atone for their depredations upon the blessings of legitimate government on the con- our commerce-and, above all, to effect, by force, tinent of Europe, and now, had equally succeeded the release of every American citizen held capin bursting asunder the bands of the unhappy captive by them. All this, and even more, was litetive at Algiers." rally accomplished, and a treaty was concluded, renouncing forever, on the part of the Dey, all right or pretence to demand or receive any tribute from the United States. The second followed nearly a year afterwards, and appeared with a fleet more than three times as large as that of his predecessor, before the city of Algiers; and, what, ever hireling writers, base sycophants or corrupt factionists, may say to the contrary, he, the said "Lord Exmouth," even condescended to pay the Dey a ransom for every captive given up to him, and actually agreed to almost every demand made by the cunning turant, although he, the said "lord Exmouth," had a fleet under his command with
bibbers of Europe.
Now, for the love of truth, and the honour of the human race, whoe'er thou art that wieldest the historic pen, attend a little to what follows: It is more than probable that the hireling writers of England, who are a disgrace to the name of historian, will represent that part of modern history, to which I have called your attention, substantially as above set down-omitting dates, and suppressing the most material facts. They will be careful, at any rate, not to advert to the capture of a 44 gun Algerine frigate by the Guerriere, the flag-ship of Com. Decatur; nor will they say any thing of the destruction of the other vessels of the Dey's Il
JOHN GAMBOLD. Spring Place, Cherokee Country, June 21, 1816.
tial historian, however, let me beseech you to guard against their wicked misrepresentations.Take this beautiful sentiment for your guide, (which was drank as a toast, near Baltimore, on the late anniversary of American Independence) and you will be in no danger of erring on this subject as to Lord Exmouth's merits or demerits.
"Contests with Algiers-Sir Sidney Smith in theory; Lord Exmouth in menaces; Com. Decatur in practice!"
which commodore Decatur, or any of his distinguished brethren, would engage, forthwith, to level every city of Barbary in the dust.
Domestic Manufactures and Commerce. Nothing can better show the importance of these than the ability acquired by France in the absence of foreign trade, to carry on war with all Europe and to pay double costs when vanquished! The following extracts from the Boston Daily Advertiser are in reference to a recent work on French agriculture, commerce and manufactures or from
This, then, is the difference. This is the true state of the fact, which you, as an impartial historian, are bound to notice. And what can be more base, more niggardly, and more umbecoming the dignity of a government, which, ever and anon, is boasting of its disinterested conduct, than this attempt to rob the American navy of the honour of having first set the captive free, without paying any ransom for him? What can be more pitiful than this sneaking expedition of Pellew, lugged in, as it were, by way of episode, to that of the gallant Decatur, in order to carry away the palm on the fantastic pages of the bribed historian of England? to give food to such pensioned reptiles as the editor of the British "Naval Chronicle," the "Annual Register," the "Quarterly Review," the "Times," the "Courier," and a score of other such unblushing liars. The truth is, that, not- "Although the external commerce of France, withstanding the many falschoods which these in- bears but the proportion of one sixteenth to its indefatigable minions of the British Treasury hadternal trade, yet France exports, one year with contrived to circulate, respecting the exploits of another, says our author, from 310 to 330 millions our navy, many sober persons in Europe had be-of francs, that is, from 60 to 65 millions of dollars; gan to think better of it, and to doubt much of of which more than half arise from manufactured ar what had been said in derogation of its fame. ticles, one third from products of the soil, and only They began to draw comparisons between its one sixth from foreign articles re-exported. What operations and those of the British navy, not fail- a vast idea this affords of the interior trade and ing to remark, that the first had always been em-industry of France!" ployed in the cause of liberty and justice, and the latter in supporting tyranny and oppression. As might naturally be expected, when they saw our flag displayed under the walls of Algiers, and its influence employed in releasing the unhappy captive, while the British flag was still waving wherever persecution and tyranny needed its support, their opinions in our favour became more strongly confirmed. All Europe resounded with the praises of that gallant squadron, which, under the command of commodore Decatur, had dictated terms to the despots of Barbary, and released'a number of unfortunate men from their cruel sway, without the payment of any ransom. Under such circumstances, who could expect to hear even so much as a lisp of the British navy?-beaten, as it has been, in every shape, by that same navy, which now spreads dismay along the coast of Africa.
She supports a population of 30 millions, many of them in great luxury, and exports fifty millions of dollars of her own productions besides.
Supports, do we say? She has, for thirty years, waged war with all the world, and comes out of it as vigorous and wealthy as she entered it. Think only of her being able to pay in cash, as lord Castlereagh states, 5 pounds sterling a head for one million of her enemy's troops on her soil, and this besides supporting them. Yet her public credit stands as high as it did three years since, and almost or quite as high as ours. Her 5 per cents are at 59 or 60-our 7 per cents at about 90 or 91.
Though France exports 330 millions of francs, yet she imports only 250 millions. The balance of trade, as it is usually called, is in her favor.This will probably long endure. Her productions are in demand in every country where there is any luxury. Her demands on the other hand from other countries are not great, except for colonial produce and cotton.
The French have cultivated more than any other people, a taste for their own productions, and a disrelish for those of other nations. Wit, ridicule, and argument are all employed, and have been for centuries in rendering the productions of other nations disagreeable to the French people. The ef fect has been great. There is nothing which they can endure from other countries, at least the pro
Feeling the full force of this national contempt, into which its navy had fallen, and jealous of the high name which the American flag had every where acquired, by its numerous triumphs, the British government set about devising means to counteract this fatal change in the public opinion. The ministers of that government, at the head of whom is the canting Castlereagh, after some deliberation, embraced the project of Sir Sidney Smith; and when a year had almost expired since the operations of Com. Decatur, they sent Admiral Pellew, with a monstrous fleet to silence, if pos-ductions of human industry, except the hardware sible, the plaudits of American magnanimity, or, of England, her manufactures in leather, and her at least, to give a colour to the pitiful misrepre- carriages. They do acknowledge some merit in sentations of their hired scribes at home. What her fine cotton goods, and in her optical instruPellew did, you have already seen. Of the effect ments they admit she is unrivalled. which this niggardly trick may have, upon the minds of Europeans, nothing yet can be known. But this much is certain, that many of the pen-States. sioned writers, who receive their pay from the British Treasury, have already began to blaze abroad the "noble deeds” of “Lord Exmouth," at Algiers; and to claim for him that honour which belongs entirely to Com. Decatur. As an impar-led.
Our author thus concludes a chapter on the benefits which France can derive from the United
"To these considerations [of interest in a commercial view) may be joined those of policy. The United States of America are, in regard to England, in the same situation in which France is plac They will be, by their vicinity to Canada, and
FROM THE HALIFAX (FREE) PRESS.
Series of experiments to ascertain the quantity of sced necessary to produce the best crop of Potatoes. The potatoe being of easy cultivation, generally abundant in its produce, and of quick growthripening in three or four months-and being allowed by all to be the best substitute for bread-its cultivation should therefore attract the serious attention of farmers.
Should there be a very abundant crop and no market for them, they will richly repay the farmer his trouble and expense in raising, for the purpose of feeding his sheep, swine, and cattle.
So wide a difference of opinion exists amongst both scientific and merely practical farmers, as to the quantity of seed necessary to produce the best crop of potatoes, I had determined to make an experiment on this subject. For this purpose I selected a piece of sandy loam incumbent on a substratum of sand, the whole ground as near alike, as to quality, as possible; and now enclose you the result of forty experiments.
These experiments were made under my immediate inspection, therefore I can answer for their
Result of fifteen experiments made at Dover, N. H. A. D. 1813, of seeding Potatoes, consisting of 20 hills-the rows 3 feet apart, hills feet, without any manure, on sandy loam that had been 2 years
No 112 12 whole potatoes,
4 6 52
Description of the seed as put
do. cut in 's lat.
do. cut in halves, do.
The eyes of 2 potatoes which
The eyes of 1 do. do.
1 potatoe cut in quarters, lon-
do. do. do.
potatoes, whole, wt. 1 oz.
1 potatoe, wt. 6 oz. eyes cut
Gain by manuring
wt. of seed
80 7 8 48 15 61 78 55
5 42 7 8 33 88 0 632 143
N. B. A bushel of potatoes weighs 56 to 58 lbs. The potatoe used for seed in the above described experiments was the large blue.
7 8 56
In Ireland the average produce of an Irish acre set in potatoes is 22,960 pounds weight, which, divided by 4, to reduce it to the solid nourishment of wheat, gives 5,740 pounds. The average produce of an Irish aere in wheat is 1,840 pounds; less, by one third, than the solid nourishment 114 32 yielded by an acre of potatoes allowing 4 pounds of potatoes to be equal to one pound of bread, which is a great allowance.
A Scots acre of good land that will produce about 1,280 pounds of oatmeal, will produce 20,000 to 25,000 pounds of potatoes; and supposing one pound of the former to contain as much nourishment as four pounds of the latter, it is evident that land employed in the cultivation of potatoes, will support a popu lation upwards of six times greater than the same land would do if employed in the cul
The foregoing experiments prove, what all experienced farmers were convinced of, that poor land requires more seed in all kinds of crops than that under a high state of cultivation.
Fucus of Lin, much used as a manure for raising corn on sandy plains in this vicinity.
In this country it is well known that there is more certainty of getting 300 bushels of potatoes off an acre, than 30 of sound corn, or 20 of wheat; (each of the quantities being a good yield,) which plainly shows the necessity of always cultivating a sufficient quantity of that valuable root to ensure supply when other crops fail.
tivation of oats. They are also cultivated inference to the previous broad cast methods, are England with success and have been recom- many, and obvious to every attentive observer. mended by travellers as a substitute in countries The three following comprise the principal, that are subject to famine on account of the fail-though not the only superior benefits arising from ure of rice crops, &c. it, viz: a reduction of at least one half the expense in cultivation or labor: the land kept completely clean and in fine tilth, and more weighty and per||fect produce. The following description of cultivating potatoes in some of the most improved corn tillage counties in Great Britain, may serve partly to elucidate the above, and first it may not be amiss to observe that potatoes have long been acknowledged to be one of the most beneficial crops grown by the modern farmer; their value, when considered as food for, either man or beast, not being diminished by a comparison with any other crop, and when asserted to be a real improver of the soil, they must stand high in the estimation of every good farmer.
That I may not be misunderstood, in saying, that the trees should be kept thin of branches, I will explain the manner in which I do it myself.
The land intended for this crop (generally grain stubble) is ploughed once or twice (according to the state of it) in the beginning of the winter, to expose it to the frosts; then cross-ploughed in March, and the drills or furrows formed from thirty to thirty-six inches asunder; the manure is carted out, and spread in the bottoms of the drills,' at the rate of forty single horse cart loads to an English acre. The seed (good middle sized sound potatoes, cut three weeks before planting into sets, leaving one eye to each) intended for the general crop, is put in the ground about the end of April or beginning of May; this is done by six or eight young girls, or children, who spread the sets ten inches asunder, on the bottoms of the drills, where the manure is already under them; the ploughman then follows, reversing the driils, which covers the potatoes and manure 4 to 5 inches deep. One plough and five or six little girls will plant three acres in a day with ease. Three or four weeks after this, the field is once harrowed across the direction of the drills, in order to freshen the surface and smother such weeds as have already made their appearance. After the plants are two or three inches high, so as the drills can be easily distinguished, a man, with a single horse hoe-plough, (all the previous work is done with the common single mould board plough and two horses) goes steadily between the drills, which cuts up by the roots every weed, and throws a little mould up to the tender plants. This
The first year after planting, I permit only 3 or 4 branches to grow on each tree. These encrease by degrees till the third year, when there may be about 12 wide spread branches on each tree; I scarely ever suffer more, and I take care to keep them in a position as horizontal as possible; for the motion of the sap being thereby retarded, they bear a larger burthen of fruit.
Though it is not, perhaps, very material, I permit nothing to be sown or planted in the vacant spaces, betwixt my gooseberry and currant trees, and always keep these spaces clear of weeds.
Those who may adopt the above method, will be gainers in the size and quantity of their fruit; and I will also venture to say, that our good house-ploughing between the drills or furrows (besides wives will find the flavor of their currant wine and gooseberry tarts greatly improved.
I am, gentlemen, yours, &c. Cornwallis, 30th May, 1816.
FROM THE SAME.
As you have already obliged your country readers, by inserting several articles relative to agriculture, I am the more ready to offer a few remarks concerning the rearing of gooseberry and currant trees, which if put in practise by our farmers would banish from their gardens the wretched, crabbed and small gooseberries and currants, which they in general afford; and which are to be attributed to their suffering their trees to grow thick and bushy, by which means the fruit cannot possibly enjoy benefit enough from the air and sun, to be brought to a state of maturity.
To avoid this the trees should be kept thin of branches, by continually rubbing off the buds in the spring, and stirring the earth frequently about their roots, during the course of the sum
converting the weeds into manure) causes the soil to attract more moisture and nourishment from the atmosphere than it otherwise would do, if left in a stiff untilled state; the good effects of this will soon be perceived in the rapid increase and expansion of the plants. In about two months after planting, they will require earthing or landing up; this is done by the same single horse plough (only taking off the hoes, and substituting
FROM THE NORFOLK LEDGER.
STR-Agreeable to my promise, in an article which you were pleased to insert in your paper of the 6th instant, I beg leave to send you a few ob-two mould-boards in their stead, which does not servations on what is termed the " Drill Husband-require ten minutes of time) the ploughman carery." fully throwing up the mould to the plants on each In those parts of Great Britian where agricul- side of him, without covering any of them ;-this ture has attained the greatest height of improve-has a similar effect to the former, occasioning the ment, it is universally allowed, that nothing has stalks to increase much in strength and vigor, contributed more to that desirable object, than while the roots are also swelling apace, the landthe introduction of the drill method of husbandry, ing up, is repeated three or four times, or until particularly in green crops, which are generally the stalks meet together from one drill to another, manured, such as potatoes, turnips, rape, beans, and the hoeing as often as may appear necessary beet or mangle wursel, to which may be added, to destroy the weeds, which besides being advanmaize; the advantages derived from this, in pre-tageous to the potatoes, is highly beneficial to the
succeeding crops of corn. When they are ripe | the first time, as it was then said, in Hadley, Mas(or the stalks thoroughly decayed,) the same dou-sachusetts, and infested, more especially, the Apble mould-board plough, with two horses or bul- ple trees, that bore sweet apples. An orchard locks, enters the centre of the drill lengthways, of my father's, consisting altogether of sweet apand splits it open (similar to the action of opening ple trees, about two acres, well set with trees a book) which lays most of the potatoes on the that bore sufficient apples for two barrels of cider surface. The plough is followed by two or three each, appeared to be attacked by them; and as men with pronged forks, and children with bas-the leaves of the trees had the appearance of bekets, in order to get the crop clean out of the ing burnt, similar to what my father had seen near ground; the field is then harrowed once or twice Boston, he was satisfied they were the canker with an iron pinned harrow, eight feet wide by worm, and expected his orchard would be entirefour feet deep, drawn by two horses. ly destroyed, as he then observed.
By the above method, the harvest crops are raised in Great Britain and Ireland at comparatively small expense, as there is very little manual labor required. After the manure is carted out and the seed covered, a man or boy, with a single horse, will manage 20 English acres without any manner of assistance.
I immediately recollected that between the years 1765 and 1769, I had read an account in one of the London Magazines, which I then constantly took, of a certain part of Europe being infested with an insect that destroyed, in their progress, every green thing, excepting only Elder; and the year after, Elder was made use of on their fields of grain, which were saved thereby; and those fields and parts of fields of grain that were not brushed with Elder were destroyed as before.
I informed my father of it, and that I had no doubt of its efficacy; and as he had Elder plenty near, requested him to make the experiment. He set his boys and men at mowing Elder and gathering it until they had filled the branches of the ap
trees with it, which had the desired effect to our astonishment and joy!
Another most valuable crop for feeding stock, are cultivated with equal facility in drills; indeed this crop establishes most strongly the superiority of the drill over the broad cast method. After the drills are formed (as for potatoes) and the manure spread, they are reversed, which covers the manure, then a light wooden roller is drawn by one horse over the drills lenthways, in order to flattenple their tops; to this roller is fastened a small machine, (guided by a man) called a hand barrow; the coulter of this (inside of which is a funnel or tube to let down the seed) forms a small channel or run on the top of the drill, the seed falling into this, is covered by the roller going a second time over the field. As soon as the plants are three inches high, they are thinned out by the hand, leaving one of the best every ten or twelve inches, according to the species of turnips. No other labor is required, save hoeing them two or three times with the single horse plough, and throwing up or taking the earth from them occa- From the success of that experiment I have sionally. I have practiced the above methods been led ever since to water the plants in my garwith the fullest success, not only in Great Britain den with a strong solution of Elder, when they and Ireland, but also in Portugal, on that exten- were infested with devouring Bugs, &c. and it has sive tract of level land, 10 leagues N. E. of Lisbon, always proved effectual. My method has been on where the soil and climate is similar to that in washing days to order a large tub that holds six or this vicinity. The adoption of the above men-eight pails full, filled with Elder stalks and leaves tioned, or a similar system of farming, instead of cut at the bottom; and after the clothes are taken the methods generally pursued in this part of the out of the boiling to pour the water on the elder, state, would make a most material difference in and fill the tub with water; and when cold, water the farmer's income, as well as in the supply of the plants. I have sometimes discoloured the the public markets with the best potatoes, milk, plants by putting it on too strong; but they have butter and meat. And surely, as along, as those soon recovered, and no bug, fly or insect has ever markets retain any thing near their present prices, injured them, after even but once watering with the cultivator of the soil need not want a strong that infusion, when they have been destroyed at stimulus to exertion and improved culture. a great rate before. And I have no doubt of its proving destructive to all kinds of flies, bugs, and devouring insects whatsoever.
Previous to its being put on, we struck repeatedly on the limbs, and they would spin down on their webs, like a mist or shower of rain, and then run up. This was done to a large number of those trees with the same effect, as the orchard appeared universally infested with them; and the next morning after the Elder was put on there was no appearance of them by striking on the limbs, and they never appeared after. The leaves of the trees recovered their verdure, and the trees bore as plentifully as in any other year before.
I fear, sir, I have already taken up too much of your time, therefore will make some other drilled crops the subject of a future letter, and conclude with assuring you I am your obedient servant, A FARMER.
From the N. H. Centinel.
A METHOD OF DESTROYING THE CANKER WORM.
Mow sweet elder, as it is called; or the common Elder, and place the same all about the branches of the trees infested with them, and they will immediately leave the trees
In the year 1774, according to my minutes now before me, these devouring worms appeared for
FROM A LONDON PAPER OF MAY 17.
The undersigned consul of the United States for the port of London, &c; for the information of American merchants and ship owners interested in the Mediterranean trade deems it proper to publish the two letters and the extract of a letter which are below.