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fortune in getting between two such eminent ||
travellers as Elphinstone and Holland. In short,
it would tire your patience to read a full descrip-
tion of this reviewer's study, which, in my esti-
mation, surpassed every thing of the kind I had
before witnessed.

But what gave me the greatest satisfaction, was the peculiar situation of the celebrated 'Exposition,' to which I have before alluded. It was sur- France. A great activity prevails in the French rounded on all sides by piles of authors, some in naval department. The frigate Cybele, with 2 boards and some in calf, while near it on the table sloops of war, are to be stationed at New-Foundlay a sheet of paper partly blotted and partly in- land, for the protection of the fishery. The terlined. The pamphlet itself was still clean and French regicides are not to be permitted to reneat, without any rents or defacements; but some side in France. Louis 18th has ordered the forof the surrounding authors were dreadfully folded feited property of Bonapart's family to be distriand soiled, and many of them torn in two parts.-buted among the officers and soldiers who had lost their pensions by their wounds in battle. No distinction is made. Gen. Guyor has been sentenced to twenty years imprisonment, instead of death. Didier's confessions have caused the arrest of several persons Another disturbance has taken place at Grenoble. A bad understanding is said to exist between France and Sweden.

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As this was a circumstance that naturally inspired
me with courage, and as I concluded, from the
disfigured appearance of the aforesaid sheet of
paper, that the critic must have been considera-
bly bothered in attempting to explain away the
truths of the 'Exposition,' I ventured to ask him
how it happened that this little work could so ea-
sily withstand the repeated attacks of such an
army of authors as that by which it was surround-
ed? "Come gentlemen," said he, "let us try a lit-
tle wine; my wife wants to talk to you about A-
merica, and I long to hear what is going on there
in the literary way." This was, at least, a most
happy knack to evade the question? but a Scotch-for
man, when he sets his head for any thing is as ob-
stinate as a mule. So we drank a glass of wine
and bade adieu to this grand inquisitor of the lite-
rary world.
S.K.

American Interature.

It cannot but be highly gratifying to every American of letters, to learn that the History of America, by the late venerable and much lamented Dr. Ramsay, is about to be put to press, and executed in a style that will do credit to the state of the arts in this country. The work is to be published solely for the benefit of his family This, apart from the pre-eminent ability of the author, will be a powerful stimulant to public patronage. The history was brought down to 1808 by the Doctor, and will be continued to the close of the late war by the Rev. Dr. S. T. Smith.

We understand that Mr. Duponceau is about to undertake a work on languages, in which he means to show that the languages spoken, from Greenland to the Hudson, by the aborigines, are fundamentally the same, differing only in certain

dialects.

SUMMARY-FOREIGN & DOMESTIC.

FOREIGN.

Russia.-The Russian army is to be kept on the war footing. The army stationed on the frontiers is said to be dissolved, and the troops have commenced their march to the remotest provinces of this empire.

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frigate La Atocha, and after her consumption by fire, he obtained his release with much difficulty. Spain, beware--you are playing a dangerous game. Mr. Meade is said to be imprisoned about some private business with the Spanish governmenthe has been in prison for some months. The chief conspirators against Ferdinand's life have been executed.

Sweden. The Crown Prince, in consequence of the Swedish ambassador not having been received at the French court, has been seriously alarmed, and has applied to Russia for protection, which has been promised.

Spain. In imitation of Great Britain, the Spaniards have commenced the practice of impressment also. They impressed, some time ago, a young man, named Cambell, of respectable connections in New-Jersey, on board the Spanish

Canada. The Canadian government has issued a proclamation declaring the ports open for all kinds of grain, provisions, &c. from the United States, for three months, in British vessels. The price of flour is said to be 18 dollars per barrel. England. It seems that Canning is a candidate parliament from Liverpool. The papers state that he was "severely handled, and narrowly es caped the brick-bats that were thrown at him." The alien bill has passed the House of Commons.

DOMESTIC.

Redheffer's perpetual motion, as it has been styled, is said to be permanently at rest. He has laboured with much zeal and assiduity to cause a cause that should produce an effect greater than itself.

Mr. Davenport, of Connecticut, has publicly declined a re-election. Mr. Robertson, of Louisiana, has been re-elected to Congress. Mr. Henthe opponent of Mr. Clay, have both withdrawn ry, the opponent of Col. Johnson, and Mr. Barr, from the contest.-300 Swiss and 400 Wertemberg emigrants are said to be on their way to the United States.-The flooring and railing of the great bridge in Providence has been lately com The dimensions are:-the south foot pleted. three feet, and the north foot walk twenty-three walk is nine feet wide, the carriage way sixtyfeet; the whole width, including the railings, is and thirty feet. It is believed to be the widest about ninety-seven feet; its length one hundred bridge in the United States, if not in the world.By the papers from the east, we learn that the unusual cold season will probably cause the crops of Indian corn to be something less than in ordinary seasons, but that other crops will be abundant.-The schooner Mary Elizabeth, Captain Davis, from the Grand Banks, arrived at Gloucester, Mass. on the 28th ult. with fifty-seven thousand fish, being the largest fare ever arrived at that place.

United States Bank.-From the accounts which we have seen published, it is calculated that there remains a deficiency of 5 or 6 millions unsubscribed to this stock. It is believed, however, that whatever deficiency there may be when all the returns are received, it will be filled on the second opening of the books in Philadelphia. As soon as the returns shall be completed we shall publish them.

No. 24. VOL. I.] WASHINGTON, SATURDAY AUGUST 10. 1816. WHOLE NS. 24. PUBLISHED WEEKLY, BY JOEL K. MEAD, AT FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM.

SOUTH-AMERICA.

spread of republican principles through the nation, all indicate the certain triumph of our South. American brethren. The establishment of a republican and independent government in SouthAmerica is an event peculiarly desirable. A country which stands unrivalled in beauty and in the profusion of nature's blessings, requires a form of government which would secure the enjoy. ment of those blessings, and the fruition of those gifts, which nature has so lavishly bestowed. Under present circumstances, it is weakness and

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There is, perhaps, no spectacle in nature more interesting and sublime than a nation contending for its liberties. Mankind revolt at oppression, and have a natural aversion to tyranny: there is an incessant struggle to cast off the shackles by which they are bound, and to return to that state for which nature destined them. We rejoice at the triumph of him who has rescued himself from the chains of the despot that oppressed and manacled him; and we glory in the success of a na-absurdity in the Spanish government to persist in its efforts to crush the insurgents. They have gained too firm a hold to be shaken, and have advanced too far to recede. Were there even a possibility of success, it is perhaps questionable, whether it would redound to the advantage of the Spanish crown to retain the colonies. Spain, at the period Columbus discovered the new world, stood high as a nation: she was distinguished for her chivalry; for the elevation and grandeur of her national character; and for the boldness, enterprize, and liberality of her subjects: but now the scene is reversed, and she is perhaps three centuries behind every other civilized nation of the earth-" Gods, how unlike her sires of old❞— The cause of this degeneracy may be ascribed, in a great degree, to the discovery of South-America, which, by affording an outlet to her population, and opening a channel of exhaustless wealth, pro duced indolence, luxury, vice, and effeminacythe national character became enervated and enfeebled-science sunk beneath the gloom of su perstitious bigotry—and the energies of the human mind were destroyed by the want of powerful motives to virtuous action and generous en terprise. Remove these causes of depression, and there is a probability that the public mind will recover its former activity and energy-will cast off the torpor & darkness by which it is paralized and enshrouded; and, by producing stimulants to industry and enterprise, restore the national character to its wonted energy and vigour. It would appear, therefore, that it is the policy of Spain to acknowledge the independence of South-America, and to abandon her fruitless and unavailing attempt to crush the germ of freedom that has now gained so extensive a growth in that continent. It is scarcely necessary to remark, that the inde

tion that has undertaken to wrest from the hand of the tyrant who withholds them, the imprescriptable and unalienable rights of man. It is, then, with no common interest, we view the patriotic and noble struggle of our South-American brethren for independence; and that interest increased in proportion to the despotism of him who now wields the sceptre of Spain. We who have once bled in a similar cause; who have once contended as they contend, for the sacred liberties of man and the overthrow of tyrants, must indeed be lost to the common sympathies of our nature, if we do not feel a double interest in their welfare and success. Whatever may be the policy of government, which, in order to avoid contentions and to maintain peace and harmony with foreign nations, suggests a neutrality of conduct, we yet feel as men, and those feelings must be strongly elicited in behalf of the patriots of the south. For many years they have struggled for freedom; but their struggles have been hitherto limited and circumscribed. Like all revolting nations, they have had to contend with the difficulties and embarrassments incident to such a state. The want of money; of munitions of war; of a sufficient naval armament, and the darkness and terror which the gloomy and superstitious government of the mother country had cast over the minds of the colonists, have tended to retard the progress of the arms of the independents, and to prevent that success which would inevitably have followed their exertions in the cause of freedom.

But these difficulties are now vanishing, and the cause of liberty in the south is acquiring vigour, like fame, by progression. The ultimate success of the patriots is, we think, scarcely questionable. The length of time they have main-pendence of South-America would be invaluably tained their ground; the accession of force by beneficial to the United States. The surplus proemigration from Europe and America; the pre- duce of this country would always find a market sent facility of acquiring munitions; and the wide-l there, and thus add to its commercial and agriB 2

VOL. I.

cultural prosperity; while the facility of obtaining metalic medium would contribute to the preservation of our credit at home and abroad, in the event of future wars. There is but one thing to be deeply lamented in the struggles of those men for liberty-the sanguinary practice of retaliation, which has been adopted on both sides, is shocking to human nature, and a lasting stigma. on the character of the nation. The savage and horrible cruelty of the mother country was too shocking to be imitated: and the exhibition of forbearance and mercy, on the part of the revolutionists would, perhaps, have been more effectual in subduing their opponents; and certainly would, more powerfully, have excited the sympathies and interests of the world in their favour. We trust, however, that now they are rapidly advancing to the goal of triumph, they will display a far different spectacle to the eyes of mankind, and conquer as well by their humanity as their courage.

AMERICAN BOTANY.

As Botany forms an important branch in the education of a gentleman; and as it is a subject to which but very few in this country have devoted much of their leisure and attention, we shall, with pleasure, insert such original communications or translations as may tend to diffuse a more extensive knowledge of the botanical, and also of the zoological productions of the United States.

For the National Register.

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2d SEC.-LEAVES INDENTED.

6. Swamp white oak, Quercus prinus discolor.
7. Chesnut do. do.
8. Rock chesnut, do.
9. Yellow

palustris.

monticola.

do.

acuminata.

10. Small chesnut, do.

chincapin

11. Live oak,

12. Willow do.

13. Laurel do.

14. Upland willow do.
15. Running do.

MR. EDITOR,

Perceiving that you are solicitous to make your Register a repository of science and literature, as well as of politics, and thus render it of greatful national benefit, I take the liberty to send you a translation from a very valuable work, in French, entitled Histoire des Chenes de L'Amerique Septentrionale, by F. A. Michaux, which, I believe, has never been translated into English, and which would be very interesting to the American botanical reader. The following is his disposition:

1st DIVISION.

16. Bertram oak,
17. Water do.

18. Black jack do.
19. Bear

do.

2d DIVISION.

Fructification biennial-leaves mixed.

1st SEC-LEAVES ENTIRE.

20. Barrens scrub oak,
21. Spanish
22. Black

do.

do.

23. Scarlet 24. Grey 25. Pine 26. Red.

do.

do.

do.

do.

2d SEC.-LEAVES LOBED.

do.

do.

do.

do.

Quercus virens.

do. phellos.

3d SEC.-LEAVES MULTIFIDUOUS.

do.

imbricaria.

do.

cinerea.

do. pumila.

Quercus heterophylla.
do. aquataca.
do.
do.

ferruginea.
banisteri.

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It appears that there are 26 different species of the oak in the United States; all of which Mr. Michaux accurately describes; and which is another proof that nature has been no niggard in the distribution of her favours to this happy country. As a specimen of Mr. Michaux's style and manner, I send you a translation of his small chesnut oak-Quercus prinus Chincapin―

In the northern and middle States this beautilittle species is called the small, or dwarf ches

nut oak, from the resemblance of its leaves to those of the quercus prinus monticola, or rock chesnut. The leaves have also some resemblance to those of the fagus chincapin; and it is on that account that in East Tennessee, and in the upper Carolinas, near the mountains, it is designated by the name of chincapin oak. This last denomination, which I have adopted, appeared to me, from subsequent reflection, less applicable than the first, which I wish henceforth to be considered as definitely fixed. I will explain the motives of this change: In the first place, the name of chin. capin oak is entirely unknown to half the country where this species grows the most abundantly; and, in the second place, that of the dwarf chesnut oak, though less used in the middle States, is not difficult to be comprehended by all the in

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habitants who equally possess in their forests the two species of chesnut oaks described above. This species is not commonly disseminated in the forests which contain many trees and shrubs. It is very rare, on the contrary, to meet with it in a great many places where it should grow very well, & it is more frequently found only in districts. There, then, either alone, or mixed with the quercus banisteri or bear oak; it covers spaces more or less considerable in extent-sometimes exceeding 100 acres. The existence of these two kinds of oaks is always a certain indication of sterility of soil. The following places are those in which I have more particularly observed the dwarf chesnut oak. In the neighbourhood of New-Providence, (R. I.) that of Albany, (N. Y.) in Virginia, upon the Alleghany mountains, and in East Tennessee, near Knoxville. I have found it also in the suburbs of Philadelphia, in the park of Mr. Hamilton, where its grows spontaneously.

This species, and another which grows in the midst of heaths in the southern States, are, of all the oaks of America, the least considerable in size, not commonly exceeding 24 or 30 inches in height.

The leaves of the dwarf chesnut oak are oval, topped with a clear green above, and pale below: they are indented with sufficient regularity, but not deeply cut: the acorns, contained to the third of their length in a scaley cup, are middling large, a little oblong, and equally rounded at their two extremities; they are very sweet to the taste. It appears that nature has been desirous to compensate for the smallness of this oak, by an abundant fructification. It is often so much so, that the nuts, pressed, and closed into each other upon the stock, bend to the earth where they remain concealed at full length: but it is necessary to remark, that these stems sometimes scarcely exceed the size of an ordinary quill: If the scantiness of this species renders it improper even for fuel, it might perhaps yield some advantage from the abundance of its fruit, particularly if it were connected with the quercus banisteri, which is no higher, and which offers the same advantages as to fruit.—p. 66.

W

PUBLIC DOCUMENTS.

Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, August 1, 1816.

GENERAL ORDER.

Preparatory to forming a list of the army, conformably to a resolution of Congress, passed April 27, 1816, the State and Country in which

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GENERAL ORDER.

Promotions to fill vacancies in the military peace establishment of the United States, which have occurred since the 17th of June, 1816. Corps of Artillery.

1st Lieut. Milo Mason, to be captain, 17th May 1816, vice Herriot, declined.

2d Lieut. John W. Kincaid, 1st lieut. 17th May, 1816, vice Mason, promoted.

2d Lieut. Robert Goode, 1st lieut. 15th July, 1816, vice Morgan, resigned.

3d. Lieut. Richard H. Lee. 2d lieut. 17th May, 1816, vice Kincaid, promoted.

3d Lieut. Jesse M'Ilvain, 2d lieut. 15th July, 1816, vice Goode, promoted.

3d Lieut. William L. Boothe, 2d lieut. 16th Ju ly, 1816, vice Whetmore, resigned.

5th Regiment of Infantry.

2d Lieut. Subael Butterfield, to be 1st lieut. 30th June, 1816, vice Cilly, resigned. 7th Regiment of Infantry.

2d Lieut. Jacob Tipton, to be 1st lieut. 5th July, 1816, vice Hays.

8th Regiment of Infantry.

2d Lieut. Russell B. Hyde, to be 1st lieut. 1st

July, 1816, vice King, resigned.

The officers above promoted will report accordingly, subject to the approval of the Senate at their next session. By order,

D. PARKER, Adj. & Ins. Gen.

SPANISH TYRANNY AT CADIZ.

In recording the following documents it may be useful to preface them with some of the circumstances connected with the affair they develope, and which will serve to show the character of the Spanish government under its "legitimate sovereign."

Mr. Meade, it appears, has been a resident merchant in Cadiz for a number of years, transacting business on his own account and as agent for many of the first mercantile houses in the U. States: That during the investment of that city by the French, the citizens were indebted to the credit and enterprize of Mr. Meade for much of their subsistence, as well as the army of Andalusia after the siege was raised. During the troubles of the Spanish government, when their funds were exhausted, they found a resource in Mr. Meade: whose advancements at sundry times amounted to more than two millions of dollars, he relying with confidence on the honor and good faith of that go, vernment for an indemnification when their diffic

THE NATIONAL REGISTER.

culties should be removed. Occasional and partial payments, we learn, were made by bills on London, but, a large portion of those advances is still due him. Not contented with receiving these large sums thus generously advanced, he was seized during the setting of the Cortez and thrownvenor, waited on Mr. Meade at his own house, and informed him that a royal order had been issued under the sign manuel, in virtue of a secret consultation of war through the department of state, unmanding the captain general of Andalusia to exder the direction of Don Pedro Cevallos, and comecute it. The tenor of the matter in implication royal treasury, or satisfactory security to be given was a sum of money required to be paid into the for its payment to the tribunal of commerce at Cadiz That information had been given that he was about to depart from Cadiz, and that if the security given, they were ordered to seize on and money was not immediately paid or the required secure his person. Mr. Meade remonstrated against such a proceeding, and the false allegation as to his departure. Aware that if confined he could not so well manage the transaction, and upon the consultation of some friends, he proposed to give security by a deposit of notes, in which the

into prison, for refusing to surrender the whole of his property, and that of others entrusted to him, without security for payment. This being the ac、 of the civil authorities of the city of Cadiz, he ap pealed, from the unjust procedure to the Cortez, and wrote and printed a pamphlet in the Spanish language, in a manly and spirited style, detailing the circumstances of his grievance, a copy of which, he caused to be put into the possession of each member of that body. Though this bold and dignified course obtained his release and the respect of the liberal and virtuous, yet his stores were broken open and his property taken; whether it was ever restored or paid for we do not know, but that a vast debt remains yet unpaid is certain.

[No. 24.

refusal he was seized and sent to the castle of Santa Catalina and remained a prisoner there on the 27th of May last.

On the 2d of May the auditor of war of Andalusia, with an adjutant of the governor and a scri

The pretext for the outrage recently practised on Mr. Meade is connected in some measure with the debt of the government. In the transaction of his mercantile business, by negociations and agen-members of the city were among the signers.—

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When this security was laid before the consuls, as they are called, they changed ground and refused to accept any security but cash.

cy, he obtained a credit on the Spanish treasury to the amount, perhaps, of $150,000, which, with a further credit to a considerable amount, he em. ployed, with the consent of the public authorities, in the discharge of the debt due him, and closed the negociations, in which he was enabled to secure a considerable sum on account of Spain in foreign countries. This affair was honorably adjusted at the Spanish treasury, and triplicate receipts given for the amount. More than a year had expired when it was intimated to him, that he must deposit a sum of money in the Spanish treasury, equal to the amount for which he had receipts, in liquidation of part of his claim. At this time, Mr. Meade was acting as consul for the United States. He urged the injustice of the demand, and the impossibility of his compliance, his funds being vested in mercantile adventures in other countries. As consul, he had no funds, and if he had, he could use them only in the service of his country. He was threatened with imprison- || ment if he did not comply. Possessed of the evidence of the government, that the sum demanded was already paid, he should deem the demand unjustifiable outrage, and should, of course, refuse to refund a sum which had been paid to him, and which constituted but a small part of what was justly due him, of a debt contracted to relieve the necessities of the Spanish government. Upon this

Mr. Mead offered to give security for his person to any amount, and would add to this the security of the notes; and represented to the auditor that he possessed bills and orders of his majesty on his different treasuries in the provinces for ten times the amount; that he was determined to undergo every personal suffering in preference to aug. menting the amount which the Spanish government already owed him; and of which there was no hopes of payment, since his majesty had issued debts or obligations of the government, or cona royal order in September last, declaring all tracts made prior to December, 1814, should be considered as belonging to the public debt, which was tantamount to saying these debts would never be paid, as all the evidences of the public debt were then selling at a discount of 80 or 90 per cent. and added that it was in vain to say the royal order contained an exception to foreigners, since his antendant and treasurer in Seville, where large sums own claims had been suspended, and the royal inclaims were included in the decree, and that he were due him, had declared in writing that his notwithstanding he had proved himself a native must apply to the directors of the public debt, and citizen of the United States, and had alway,

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