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feet in width, and from 40 to 80 in height. The wails (all of stone) are arched, and are from 40 to 80 feet perpendicular height, before the arch com


We crossed over to the opposite side, and entered an avenue that carried us east about 250 rods, when, finding nothing interesting in this passage, we turned back, and crossed a massy pile of stone in the mouth of a large avenue, which I noticed, but a few yards from this last mentioned

The first which I traversed, after cutting ar rows on the stones under our feet pointing to the mouth of the cave, (in fact we did this at the en-city, as we came out of it. After some difficulty trance of every avenue, that we should not be at any loss for the way out on our return) was one that led us in a southerly direction for more than || two miles. We then left it, and took another, || that led us east, then north, for more than two miles further; and at last in our windings, were brought out by another avenue into the chief city again, after traversing different avenues for more than five miles.

in passing over this mass of lime-stone, we entered a large avenue, whose walls were the most per. fect of any that we saw, running almost due south for 500 rods, and very level and straight, with an elegant arch. When at the end of this avenue, and while I was sketching a plan of the cave, one of my guides, who had been sometime grouping among the broken stone, called out, requesting me to follow him.

We rested ourselves for a few minutes on some I gathered up my papers and compass, and aflime-stone slabs near the centre of this gloomyter giving my guide, who sat with me, orders to area, and after having refreshed us and trimmed remain where he was until we returned, and our lamps, we took our departure a second time, moreover, to keep his lamp in good order, I folthrough an avenue almost north, and parrallellowed after the first, who had entered a vertical with the avenue leading from the chief city to the passage, just large enough to admit his body. We mouth of the cave, which we continued for up- continued to step from one stone to another, until wards of two miles, when we entered the second || at last, after much difficulty from the smallness of city. This is covered with one arch nearly 200 the passage, which is about 40 feet in height, we feet high in the centre, and very similar to the entered upon the side of a chamber at least, 1800 chief city, except in the number of avenues leading feet in circumstance, and whose arch is about 150 from it-this having but two. feet high in the centre.-After having marked arrows (pointing downwards) upon the slabstones around the little passage through which we had ascended, we walked forward nearly to the centre of this area.

We passed through it over a very considerable rise in the centre, and descended through an avenue which bore, to the east about 300 rods, when we came upon a third area, about 200 feet square and fifty in height, which had a pure and delight- It was past midnight when I entered this chamful stream of water issuing from the side of the ber of eternal darkness, "where all things are wall about 30 feet high, and which fell upon some hush'd and nature's self lies dead." I must acbroken stone, and was afterwards entirely lost to || knowledge I felt a shivering horror at my situaour view. After passing this beautiful sheet of wa-tion, when I looked back upon the different aveter a few yards, we came to the end of this passage.nues through which I had passed since I entered We then returned about 100 yards, and enter-the cave at eight in the morning; and at that ed a small avenue (over a considerable mass of stone) to our right, which carried us south, through an uncommonly black avenue, something more than a mile, when we ascended a very steep hill about 60 yards, which carried us within the walls of the fourth city, which is not inferior to the second, having an arch that covers at least six acres. In this last avenue, the further end of which must be four miles from the chief city, and ten from the mouth of the cave, are upwards of twenty large piles of salt-petre earth on one side of the avenue, and broken lime stone heaped up on the other,velled, had our lights held out, is unknown. It is evidently the work of human hands.

I had expected from the course of my needle, that this avenue would have carried us round to the chief eity; but was sadly disappointed when I found the end a few hundred yards from the fourth city, which caused us to retrace our steps; and not having been so particular in marking the entrances of the different avenues as I ought, we were very much bewildered, and once completely lost for fifteen or twenty minutes.

At length we found our way, and weary, and faint, entered the chief city at 10 at night. However, as much fatigued as I was, I determined to explore the cave as long as my lights held out.

We now entered the fifth and last avenue from the chief city, which carried us southeast about 900 yards, when we entered the fifth city, whose arch covers upwards of four acres of level ground strewed with broken lime stone. Fire beds of uncommon size, with brands of cane lying around them, are interspersed throughout this city.

time o'night when church-yards groan," to be buried several miles in the dark recesses of this awful cavern-the grave perhaps, of thousands of human beings-gave me no very pleasant sensations. With the guide who was now with me, I took the only avenue leading from this chamber, and traversed it for the distance of a mile in a southerly direction, when my lamps forbid my going further, as they were nearly exhausted. The avenue, or passage, was as large as any that we had entered, and how far we might have tra

supposed by all who have any knowledge of this cave that Green River, a stream navigable several hundred miles, passes over 3 branches of this cave. It was nearly one o'clock at night when we descended “the passage of the chimney," as it is called, to the guide whom I left seated on the rocks. He was quite alarmed at our long absence, and was heard by us a long time before we reached the passage to descend to him, hallooing with ali his might, fearing we had lost our track in the ruins above.

Very near the vertical passage, and not far from where I had left my guide sitting, I found some very beautiful specimens of soda, which I brought out with me

We returned over piles of salt-petre earth & fire beds, out of one avenue into another, until at last, with great fatigue and a dim light, we entered the walls of the chief city; where, for the last time, we trimmed our lamps, and entered the spacious avenue that carried us to the second hoppere.

I found, when in the last-mentioned large avenue or upper chamber, many curiosities, such as Glauber salts, Epsom salts, flint, yellow ochre, spar of different kinds, and some trifactions; which I brought out, together with the mummy which was found at the second hoppers. We happily arrived at the mouth of the cave about three in the morning, nearly exhausted and worn down with nineteen hours' continued fatigue.

was west, and the passage 20 or 30 feet in width, and from 10 to 18 high, for more than a mile. The air was pure and delightful in this as well as in other parts of the cave. At the further part of this avenue, we came upon a reservoir of water very clear and delightful to the taste, apparently having neither inlet nor outlet.

Within a few yards of this reservoir of water, on the right hand of the cave, there is an avenue, I was near fainting on leaving the cave and in-which leads to the north west. We had entered haling the vapid air of the atmosphere, after hav-|| it but about 40 feet, when we came to several co ing so long breathed the pure air which is occa-lumns of the most brilliant spar, 60 or 70 feet in sioned by the nitre of the cave. The pulse beat stronger when in the cave, but not so fast as when upon the surface.

height, and almost perpendicular, which stand in basons of water, that comes trickling down their sides, then passes off silently from the basons and I have described to you hardly one half of the enters the cavities of stone without being seen cave, as the avenues between the mouth of the again. These columns of spar and the basons cave and the second hoppers have not been named. they rest in, for splendour and beauty, surpass There is a passage in the main avenue, about 60 every similar work of art I ever saw. We passed rods from the entrance, like that of a trap door. by these columns, and entered a small, but beauBy sliding aside a large flat stone, you can descend || tiful chamber, whose walls were about 20 feet 16 or 18 feet in a very narry defile, where the pas-apart, and the arch not more than 7 high, white sage comes upon a level, and winds about in such as white-wash could have made it; the floor was a manner as to pass under the main passage with-level as far as I explored it, which was not a great out having any communication with it; and at last distance, as I found many pit holes in my path, opens into the main cave by two large passages that appeared to have been lately sunk, and which just beyond the second hoppers. It is called the induced me to return. Glauber-salt room," from salts of that kind being found there.-There is also the sick room, the bat || room, and the flint room-all of which are large and some of them quite long. The last that I shall mention is a very winding avenue which branches off at the second hoppers, and runs west and southwest, for more than two miles. This is called the "haunted chamber," from the echo of the sound made in it. The arch of this avenue is very beautifully incrusted with limestone spar; and in many places the columns of spar are truly elegant, extending from the ceiling to the floor. I discovered in this avenue a very high dome, in or near the centre of the arch, apparently 50 feet high, hung in rich drapery, festooned in the most fanciful manner for 6 or 8 feet from the hangings, and in colours the most rich and brilliant.

We returned by the beautiful pool of water, which is called the "pool of Clitorius," after the "Fono Clitorius" of the classics, which was so pure and delightful to the taste, that after drinking of it, a person had no longer a taste for wine. On our way back to the narrow defile, I had some difficulty in keeping my lights, for the Bats were so numerous and continually in our faces, that it was next to impossible to get along in safety. I brought this trouble on myself by my own want of forethought; for as we were moving on, I noticed a large number of these Bats hanging by their hind legs to the arch, which was not above 12 inches higher than my head. I took my cane and gave a sweep, the whole length of it, when down they fell; but soon, like so many imps, they tormented us till we reached the narrow defile, when they The columns of spar and the stalactites in this left us. We returned by "Wilkins's arm chair," chamber are extremely romantic in their appear- and back to the second hoppers. It was at this ance, with the reflection of one or two, I found the Mummy which I before alluded There is a chair formed of this spar, called "Wilkins's armed chair," which is very large, and stands in the centre of the avenue, and is encircled with many smaller ones. Columns of spar fluted, and studded with knobs of spar and stalactites; drapery of various colours, superbly festooned, and hung in the most graceful manner; are shown with the greatest brilliancy from the reflection of lamps.

A part of the "haunted chamber" is directly over the Bat-roam, which passes under the "haunted chamber," without having any connexion with it. My guide led me into a very narrow defile on the left side of this chamber, and about 100 yards from "Wilkins's armed chuir," over the side of a smooth lime stone rock, 10 or 12 feet, which we passed with much precaution; for, had we slipped from our hold, we had gone to "that bourne whence no traveller returns," if I may judge from a cataract of water, whose dismal sound we heard at a very considerable distance in this pit, and nearly under us. However, we crossed in safety, clinging fast to the wall, and winding down under the "haunted chamber," and through a very narrow passage for 30 or 40 yards, when our eourse

to, where it had been placed by Mr. Wilkins, from another part of the cave, for preservation. It is a female, about 6 feet in height, and so perfectly dried as to weigh but 20 pounds when I found itthe hair on the back part of the head is rather short, and of a sandy hue-the top of the head is bald the eyes sunk in the head-the nose, or that part which is cartilaginous, is dried down to the bones of the face-the lips are dried away, and discovered a fine set of teeth, white as ivory. The hands and feet are perfect even to the nails, and very delicate like those of a young person; but the teeth are worn as much as a person's at the || age of fifty.

She must have been some personage of high distinction, if we may judge from the order in which she was burried. Mr. Wilkins informed me, she was first found by some labourers, while digging salt-petre earth, in a part of the cave about 3 miles from the entrance, buried 8 feet deep between four lime-stone slabs, and in the posture she is exhibited in the drawing I sent you. [Seated, the knees brought close to the body, which is erect, the hands clasped and laid upon the stomach, the head upright. She was muffled up, and covered

with a number of garments made of a species of plausible grounds, to be the Acheron of the an wild hemp & the bark of a willow, which formerly cients: the strength of their native bulwarks, their grew in Kentucky. The cloth is of a curious tex-passion for war and contempt of death, made ture and fabric, made up in the form of blankets or them the terror of Albania, which they frequently winding sheets, with very handsome borders. Bags invaded; while no foreign power had ever venof different sizes were found by her side, made of tured to scale the tremendous barriers by which the same cloth, in which were deposited her jewels, they were guarded. Ali at length succeeded, beads, trinkets and implements of industry, all partly by force, and partly by bribery, in gaining which are very great curiosities, being different the passes which led into their country; and the from any thing of the Indian kind ever found in whole nation, after a furious resistance, was rethis country. Among the articles was a musical duced to subjection, and partly extirpated. In instrument, made in two pieces of cane, put to- 1811 and 1812 Ali attacked and defeated the gether something like the double flageolet, and Pashas of Berat and Delvino, by which means he curiously interwoven with elegant feathers she gained possession of some of the finest parts of had likewise by her a bowl of uncommon work-Albania, and a population of between two and manship, and a vandyke made of feathers, very beautiful.

My friend, Mr. Wilkins, gave me the Mummy, which I brought away, together with her apparel, jewels, music, &c." [Worcester Spy.

From the Boston Daily Advertiser and Repertory.


300,000 souls. Tepellene, his native place, now fell into his hands; and now also it was that he obtained the means of inflicting signal vengeance on Gardiki. With his accustomed duplicity, he pretended a complete oblivion of all grounds of resentment, until he had surrounded and enclosed the city with his troops; when upwards of 700 of those inhabitants who were supposed to have been most deeply involved in the ancient guilt, were It is said that disputes have arisen with Turkey || dragged into a large khan near the city, and respecting our possession of the Seven Islands, bound together with cords. On a signal given by which are coveted by the warlike Pasha of Alba-Ali, the Albanian soldiery, who were stationed on nia, Ali, whose increasing power and wealth give the walls of the khan, began a discharge of mus him great influence with the Ottoman government. ketry, which continued until the destruction of The following brief account of this ambitious the whole seven hundred was completed. It chief may be acceptible to our readers: seems impossible to define, with perfect precision, Ali was borne at Tepellene, a small town in the either the extent of Ali's dominions, or the deinterior of Albania. His father held the rank of gree of authority which he possesses. Even witha Pasha of two tails, but was not possessed of in Albania, the Pachalic of Scutari remains still any extensive power; and he died when Ali was independent. The tract over which he bears only fifteen. In a district so turbulent, and filled sway is bounded on the north by an irregular line, with hostile and warlike leaders, the young chief || extending from Durazzo to the Gulph of Saloniwas necessarily placed in a very critical, it comprehends the mountainous district of He is himself accustomed to boast, that he began Macedonia, nearly the whole of Thessaly, and a his fortune with sixty paras and a musket; and great part of Lavidia. On the eastern side, he is an Albanian, who attended a late enlightened tra- kept in check by Ismael Bey, who possesses an veller, (Mr. Hobhouse) declared, that he remem-authority as independent over the plains of Mabered to have seen Ali with his jacket out at cl-cedonia. In Albania his power is almost absolute; bows. Ali was, ere long, driven from Tepellene, and while little regard is paid to the Imperial firhis native place, and was abandoned by almost man, a letter with the signature of Ali commands every follower. A plan was next formed for his implicit obedience. The Albanians are enthusiastidestruction, by the inhabitants of Gardiki, a neigh- || cally attached to him; they view him as a native bouring town, and for this purpose they surround-sovereign; they admire the energy of his characed, in the night time, a village where he had ter, and when they hear of any other chief, comtaken refuge. Ali escaped through a garden; but monly remark, that, "he has not a head like his mother and sister fell into the hands of the Ali." In the relations between Ali and the court Gardikiotes, and were treated with every species of Constantinople, mutual fear has hitherto preof indignity; wrongs for which he afterwards served an outward good understanding. took a dreadful vengeance. His address and ac-progress of this enterprising chief has been long tivity enabled him gradually to repair his for- viewed with jealousy and alarm; but the Porte tunes. He insinuated himself into the favour of was never in a condition to hazard driving him Coul Pasha, then the principal chief of Albania, into open rebellion. It has been found prudent, whose daughter he at length married. Having therefore, to invest him, by tis firman, with the thus been able to collect some followers, he suc-government of those provinces which the sword ceeded in surprising his present capital, Joannina, and in prevailing upon the Porte to recognize him as Pasha of that important district. From this time he took the lead among the Albanian chiefs, employing sometimes force, sometimes money, and sometimes treachery, to increase his authority, and add to the extent of his dominions. The most formidable adversaries with whom Ali had to contend, were the Suliotes; a people] placed in the southern extremity of Albania. They inhabit an almost inaccessible range of mountains, beneath whose gloomy shade winds a river, which Dr. Holland conjectures, on very


had already placed in his possession. Ali, on the other hand, pays an outward deference to the Porte, and remits to it some portion of the revenue which he collects. He has also uniformly supported that power with nearly his whole force, against the foreign enemies with which it had to contend.

"The diet of the Arabian tribes in Persia, is more frugal than that of any other of the inhabitants of that kingdom: it consists chiefly of dates. But what others would consider a hardship, habit, with them, has converted into enjoyment; and the

Arab deems no food more delightful, than that upon which he lives. Some years ago, a woman, belonging to one of the Arab families, settled at Abushcher, and had gone to England with the children of a British resident of that place. When she returned, all crowded around her to hear her report of the country she had visited. She described the roads, the carriages, the horses, the wealth and the splendour of the cities, and highly cultivated state of the country.

throughout the general course of the journey, kangaroos, emues, ducks, &c. were seen in great numbers, and the new river, to which Mr. Evans gave the name of the Lachlan, abounds with fish; although, from the coldness of the season, he was not able to catch any of them.-In the course of this tour Mr. Evans also discovered a very unusual and extraordinary production, the proper or scientific name of which cannot at present be assigned to it. It possesses much of the sweetness and "Her audience were full of envy at the condi- flavor of manna, but is totally different in its aption of Englishmen, and were on the point of re- pearance, being very white, and having a roundish, tiring with that impression, when the woman hap-irregular surface, not unlike the rough outside of pened to add, that the country she had visited on-confectioners, comfits, & of the size of the largest ly wanted one thing to make it delightful. "What is that? was the general reply: "it has not a date tree in it," said she, "I never ceased to look for one, all the time I was there, but I looked in vain."

The sentiments of the Arabs who had listened to her were, in an instant, changed by this information. It was no longer envy, but pity,|| which they felt for men who were condemned to live in a country where there were no date trees [Malcom's Persia.


hail stones. Mr. Evans does not consider it to be the production of any insect, tree, or vegetable of the country; and from hence the most probable conjecture appears to be, that it is a production of the same nature with that which is found in Arabia, and there called "Wild Honey," or "the Almighty's Sugar Plumbs," and there supposed to be a dew. Where this substance was found most plentiful, Mr. Evans saw the kangaroo in immense flocks, and wild fowl equally abundant.

The natives appeared more numerous than at Bathurst; but so very wild, and apparently so much alarmed at the sight of white men, that he could not induce them to come near, or to hold any intercourse whatever with him.

SIDNEY, July 8. Government and General Orders-Civil department. An anxious desire to render the discoveries in At the termination of the tour, Mr. Evans saw a the lately explored country to the westward of good level country, of a most interesting appearthe Blue Mountains, as complete and important to ance, and a very rich soil; and he conceives that the mother country, and the present colony, as the there is no barrier to prevent the travelling furmeans within his power would enable him, having ther westward to almost any extent that could be induced his excellency the governor, whilst at desired. He states that the distance travelled by Bathurst, to instruct Mr. Evans to proceed from him on this occasion was 142 measured miles out; thence and pursue his discoveries as much farther which, with digressions to the southward, made westward as his means of carrying provisions, the || the total distance 155 miles from Bathurst:-He nature of the country through which he should adds at the same time, that having taken a more pass, and the unforeseen occurrences, to which as direct line back to Bathurst than that by which a traveller, in an unexplored country, he might be he left it, he made the distance then only 115 exposed, would permit; and Mr. Evans having re- miles; and he observes, that a good road may be turned, with the persons who attended him, all made all that length without any considerable safe, his excellency desires to lay the following difficulty, there not being more than three hills brief account, extracted from his Journal and Re-which may not be avoided. port of this Tour before the Public as a continuation of his former Tour, which appeared in the Sidney Gazette, of the 12th of February, 1814.

On the 13th of May Mr. Evans commenced his Tour of Discovery, and on the 2d of June, finding his provisions would not enable him to proceed further, he began to retrace his course back to Bathurst, where he arrived on the 12th ult. having been absent thirty-one days. In the course of this Tour Mr. Evans has been so fortunate as to travel over a vast number of rich and fertile vallies, with successions of hills well covered with good and useful timber, chiefly the stringy bark and the pine, and the whole country abounding with ponds and gullies of fine water; he also fell in with a large river, which he conceives would become navigable for boats at the distance of a few days travelling along its banks: from its course he conjectures that it must join its waters with those of the Macquarie River; and little doubt can be entertained that their joint streams must form a navigable river of very considerable size. || At a distance of about sixty miles from Bathurst, Mr. Evans discovered a number of hills, the points of which ended in perpendicular heads, from thirty to forty feet high, of pure lime-stone of a misty grey colour. At this place, and also

From the entire tenor of Mr. Evans's narrative of this tour, it appears that the country over which he passed has even exceeded the country leading to and surrounding Bathurst, in richness, fertility, and all the other valuable objects for the sustenance of a numerous population.

Before closing the present account, the Gover nor desires to observe that having accidentally omited some particulars of his own tour, which he had meant to remark on, he avails himself of the present occasion to notice them.

When the Governor arrived at Bathurst on the 4th of May he found there three Native men and six children, standing with the working party: they appeared much alarmed, but particularly at the horses-but this soon ceased, and they became quite familiar, eating whatever food was offered them, and appearing very proud of some little articles of dress which were given them. Frequently during the Governor's stay at Bathurst, small parties of men and boys came in, and they always got meat and some articles of slop clothing and tomahawks, which latter seemed to be highly prized by them.-These Natives are in appearance very like those of Sidney, though rather better looking and stronger made; some of them were blind of one eye, though not always on the same

seem to have opened the discovery of it to the western parts of the world.

side. Their language being altogether dissimilar to that of the natives of this part of the country, it was impossible to learn whether their being thus Nearchus, his admiral, (A. C. 325) found the blinded, was the result of any established custom sugar cane in the East-Indies, as appears from amongst them, or merely accidental; the proba-his account of it, quoted by Strabo. It is not, bility is however, that it is intentional, whatever however, clear, from what he says, that any art might be the cause. A native who attended the was used in bringing the juice of the cane to the governor from this side of the mountains, was consistence of sugar. much alarmed at the appearance of the stranger Theophrastus, who lived not long after, (A. C. natives. But afterwards perceiving that they did303) seems to have had some knowledge of su not attempt to injure him, he endeavoured to hold gar, at least of the cane from which it was prea'conversation with them: their languages, however pared. In enumerating the different kinds of appeared totally different, neither party seeming honey, he mentions one that is found in reeds, to understand a single word spoken by the other. which must have been meant of some of those Those men were covered with skins of different kinds which produce sugar. animals, neatly sewed together, and wore the fur Eratosthenes, also, (A. C 223) is quoted by side inwards; on the outer or skin-side they had Strabo, as speaking of the roots of large reeds, curious devices wrought. The Governor observ- || found in India, which were sweet to the taste ed on one of these dresses or cloaks as regularly both when raw and when boiled. formed a St. George's Cross, as could be made, though he could not connect that circumstance with any other which might lead to the assigning it to a religious ceremony. The manner of forming these figures, must be by the throwing up a slight part of the skin with a sharp instrument, round the outlines of the figure. They appeared, Dioscorides, (A. C. 35) speaking of the differjudging from the neatness of the sewing and work ent kinds of honey, says, that "there is a kind on their cloaks, to have made some little advance of it, in a concrete state, called saccharon, which to civilization and comfort, beyond what the na- is found in reeds in India and Arabia Felix. This, tives of this part of the country have done. In he adds, has the appearance of salt; and, like other respects they seem to be perfectly harm- || that, is brittle when chewed. It is beneficial to less and inoffensive, and by no means warlike or the bowels and stomach, if taken dissolved in savage, few of them having any weapons whatever water; and is also useful in diseases of the bladder with them, but merely a stone axe which they use and kidneys. Being sprinkled on the eye, it refor cutting steps for themselves to climb up trees moves those substances that obscure the sight." by, in the pusuit of the little animals which they The above is the first account I have seen of the live upon. medicinal virtues of sugar.

The next author, in point of time, that makes mention of sugar, is Varro, (A. C. 68) who, in a fragment quoted by Isidorus, evidently alludes to this substance. He describes it as a fluid, pressed out from reeds of a large size, which was sweeter than honey.

These natives never brought any of their fe- Galen (A. D. 143) appears to have been well males with them on their visits to Bathurst; and acquainted with sugar, which he describes nearly the governor had accidentally, in the course of as Dioscorides had done, as a kind of honey, callone of his excursions from thence, an opportu-ed sacchar, that came from India and Arabia Fenity of seeing one of them; she was blind of the left eye, wanted all her teeth, and was altogether one of the most wretched looking old creatures that could be possibly imagined, composed merely of skin and bone.

lix, and concreted in reeds. He describes it as less sweet than honey, but of similar qualities, as detergent, desicative, and digerent. He remarks a difference, however, in that sugar is not like honey, injurious to the stomach, or productive of thirst.

If the third book of Galen, " upon medicines that may be easily procured," be genuine, we have reason to think sugar could not be a scarce article, as it is there repeatedly ascribed.

The Governor, on his return over the King's
Table Island, had much gratification in behold
ing cataract of immense height, which falls
over a precipice little short of 1,000 feet down
into the Prince Regent's Glen, forming one of the
most stupendous and grand sights that perhaps
the world can afford. This cataract having beentre
discovered by four gentlemen of the Governor's
party, his excellency has been pleased to give it
the name of one of them, by calling it "The
Campbell Cataract.”

By command of his excellency the Governor.
J. T. CAMPBELL, Sec'y.

A Sketch of the History of Sugar, in the early times, and through the middle ages. By W. Falconer, M. D. Fr. R. S.

The use of sugar is probably of high, though not remote antiquity, as no mention of it is made, as far as I can find, in the sacred writings of the Old Testament. The conquests of Alexander

Since writing the above, I have observed that the sweet cane is mentioned in two places of Scripture, and in both as an article of merchandise. It does not seem to have been the produce of Judea, as it is spoken of as coming from a far country. Isaiah, chap. xliii. ver. 24. Jeremiah, shap. vi. ver. 20. It is worthy of remark, that

Lucan alludes to sugar, in his third book, where speaks of the sweet juices expressed from reeds, which were drank by the people of India. Seneca, the philosopher, likewise speaks of an oily sweet juice in reeds, which probably was sugar.

Pliny was better acquainted with this substance, which he calls by the name of saccharon; and says, that it was brought from Arabia and India, but the best from the latter country. He describes it as a kind of honey, obtained from reeds, of a white colour, resembling gum, and brittle when size of a hazel nut. It was used in medicine only. pressed by the teeth, and found in pieces of the

that Pliny relates, upon the authority of Juba the Salmasius, in his Plinianæ Exercitationes, says, historian, that some reeds grew in the Fortunate Islands, which increased to the size of trees, and

the word sachar signifies inebriation, which makes it probable, that the juice of the cane had been early used for making some fermented liquor.

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