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We crossed over to the opposite side, and entered an avenue that carried us east about 250 rods, when, finding nothing interesting in this passage, we turned back, and crossed a massy pile of stone in the mouth of a large avenue, which I noticed, but a few yards from this last mentioned
The first which I traversed, after cutting arrows on the stones under our feet pointing to the mouth of the cave, (in fact we did this at the en-city, as we came out of it. After some difficulty trance of every avenue, that we should not be atin passing over this mass of lime-stone, we enterany loss for the way out on our return) was one ed a large avenue, whose walls were the most perthat led us in a southerly direction for more than fect of any that we saw, running almost due south two miles. We then left it, and took another, for 500 rods, and very level and straight, with an that led us east, then north, for more than two elegant arch. When at the end of this avenue, and miles further; and at last in our windings, were while I was sketching a plan of the cave, one of brought out by another avenue into the chief city my guides, who had been sometime grouping again, after traversing different avenues for more among the broken stone, called out, requesting than five miles. me to follow him.
feet in width, and from 40 to 80 in height. The
I gathered up my papers and compass, and afgiving my guide, who sat with me, orders to remain where he was until we returned, and moreover, to keep his lamp in good order, I folowed after the first, who had entered a verticol assage, just large enough to admit his body. We connued to step from one stone to another, until at last, after much difficulty from the smallness of the passage, which is about 40 feet in height, we entered upon the side of a chamber at least, 1800 feet in circumstance, and whose arch is about 150 feet high in the centre.-After having marked arrows (pointing downwards) upon the slabstones ave-around the little passage through which we had ascended, we walked forward nearly to the centre of this area.
We rested ourselves for a few minutes on some
It was past midnight when I entered this chamber of eternal darkness, "where all things are hush'd and nature's self lies dead." I must acknowledge I felt a shivering horror at my situa
We passed through it over a very considerable rise in the centre, and descended through an nue which bore, to the east about 300 rods, when we came upon a third area, about 200 feet square and fifty in height, which had a pure and delightful stream of water issuing from the side of the wall about 30 feet high, and which fell upon some broken stone, and was afterwards entirely lost to our view. After passing this beautiful sheet of wa-tion, when I looked back upon the different aveter a few yards, we came to the end of this passage.nues through which I had passed since I entered We then returned about 100 yards, and enter-the cave at eight in the morning; and at that ed a small avenue (over a considerable mass of" time o'night when church-yards groan," to be stone) to our right, which carried us south, buried several miles in the dark recesses of this through an uncommonly black avenue, something awful cavern-the grave perhaps, of thousands of more than a mile, when we ascended a very steep human beings-gave me no very pleasant sensahill about 60 yards, which carried us within the tions. With the guide who was now with me, I walls of the fourth city, which is not inferior to the took the only avenue leading from this chamber, second, having an arch that covers at least six acres. and traversed it for the distance of a mile in a In this last avenue, the further end of which must southerly direction, when my lamps forbid my be four miles from the chief city, and ten from the going further, as they were nearly exhausted. mouth of the cave, are upwards of twenty large The avenue, or passage, was as large as any that piles of salt-petre earth on one side of the avenue, we had entered, and how far we might have traand broken lime stone heaped up on the other,velled, had our lights held out, is unknown. It is evidently the work of human hands. supposed by all who have any knowledge of this cave that Green River, a stream navigable several hundred miles, passes over 3 branches of this cave. It was nearly one o'clock at night when we descended "the passage of the chimney," as it is cal led, to the guide whom I left seated on the rocks. He was quite alarmed at our long absence, and was heard by us a long time before we reached the passage to descend to him, hallooing with all his might, fearing we had lost our track in the ruins above.
I had expected from the course of my needle,|| that this avenue would have carried us round to the chief eity; but was sadly disappointed when I found the end a few hundred yards from the fourth city, which caused us to retrace our steps; and not having been so particular in marking the entrances of the different avenues as I ought, we were very much bewildered, and once completely lost for fifteen or twenty minutes.
At length we found our way, and weary, and faint, entered the chief city at 10 at night. However, as much fatigued as I was, I determined to explore the cave as long as my lights held out.
We now entered the fifth and last avenue from the chief city, which carried us southeast about 900 yards, when we entered the fifth city, whose arch covers upwards of four acres of level ground strewed with broken lime stone. Fire beds of uncommon size, with brands of cane lying around them, are interspersed throughout this city.
Very near the vertical passage, and not far from where I had left my guide sitting, I found some very beautiful specimens of soda, which I brought out with me
We returned over piles of salt-petre earth & fire beds, out of one avenue into another, until at last, with great fatigue and a dim light, we entered the walls of the chief city; where, for the last time, we trimmed our lamps, and entered the spacious avenue that carried us to the second hoppers.
I found, when in the last-mentioned large avenue or upper chamber, many curiosities, such as Glauber salts, Epsom salts, flint, yellow ochre, spar of different kinds, and some trifactions; which I brought out, together with the mummy which was found at the second hoppers. We happily arrived at the mouth of the cave about three in the morning, nearly exhausted and worn down with nineteen hours' continued fatigue.
was west, and the passage 20 or 30 feet in width, and from 10 to 18 high, for more than a mile. The air was pure and delightful in this as well as in other parts of the cave. At the further part of this avenue, we came upon a reservoir of water very clear and delightful to the taste, apparently having neither inlet nor outlet.
Within a few yards of this reservoir of water, on the right hand of the cave, there is an avenue, I was near fainting on leaving the cave and in- which leads to the north west. We had entered haling the vapid air of the atmosphere, after hav-it but about 40 feet, when we came to several coing so long breathed the pure air which is occa-lumns of the most brilliant spar, 60 or 70 feet in sioned by the nitre of the cave. The pulse beat height, and almost perpendicular, which stand in stronger when in the cave, but not so fast as when basons of water, that comes trickling down their upon the surface. sides, then passes off silently from the basons and enters the cavities of stone without being seen again. These columns of spar and the basons they rest in, for splendour and beauty, surpass every similar work of art I ever saw. We passed by these columns, and entered a small, but beautiful chamber, whose walls were about 20 feet apart, and the arch not more than 7 high, white as white-wash could have made it; the floor was
I have described to you hardly one half of the cave, as the avenues between the mouth of the cave and the second hoppers have not been named. There is a passage in the main avenue, about 60 rods from the entrance, like that of a trap door. By sliding aside a large flat stone, you can descend 16 or 18 feet in a very narry defile, where the passage comes upon a level, and winds about in such a manner as to pass under the main passage with-level as far as I explored it, which was not a great out having any communication with it; and at last distance, as I found many pit holes in my path, opens into the main cave by two large passages that appeared to have been lately sunk, and which just beyond the second hoppers. It is called the induced me to return. Glauber-salt room," from salts of that kind being found there.-There is also the sick room, the bat room, and the fint room-all of which are large and some of them quite long. The last that I shall mention is a very winding avenue which branches off at the second hoppers, and runs west and southwest, for more than two miles. This is called the "haunted chamber," from the echo of the sound made in it. The arch of this avenue is very beautifully incrusted with limestone spar; and in many places the columns of spar are truly elegant, extending from the ceiling to the floor. I discovered in this avenue a very high dome, in or near the centre of the arch, apparently 50 feet high, hung in rich drapery, festooned in the most fanciful manner for 6 or 8 feet from the hangings, and in colours the most rich and brilliant.
We returned by the beautiful pool of water, which is called the "pool of Clitorius," after the "Fono Clitorius" of the classics, which was so pure and delightful to the taste, that after drinking of it, a person had no longer a taste for wine. On our way back to the narrow defile, I had some difficulty in keeping my lights, for the Bats were so numerous and continually in our faces, that it was next to impossible to get along in safety. I brought this trouble on myself by my own want of forethought; for as we were moving on, I noticed a large number of these Bats hanging by their hind legs to the arch, which was not above 12 inches higher than my head. I took my cane and gave a sweep, the whole length of it, when down they fell; but soon, like so many imps, they tormented us till we reached the narrow defile, when they left us. We returned by "Wilkins's arm chair," and back to the second hoppers. It was at this
The columns of spar and the stalactites in this chamber are extremely romantic in their appearance, with the reflection of one or two lights.place, I found the Mummy which I before alluded There is a chair formed of this spar, called "Wil-to, where it had been placed by Mr. Wilkins, from kins's armed chair," which is very large, and stands another part of the cave, for preservation. It is in the centre of the avenue, and is encircled with a female, about 6 feet in height, and so perfectly many smaller ones. Columns of spar fluted, and dried as to weigh but 20 pounds when I found itstudded with knobs of spar and stalactites; dra- the hair on the back part of the head is rather pery of various colours, superbly festooned, and short, and of a sandy hue the top of the head is hung in the most graceful manner; are shown with bald--the eyes sunk in the head-the nose, or that the greatest brilliancy from the reflection of part which is cartilaginous, is dried down to the lamps. bones of the face-the lips are dried away, and discovered a fine set of teeth, white as ivory. The hands and feet are perfect even to the nails, and very delicate like those of a young person; but the teeth are worn as much as a person's at the age of fifty.
She must have been some personage of high distinction, if we may judge from the order in which she was burried. Mr. Wilkins informed me, she was first found by some labourers, while digging salt-petre earth, in a part of the cave about 3 miles from the entrance, buried 8 feet deep between four lime-stone slabs, and in the posture she is exhibited in the drawing I sent you. [Seated, the knees brought close to the body, which is erect, the hands clasped and laid upon the stomach, the head upright. She was muffled up, and covered
part of the "haunted chamber" is directly over the Bat-roam, which passes under the "haunted chamber," without having any connexion with it. My guide led me into a very narrow defile on the left side of this chamber, and about 100 yards from "Wilkins's armed chair," over the side of a smooth lime stone rock, 10 or 12 feet, which we passed with much precaution; for, had we slipped from our hold, we had gone to "that bourne whence no traveller returns," if I may judge from a cataract of water, whose dismal sound we heard at a very considerable distance in this pit, and nearly under us. However, we crossed in safety, clinging fast to the wall, and winding down under the "haunted chamber," and through a very narrow passage for 30 or 40 yards, when our course
From the Boston Daily Advertiser and Repertory.
with a number of garments made of a species of || plausible grounds, to be the Acheron of the an.
My friend, Mr. Wilkins, gave me the Mummy, which I brought away, together with her apparel, jewels, music, &c." [Worcester Spy.
"The diet of the Arabian tribes in Persia, is more frugal than that of any other of the inhabitants of that kingdom: it consists chiefly of dates. But what others would consider a hardship, habit, with them, has converted into enjoyment; and the
throughout the general course of the journey, kangaroos, emues, ducks, &c. were seen in great numbers, and the new river, to which Mr. Evans gave the name of the Lachlan, abounds with fish; although, from the coldness of the season, he was not able to catch any of them.-In the course of this tour Mr. Evans also discovered a very unusual and extraordinary production, the proper or scientific name of which cannot at present be assigned to it. It possesses much of the sweetness and flavor of manna, but is totally different in its appearance, being very white, and having a roundish, hap-irregular surface, not unlike the rough outside of confectioners, comfits, & of the size of the largest hail stones. Mr. Evans does not consider it to be the production of any insect, tree, or vegetable of the country; and from hence the most probable conjecture appears to be, that it is a production of the same nature with that which is found in Arabia, and there called "Wild Honey," or "the Almighty's Sugar Plumbs," and there supposed to be a dew. Where this substance was found most plentiful, Mr. Evans saw the kangaroo in immense flocks, and wild fowl equally abundant.
The natives appeared more numerous than at Bathurst; but so very wild, and apparently so much alarmed at the sight of white men, that he could not induce them to come near, or to hold any intercourse whatever with him.
Arab deems no food more delightful, than that upon which he lives. Some years ago, a woman, belonging to one of the Arab families, settled at Abushcher, and had gone to England with the children of a British resident of that place. When she returned, all crowded around her to hear her report of the country she had visited. She described the roads, the carriages, the horses, the wealth and the splendour of the cities, and highly cultivated state of the country.
"Her audience were full of envy at the condition of Englishmen, and were on the point of retiring with that impression, when the woman pened to add, that the country she had visited only wanted one thing to make it delightful. "What is that? was the general reply: "it has not a date tree in it," said she, "I never ceased to look for one, all the time I was there, but I looked in vain." The sentiments of the Arabs who had listened to her were, in an instant, changed by this information. It was no longer envy, but pity, which hey felt for men who were condemned to live in a country where there were no date trees [Malcom's Persia.
NEW SOUTH WALES.
the lately explored country to the westward of
On the 13th of May Mr. Evans commenced his Tour of Discovery, and on the 2d of June, finding his provisions would not enable him to proceed further, he began to retrace his course back to Bathurst, where he arrived on the 12th ult, having been absent thirty-one days. In the course of this Tour Mr. Evans has been so fortunate as to travel over a vast number of rich and fertile vallies, with successions of hills well covered with good and useful timber, chiefly the stringy bark and the pine, and the whole country abounding with ponds and gullies of fine water; he also fell in with a large river, which he conceives would become navigable for boats at the distance of a few days travelling along its banks: from its course he conjectures that it must join its waters with those of the Macquarie River; and little doubt can be entertained that their joint streams must form a navigable river of very considerable size. At a distance of about sixty miles from Bathurst, Mr. Evans discovered a number of hills, the points of which ended in perpendicular heads, from thirty to forty feet high, of pure lime-stone of a misty grey colour.-At this place, and also
At the termination of the tour, Mr. Evans saw a good level country, of a most interesting appearance, and a very rich soil; and he conceives that there is no barrier to prevent the travelling further westward to almost any extent that could be desired. He states that the distance travelled by him on this occasion was 142 measured miles out; which, with digressions to the southward, made the total distance 155 miles from Bathurst:-He adds at the same time, that having taken a more direct line back to Bathurst than that by which he left it, he made the distance then only 115 miles; and he observes, that a good road may be made all that length without any considerable difficulty, there not being more than three hills
From the entire tenor of Mr. Evans's narrative of this tour, it appears that the country over which he passed has even exceeded the country leading to and surrounding Bathurst, in richness, fertility, and all the other valuable objects for the sustenance of a numerous population.
Before closing the present account, the Governor desires to observe that having accidentally omited some particulars of his own tour, which he had meant to remark on, he avails himself of the present occasion to notice them.
When the Governor arrived at Bathurst on the 4th of May he found there three Native men and six children, standing with the working party: they appeared much alarmed, but particularly at the horses-but this soon ceased, and they became quite familiar, eating whatever food was offered them, and appearing very proud of some little articles of dress which were given them. Frequently during the Governor's stay at Bathurst, small parties of men and boys came in, and they always got meat and some articles of slop clothing and tomahawks, which latter seemed to be highly prized by them.-These Natives are in appearance very like those of Sidney, though rather better looking and stronger made; some of them were blind of one eye, though not always on the same
Theophrastus, who lived not long after, (A. C.
side. Their language being altogether dissimilar to that of the natives of this part of the country, it was impossible to learn whether their being thus blinded, was the result of any established custom amongst them, or merely accidental; the probability is however, that it is intentional, whatever might be the cause. A native who attended the governor from this side of the mountains, was much alarmed at the appearance of the stranger natives. But afterwards perceiving that they did303) seems to have had some knowledge of su not attempt to injure him, he endeavoured to hold gar, at least of the cane from which it was prea conversation with them: their languages, however|pared. In enumerating the different kinds of appeared totally different, neither party seeming honey, he mentions one that is found in reeds, to understand a single word spoken by the other. which must have been meant of some of those Those men were covered with skins of different kinds which produce sugar. animals, neatly sewed together, and wore the fur side inwards; on the outer or skin-side they had curious devices wrought. The Governor observed on one of these dresses or cloaks as regularly formed a St. George's Cross, as could be made, though he could not connect that circumstance with any other which might lead to the assigning it to a religious ceremony. The manner of forming these figures, must be by the throwing up a slight part of the skin with a sharp instrument, round the outlines of the figure. They appeared, Dioscorides, (A. C. 35) speaking of the differjudging from the neatness of the sewing and work ent kinds of honey, says, that "there is a kind on their cloaks, to have made some little advance of it, in a concrete state, called saccharon, which to civilization and comfort, beyond what the na- is found in reeds in India and Arabia Felix. This, tives of this part of the country have done. In he adds, has the appearance of salt; and, like other respects they seem to be perfectly harm-that, is brittle when chewed. It is beneficial to less and inoffensive, and by no means warlike or the bowels and stomach, if taken dissolved in savage, few of them having any weapons whatever water; and is also useful in diseases of the bladder with them, but merely a stone axe which they use and kidneys. Being sprinkled on the eye, it refor cutting steps for themselves to climb up trees moves those substances that obscure the sight." by, in the pusuit of the little animals which they The above is the first account I have seen of the live upon. medicinal virtues of sugar.
Eratosthenes, also, (A. C 223) is quoted by Strabo, as speaking of the roots of large reeds found in India, which were sweet to the taste both when raw and when boiled.
The next author, in point of time, that makes mention of sugar, is Varro, (A. C. 68) who, in a fragment quoted by Isidorus, evidently alludes to this substance. He describes it as a fluid, pressed out from reeds of a large size, which was sweeter than honey.
These natives never brought any of their females with them on their visits to Bathurst; and the governor had accidentally, in the course of one of his excursions from thence, an opportu-ed nity of seeing one of them; she was blind of the left eye, wanted all her teeth, and was altogether one of the most wretched looking old creatures that could be possibly imagined, composed mere. ly of skin and bone.
By command of his excellency the Governor.
The Governor, on his return over the King's Table Island, had much gratification in behold ing a cataract of immense height, which falls over a precipice little short of 1,000 feet down into the Prince Regent's Glen, forming one of the most stupendous and grand sights that perhaps the world can afford. This cataract having beenre discovered by four gentlemen of the Governor's party. hls excellency has been pleased to give it the name of one of them, by calling it "The Campbell Cataract."
A Sketch of the History of Sugar, in the early times, and through the middle ages. By W. Falconer, M. D. Fr. R. S.
seem to have opened the discovery of it to the western parts of the world.
Nearchus, his admiral, (A. C. 325) found the sugar cane in the East-Indies, as appears from his account of it, quoted by Strabo. It is not, however, clear, from what he says, that any art was used in bringing the juice of the cane to the consistence of sugar.
The use of sugar is probably of high, though not remote antiquity, as no mention of it is made, as far as I can find, in the sacred writings of the Old Testament. The conquests of Alexander
Galen (A. D. 143) appears to have been well acquainted with sugar, which he describes nearly as Dioscorides had done, as a kind of honey, callsacchar, that came from India and Arabia Felix, and concreted in reeds. He describes it as less sweet than honey, but of similar qualities, as detergent, desicative, and digerent. He remarks a difference, however, in that sugar is not like honey, injurious to the stomach, or productive of thirst.
If the third book of Galen, "upon medicines that may be easily procured," be genuine, we have reason to think sugar could not be a scarce article, as it is there repeatedly ascribed.
Lucan alludes to sugar, in his third book, where speaks of the sweet juices expressed from reeds, which were drank by the people of India. Seneca, the philosopher, likewise speaks of an oily sweet juice in reeds, which probably was sugar.
Since writing the above, I have observed that the sweet cane is mentioned in two places of Scripture, and in both as an article of merchandise. It does not seem to have been the produce of Judea, as it is spoken of as coming from a far country. Isaiah, chap. xlii. ver. 24. Jeremiah, shap. vi. ver. 20. It is worthy of remark, that
Pliny was better acquainted with this substance, which he calls by the name of saccharon; and says, that it was brought from Arabia and India, but the best from the latter country. He describes it as a kind of honey, obtained from reeds, of a white colour, resembling gum, and brittle when size of a hazel nut. It was used in medicine only. pressed by the teeth, and found in pieces of the
that Pliny relates, upon the authority of Juba the Salmasius, in his Plinianæ Exercitationes, says, historian, that some reeds grew in the Fortunate Islands, which increased to the size of trees, and
the word sachar signifies inebriation, which makes it probable, that the juice of the cane had been early used for making some fermented liquor.