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yielded a liquor that was sweet and agreeable to the palate. This plant he concludes to be the sugar cane; but I think the passage in Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. vi. cap. 22, scarcely implies so much. Hitherto we have had no account of any artificial preparation of sugar, by boiling or otherwise; but there is a passage in Statius, Sylv. I. vi. 15, that seems, if the reading be genuine, to allude to the boiling of sugar, and is thought to refer immediately thereto by Stephens in his Thesau
Arrian, in his Periplus of the Red Sea, speaks of the honey from reeds, called sacchar, as one of the articles of trade between Ariace and Bary-hereby." gaza, two places of the hither India, and some of the ports on the Red Sea.
Aelian, in his natural history, speaks of a kind of honey, which was pressed from reeds, that grew among the Prasii, a people that lived near the Ganges.
The same author, in the account of the reign of Baldwin, mentions eleven camels, laden with sugar, being taken by the crusaders, so that it must have been made in considerable quantity.
Jacobus de Vitriaco mentions, that "in Syria reeds grow that are full of honey, by which he Tertullian also speaks of sugar, in his book understands a sweet juice, which, by the press"De Judicio Dei," as a kind of honey procuredure of a screw engine, and concreted by fire, befrom canes. comes sugar.' This is the first account I have met with of the employment of heat or fire in the making of sugar.
much pleased with the sweet taste of them, with which they could scarcely be satisfied. This plant(the author tells us) is cultivated with great labour of the husbandmen every year. At the time of harvest, they bruise it when ripe in mortars; and set by the strained juice in vessels, till it is concreted in form of snow or white salt. This, when scraped, they mix with bread, or rub it with water, and take it as pottage; and it is to them more wholesome and pleasing than the ho ey of bees. The people who were engaged in the sieges of Albaria Marra and Archas, and suffered dreadful hunger, were much refreshed
Alexander Aphrodisæus appears to have been acquainted with sugar, which was, in his time, regarded as an Indian production. He says, "that what the Indians called sugar, was a concretion of honey, in reeds, resembling grains of salt, of a white colour, and brittle, and possessing a detergent and purgative power, like to honey; and which being boiled in the same manner as honey, is rendered less purgative, without impairing its nutritive quality."
Marinus Sanutus mentions, (A. D. 1300) that in the countries subject to the sultan, sugar was produced in large quantity, and that it likewise was made in Cyprus, Rhodes, Amorea, Malta, Sicily, and other places belonging to the Christians.
Paulus Egineta speaks of sugar, as growing, in his time, in Europe, and also as brought from Hugo Falcandus, an author who wrote about Arabia Felix; the latter of which he seems to the time of the emperor Frederic Barbarossa, think less sweet than the sugar produced in Eu-speaks of sugar, being in his time produced in rope, and neither injurious to the stomach nor great quantity in Sicily. It appears to have been causing thirst, as the European sugar was apt to used in two states; one wherein the juice was do. boiled down to the consistence of honey, and another where it was boiled farther, so as to form a solid body of sugar.
The foregoing are all the passages that have occurred to my reading on this subject. They are but few and inconsiderable, but will save trouble to others, who may make a deeper inquiry into the history of this substance.
Achmet, a writer, who, according to some, lived about the year 830, speaks familiarly of sugar as common in his time.
The author of the Historia Hierosolymitana (A. D. 1100) says, that the crusaders found in Syria certain reeds called Cannamcles, of which it was reported a kind of wild honey was made; but does not say that he saw any manufactured.
Avicenna, the Arab physician, speaks of sugar as being a produce of reeds; but it appears he meant the sugar called Tabaxir or Tabbarzet, as he calls it by that name.
In our paper of the 18th December, we repub.
It does not appear that any of the above mentioned writers knew of the method of preparing sugar, by boiling down the juice of the reeds to a consistence. It is also thought, the sugar they had was not procured from the sugar cane in use at present, but from another of a larger size, called Tabarazet by Avicenna, which is the Arun-lished a curious article which appeared in the do Arbor of Caspar Bauhin, the Saccar Mambu times of the 21st June, descriptive of a phenomenon which had been witnessed by capt. Hayes, of of later writers, and the Arnudo Bambos of Linnæus. This yields a sweet milky juice, and often- H. M. ship Majestic. The following letter from times a hard crystalized matter, exactly resemcom. Hayes to the editor of the Mirror, will be peboth in taste and appearance. rused with interest, as confirming, to a certain bling sugar, The historians of the Crusades make the next extent, the extraordinary appearance as observed at Boston. We have seen several gentlemen, mention of sugar of any that have fallen under who have also noticed the subject of the commomy observation. dore's comminication, and who have observed it from Calcutta; and as the public attention is now awakened to this interesting object, there will probably be many philosophical speculations respecting the cause of this very extraordinary effect.
Albertus Agnensis relates, that about the same period "the crusaders found sweet honeyed reeds, in great quantity, in the meadows about Tripoli, in Syria, which reeds were called Zucra. These the people (the crusaders army) sucked, and were
About the same period (A. D. 1124) Willermus Tyrensis speaks of sugar as made in the neigh. " bourhood of Tyre, and sent from thence to the farthest parts of the world.
To the editor of the Asiatic Mirror.
phenomena seen in the sun on the coast of America, by my namesake, capt. John Hayes, of his majesty's ship Majestic, has excited much speculation, doubt, and even scepticism, among our countrymen, I shall notwithstanding venture to commit my observations with those of the gallant officer abovementioned, for the further consideration of your readers; leaving the solution of the configurations of the said phenomena over the suns disk, to the sublime discernment of the sage Faber, or to the penetrating, philosophical mind of the great Herschel. It would be the height of presumption in me to conjecture whether they are exhibited as signs or tokens of the eventful times past or about to come; or the configuration of those chasms or openings occasionally made through that luminous atmosphere which surrounds the glorious orb of light, and which have thus fallen under my hum
the Judge investigates the powers delegated by the Constitution to Congress," to provide and maintain a navy," and affirms the right of Congress to authorize the enlistment of minors into the naval service: and in the course of the opi. nion examines some of the decisions of the State courts in analogous questions.
Feb. 5, 1816.
[Four diagrams accompany the above letter, representing the appaiono of the sun at four different periods. They bear the exact appearance of flags fully displayed by the wind, the length of whose staffs is about half the sun's ameter.]-Bost. D. Adv.
The judgment of the Court was, that Treadwell was lawfully detained, and therefore remanded him to the custody of the Commodore.
honour, knight of the iron crown, first officer of Colonel Roul, baron, officer of the legion of ordnance of the emperor in the island of Elba, commander of the Polish cavalry, &c. impressed offers this public acknowledgement, to the highly with the deepest sense of heart-felt gratitude, respectable William Lee, Esq. consul for the U. States, in Bordeaux; to his humanity he is indebted for the preservation of his life, from the
Baltimore, June 14, 1816.
SUMMARY-FOREIGN & DOMESTIC.
To proceed-in joining capt. Maxfield at the sea entrance of Lacam's channel, on the morning of the 26th ultimo, he did me the favor to call me on board the Dundas, and desired sir William Rum-bloody fangs of the executioners of Robespierre bold, myself, & others, to observe the sun's disk, the 18th. While the name of Lee will be foras he had discovered a phenomenon thereon during reward him for his noble and generous exertions ever dear to every true Frenchman, may heaven the 22d, which still continued to be seen from in the cause of oppressed and suffering humanity. Miuto; we accordingly examined the sun with a B. ROUL. telescope, and distinctly discerned the flags exhibited on the accompanying, fig. 1, and subsequently the other configurations shewn in the figs. 2, 3, and 4. I have only to add, that after the disappearance of the three flags A, the succeeding ones inclined to the left of the centre of the sun's disk, being previously to the right thereof; the whole invariably setting with the flags uppermost and rising with them downwards. On the 4th, the single tri-coloured flag at rising, approximated somewhat nearer to the centre of the sun's disk, (set as usual) but consequently more towards its centre; since which period I have not observed the phenomena, owing to the obscuration of the sun. It is, perhaps, requisite to add, that the centre flag A, appeared much lighter than the others, and had a vibrating motion from right to left, half its circle. If I could venture an opinion, I would presume to imagine that the phenomena in question revolved upon their own Axis over the sun's disk, and performed a complete revolution in the short space of 12 hours.
I remain, Mr. Editor, your friend and well wisher. JOHN HAYES.
So close is the resemblance of these phenomena to the common flagstaff, that a branch pilot, to whom they were shown, exclaimed, it is just as plain as the flagstaff on Edmonstone's island, when seen from the bottom of Thornhill's channel," a distance of eight miles.
England.-The British Mediterranean fleet, under Lord Exmouth, arrived at Portsmouth on the 24th June. The report of the Algerines having commenced hostilities, prove to be incorrect. A mob of more than 3,000 persons is said to have collected at Trowbridge on the 21st of June, and put the civil authority at defiance, and had destroyed two or three factories.-The London pa. pers state, that the condition of their countrymen who have emigrated to America is deplorable in the extreme; that more than 1,000 of them had applied to the British consul at New-York, to be sent back as British subjects in May last. The English are very much alarmed at our growth in power: they quote the number of emigrants that arrived at New-York in one week, from the 5th to the 12th of May, and set them down at 229.-Parliament was prorogued on the 2d of July until the 24th of August-Lord Wellington very unexpectedly arrived at London on the 1st of July. The cause of his sudden return is not yet disclosed.
France.-A squadron of French vessels sailed on the 17th of June, from the Isle d'Aix, for Senegal, to take possession of the French establishdi-ments on the coast of Africa.-A royal ordinance, promulgated on the 19th of June, stops proceedings in cases of confiscation of property, recovery of fines, or for expenses incurred on proceedings in political matters; it also restores all property ||which has heretofore been confiscated or held in sequestration to serve the royal cause. This is to show his royal beneficence on the marriage of his nephew, the Duke of Berri. In addition to this, fifteen orphan girls were married, to whom his majesty gave a portion of 1,200 francs each, equal to 225 dollars.-Several persons have been arraigned at the court of assizes for being the editors, printers, and publishers of a paper called the Nain Tricolore.-The statues of Peace and
Judge Story's opinion.
We have received an opinion of Judge Story,|| delivered in the Circuit Court of the United States, in this town, on Monday last, upon an habeas corpus directed to Com. Bainbridge, to bring up the body of Robert Treadwell, a minor, who had entered into the navy. In this opinion
Philadelphia, have agreed to recommend to the banks, they severally represent, to fix on the first Monday of July next for the resumption of specie payments; which resolution has been communicated to the Secretary of the Treasury, who, it is said, appears disposed to acquiesce in it.
The Boston coffee house books says, the Conin-gress frigate, Capt. Morris, is undergoing a thorough repair in that port, and will refit immedi ately for a long voyage, probably the north-west coast of America; during which she is expected to survey several coasts and harbours.-The U. States sloop of war Promethius, Capt. Wadsworth, is also preparing for sea, and is supposed to be bound for Russia, to carry a messenger with de spatches. Mr. Edward Coles, last secretary to the president of the United States, says the Democratic Press, is the gentleman who takes the despatches to Russia: he was in this city (Philadelphia) a few days since, on his way to Boston to embark. It is conjectured that the despatches are in explanation and reply to a memorial, some time since presented to the United States government, relative to some legal proceedings had in the case of M. Korslof, the Russian consul gene.
Fame have been removed from the triumphal arch on the Carroussel, which occasioned some disturbance. An attempt was made at Paris, on the 23d of June, to blow up the hotel of the Duke of Wellington during a fete given by him, at which the Bourbon princes were present.-Trials for treason continue.
Pelignier, one of the 28 conspirators, has sisted in court, that he has facts to communicate to the King, which, he says, will save France, but will communicate them only to the King in person.-A person is at the French court, who calls himself the Persian Ambassador, and is received by the court, but is supposed by some to be an impostor.
Russia. The Emperor of Russia has abolished the vassalage of the peasants of Esthonica. The process to commence immediately, but is to be gradual as to the complete enfranchisement, so as to be perfected in 14 years. A sudden and entire emancipation might have a bad effect among a people in their condition: they are said to amount to 100,000.
Holland. The decimal divisions of money have been adopted in Holland: it was proposed and much praised in England; but there was impedi-ral. ments as to its introduction. This mode originated with the United States.
The Washington 74 arrived at Gibraltar on the 2d of July, in 25 days from Annapolis, with Mr. Pinkney, our minister to Russia, on board. On her arrival she fired a salute, and the compliment was returned by the garrison.
Mr. John Wood has been appointed by the executive of Virginia to survey the principal rivers that State, from their mouths up to their falls; and afterward to ascertain the latitude and longi. tudes of such places as may be désignated.
Meetings have been held in several parts of Virginia, to take into consideration the propriety of sending delegates to form a convention at Staunton, the object of which is to amend or alter the constitution of that State. They appear to be disposed to act deliberately on this subject.
South-America-The Demarara Gazette of the 8th of July represents the revolutionary spirit to continue with the greatest vigour. The independents had advanced toward the capital of Mexico, and a party had even entered the suburb of San Lazaro, whilst another division had ap-in proached the walls of Vera Cruz and killed the centinel at the gates. All the lines of communication are in the hands of the independents. The General Congress had again assembled in the city of Techonacon, and Gen. D. F. Bravo had been chosen President.
MERCHANT'S BANK OF ALEXANDRIA.
Notes of the 'Merchant's Bank of Alexandria cannot be received in payment for the Register, they being at a discount, in the very place that gave them birth, of 50 per cent.; that is, the pro
The Rev. J. A. Gallandet arrived at New-York on the 9th inst. from France. Whilst in Paris, he enjoyed the benefit of instruction from the celebrated Abbe Sicard, and the advantages of attending his public and private lectures upon communicating instruction to deaf and dumb persons. Monsieur Laurent Clerc, a native of France, deaf and dumb from his birth, accompanies Mr. G. and is one of the most distinguished pupils of the Abbe, and for eight years past has been an assist-mise of that bank to pay a certain amount, will ant in that Asylum. These gentlemen will pro- bring only half that amount in promises of other ceed immediately to the superintendence of the banking institutions in its vicinity We have now Asylum established at Hartford, Connecticut, for before us several notes of this bank, which we the education and instruction of deaf and dumb have received from gentlemen at a distance, who, persons. There happens a few disasters, among the many we suppose, were unacquainted with the credit benefits, which result from the steam boats on the of this bank, or rather its want of credit. We Mississippi and Ohio rivers. The Vesuvius was burned at New-Orleans on the night of the 12th shall be under the necessity of returning these ult.-the fire is supposed to have been communi- notes: we therefore insert this notice, to put cated from the furnace. She is represented to gentlemen on their guard against receiving them have had on board a valuable cargo, which has for more than their worth. been estimated at $ 200,000, and which was lost. No lives were lost.-The Dispatch was sunk at Pittsburg, some time since, with a cargo on board, which was considerably damaged. She has since
arrived at Cincinnati, Ohio.
The Real Estate Bank of Alexandria also being in low credit, we hope their notes will not be sent in payment for the Register.-All other bank
The deputation from the New-York, Philadel.notes of the District of Columbia are unexception. phia, and Baltimore banks, lately convened in lable.
No. 26. VOL. I.] WASHINGTON, SATURDAY AUGUST 24. 1816.
PUBLISHED WEEKLY, BY JOEL K. MEAD, AT FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM.
DEATH OF THE ELEPHANT.
Extract of a letter to the Editors of the Boston Gazette, dated Alfred, York County, Maine, 26th ultimo.
[WHOLE NO. 26..
munity is disgraced. The act would disparage a nation of savages. Ah! noble, generous, high minded, intelligent animal, justly classed among the wonderful works of God!-Thou has past from the banks of the Ganges, to the shores of the new world, to gratify the just and laudable curiosity of mankind; to display the wonders of creation, and lead men to adore the maker and former of all things. And here thou hast come to fall by the ruffian hand of a miserable caitiff, who only lives to disgrace his species-to dishonour God, and be a scoundrel to his country.
The day before yesterday, as the elephant was passing through the town, he was waylaid by some diabolical miscreant, and shot dead with a brace of musket balls. It does not appear what could have induced this infuriated desperado to be guilty of so foul a deed. There is in every place acertain description of persons, who may properly be termed "Children of Belial," they are "the for fellows of the basest sort." They may justlyquerable fidelity in his service-he fights his batbe compared to the reptiles that crawl upon the ties, and cheerfully pours his blood when com. carth, and the vermin that infest us on every side, which can never be wholly extirpated. The perWantonly to shed the blood of so petrator of the outrage, in question, doubtless in-noble, so grateful, so heroic an animal, what is stigated and aided by others of his cast must have it but to abuse that dominion which was imparted belonged it would seem to the number of these to man by the benevolence of the Almighty. He wretches. No pains it is hoped will be spared to detect such a shameless villain, with all his aiders claims here alone, and by divine right too, heand abettors. On such an occasion a whole com-reditary jurisdiction. All animals crouch to him
"It would have melted the heart of the most obdurate to have beheld the agony of grief and despair which the poor black, the elephant's conductor, manifested when he saw the majestic animal in the struggle of death, and heard him breath out the last moan of expiration. We recollect no occurrence for many years, which has excited such a degree of public sensibility. Mortified as we are, that such an act of villany should have taken place among us, all that we can now do is to express a strong hope that the vile monster who has been guilty of it may be speedily discovered, and the law may find some punishment adequate to the crime."
stands the attack of the savage tiger, and lays his proud adversary at his feet with one blow of his tremendous proboscis. Yet this courage, not to be daunted by so formidable an adversary, submits to the superior genius of man; he becomes tributary to the comforts of his master; his courage, his strength, his skill, all passively submit to the control of man-he kneels at his command, receives the burden upon his back, comes and goes at the command of his master, receives with gratitude the smallest favours from his hand, favours which he more than repays by his uncon
in homage, or fly with fear from that face which once wore the stamp and impression of the Deity! But how shamefully was this divine prerogative abused, in the murder of this elephant. It was not done in self-defence; for this noble and docile creature never wantonly attacks-it was not done for sustentation of life; for the flesh of the victim furnishes no gratification to the palate. It was coldly, malignantly, ungratefully, and wantonly done: it was done as it were to show how unworthy we were of divine benefits, and to mark the difference between the Creator of man and the being that was formed after his image. Unworthy representative of God upon earth, he delights in pain; delights to witness the contortions of agony, and to diffuse misery as extended as his empire: how unlike that Sovereign who susPends the sun in his firmament, and lights up in such gay and fantastic colouring the whole vegetable race for the gratification of man. Probably this very assassin might have visited the elephant; he might have been clashed with tenderness by the proboscis of this merciful and unsuspecting animal; a clemency which he repaid by perforating his brain with a bullet! Which of these two shall we designate as the nobler animal!
The murder of the elephant, if we may be allowed the expression, has excited an uncommon degree of public sensibility. There is something in this animal extraordinary and imposing; something that commands our affection and reverence. Next to man he stands, in dignity, in the class of Let us trace some of the properties of this gi animal nature. His gigantic form, his irresisti-gantic being: they are well worthy of enumera. ble strength is compensated by the mildness and tion. He seems to possess, in some measure, a docility of this noble animal. Unlike man, he calculating power. This we infer from the folnever exerts his superior strength unless for pur-lowing fact, which we witnessed: He was conposes of self-defence. Fearless and intrepid, he fined in a small and uncomfortable place, where D 2
the water was near.
Extending his proboscis into the river, he absorbed great quantities into his chest, which he immediately emptied through the same channel, into the boat. He began to work leisurely in the business of drowning the whole company at first, apparently not apprehending any counteracting exertion: but when he observed two hands employed in baling the water out, who at length became alarmed for their safety, he redoubled his exertions, pouring larger quantities of water, and with more rapid. ity, in his drafts, as if determined to accomplish his object. The men employed to bale the water
a temporary shed was erected over him. The weather was extremely hot, and the sensibility of the poor animal had been frequently tortured by the cries of distress proceeding from a dog belonging to his master, on whom the visitants inflicted pain, to witness the distress of his gigantic protector. At every cry the elephant would groan; and when the dog was admitted to his presence again, he would pass his foot slightly over the back of the animal, as if he endeavoured to soothe his sufferings. Having been often irritated in this manner, the animal grew furious and ungovernable at last, and his proboscis flew in rapid circles, denouncing vengeance on the per-were obliged to redouble their alacrity also: but secutors of his humble friend. He repeatedly in this strange contest for superiority, the boat smote with his trunk the boards that formed his reached the land before the victory was decided. prison: he first touched them with the extremi- Thus was the safety of a whole company put in ty of his proboscis, by way of ascertaining the jeopardy by that busy and impertinent race of strength of his confinement: finding the resist- idlers, who seem to enjoy no other pleasure but ance still effectual, he rolled it into a partial knot, in inflicting pain on their fellow men. This fact and struck a harder blow-this assault was like- we have from one of the company, who was a wise unsuccessful, the coil was redoubled, and trembling witness of the spectacle. How wonthe assault made with augmented violence, but derful was the docility of this noble creature! not sufficient to demolish his prison walls. Re- How often has he, as if endeavouring to show peated experiments of this kind were made, and with what dexterity the animal next in dignity to at every abortive effort the size of the weapon of man could imitate the actions of man, how often offence and the strength of the blow was re- has he uncorked a porter bottle, with the skill of doubled. At length, gathering up his proboscis a tapster, and then, as a satire on wine bibbers, into a circular compact knot, he smote the wall emptied the whole contents at a draught! with all his might, and the boards flew like feathers before the blast, and he stood at once emancipated and enlarged. Here was a just and mechanical calculation of force; for the same strength might have been applied in the first onset, and what we should have expected would have been done, from the irritated state of this formidable animal. Yet, exasperated as he was, he did not lose his presence of mind, but calculated the quantity of force necessary to effect his enlargement. His generous friendship for the dog was of a character truly surprising. Patient, mild, and forbearing under personal injuries, as if conscious of the plenitude of his might, he would not suffer with the same quietude an injury offered to his humble friend. Confined, as he once was, in a ferry boat, for the security of the passengers, they deemed that this dog might with impunity be assaulted. Some of those busy and meddling race of animais, who are the annoyance of all company which they frequent, must needs witness the disinterested sufferings of this animal. They began to torture the dog, and his cries reached the ears of the elephant. Resentment is fertile in finding out means of annoyance, and so it was proved on the present occasion. The as-phant; if he receives the blow, he lies motionless sailants were beyond the reach of his trunk, but at his feet, a breathless body. See now the man
The manner in which these creatures ford rivers is peculiarly remarkable. Unwilling to exert themselves more than the occasion requires, they walk upon the bottom until the waters cover their heads. They then elevate their trunks above the surface, and being supplied with a proper quantity of air through these organs, continue their submarine journey unimpeded. The top of the trunk is often seen moving in quiet and confidence athwart the stream, as if by an involuntary motion, while its owner remains in security below. When the depth will no longer allow of this enjoyment, then, and not till then, the head of this majestic animal rises to view, so peculiarly solicitous does he appear not to exert himself beyond the emergency of the case. It is likewise worthy of remark, the manner in which the elephants fight the rhinoceros. They are determined & inveterate enemies to each other, and the first blow decides the battle. The rhinoceros it is well known, is of a size much smaller than his antagonist, and runs between his legs. If he escapes the blow of the proboscis, he will, by the means of the horn with which nature has sur mounted his nose, rip open the belly of the ele