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disease. The army Medical Board, at the head of which presides sir James M'Gregor, has also given it as their opinion that the yellow fever is in its nature contagious, and from the evidence advanced in the writings of sir James Fellows and Dr. Pym, they further add their conviction that the fever of Spain is not only strictly contagious, but that like other disorders of a specific character it generally affects the human frame but once. Your experience of the fever as it has prevailed in New-York, since 1795, will enable you to deterto.mine how far this last opinion holds good when applied to this pestilence, when imported into your climate. Those who have once had the disorder are certainly less susceptible of its influence a second time. The necessity of a strict adherence to your improved system of quarantine laws and all municipal regulations for the purposes of domestic cleanliness, cannot be too strongly enforced. On this subject, the Royal College and the Army Medical Board are united in opinion. I add no more at present. An abstract of the of ficial documents on these important matters is in my possession, and shall be communicated shortly. I cannot but think it rendering an important service to your country by giving publicity to the results of the deliberations of these distinguished

Dr. Moseley, an English physician of unbound-associations-The contrary doctrine, maintaining ed learning and great respectability, has published a work upon this subject, which in a few years has gone through six editions. The means he employs as a preventative, we are informed, has proved infallible in hundreds of instances in which he has used them; and even some cases where the symptoms of hydrophobia had already appeared, have been cured by the same treatment.

that different fevers are of one common origin, is so unfounded in fact, and so pernicious in its consequences, that the sooner it is discarded, the better it will be for the interests of humanity."

In the first place he cauterises the bitten part deeply and extensively with lapis infernalis, then applies a poultice to abate the inflammation and promote suppuration. 2dly, he exhibits mercury to the extent of effecting the gums, using calomel internally, and in urgent cases employs mercurial frictions. For relieving the spasm he gives the ammoniated tincture of valerian and campho.

an elegant bust of the American Washington, and [] an allegorical figure of America dictating a treaty to England at Ghent. We cannot but mention these facts, in justice to Mr. Capelano; and we do it now to draw the attention of the citizens of Baltimore to this eminent artist, who is so capable of aiding them in these public works, which are to commemorate patriotic names and events, as well as to embellish their city. No public undertakings of the sort are going on here.

In the meanwhile, we hope Mr. C. will gratify our citizens by exhibiting the statuary alluded We are gratified to hear that Mr. Lee and other Americans at Bordeaux patronized this gentle[New-York Columbian.




As every mean which affords a prospect either of mitigating or preventing the symptoms of this terrible disease is entitled to our consideration and respect, we communicate the following information, for the benefit of suffering humanity, in hope that by these means the knowledge may be more generally diffused.

Such is a summary of the treatment, from which, he informs us, "that for upwards of 30 years, and and in many hundred cases, he has never had one failure." He condemns the practice of excision and amputation of the bitten part, as not only unnecessary, but prejudicial and barbarous.

This information is the more valuable, as the work referred to is very scarce in this country. Dr. Mosely has had the politeness to forward two copies to the editors of the Medical Repository, (Drs. Mitchill and Pascalis) which, through their friendship, we have had an opportunity of perusing. ib.


From the New-York Evening Post. Extract of a letter from a gentleman in England, to a Physician in this city, dated June 26, 1816.

"The decision of the Royal College of Physicians of London and those of the Army Medical Board, are at length brought to a close. These two learned and experienced bodies have been for some time past devoted to a consideration of all the facts connected with the nature and character of the Yellow Fever, particularly as it has of late years appeared in Spain.-The college has decided that the Yellow Fever is a contagious


From recent returns from the inspectors in the State of Massachusetts, it appears that the amount of articles inspected the present year are as follows:

Ashes, pot,




Pickled fish,
Smoked fish,


140,669 lbs.

703 tons. 853 tons. 325,717 lbs.

309,095 lbs.

36,255 bbls.

1,288 half do.

6,325 bbls.

BRITISH COLONIAL POPULATION. We lay before our readers the following exordered to be printed by the house of commons, tract from the latest official returns of population July 12, 1815.

Governor Baines, of Dominica, reports, that on the 19th of February, 1811, there were on the Island

2,343 bbls. 6,873 bbls.

Free blacks,
Free coloured,



Free persons of colour,

Governor Bentinck, of Demerara, states the po. pulation of this island to be



Free coloured,


In the island of New Providence, one of the Bahama islands, the population was, December 13, 1810



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Berbice contains,










690 5,336




Free coloured,

The births in this island in 1810, were:


71 1,250


and the splendor of her arts, should render her the soul of a community of whom her numbers constitute but a small proportion. We confess we cannot reflect on this subject without feelings of strong depression. The scenes that first catch the infant's gaze, are dear to the memory of the man; and we doubt the purity of that heart which has no sympathy for the growth, or the decline, of even the town that gave it birth. Nor are we aware that such feelings should not be indulged. While the first object of the American heart is that his country should be great, it may well be his second; that the state which gave him birth, should have a proud share in the production of that glory. It is by adding to the brilliancy of the several stars, that we increase the broad effulgence of the whole galaxy.

In the future destiny of New England, we confess we have much to fear, and little to hope. While her relative numerical inferiority is certain, we doubt the due developement of our moral qualities, which can alone save us from insignificance. In the state of Massachusetts, the number of inhabitants is from seventy to eighty in the square mile: to support this dense population, our principal pursuits have heretofore been agriculture and commerce. Such, however, is the nature of our soil, that it does little more than supply the consumption of the inhabitants.-If this were the only source of our prosperity, the maximum of our greatness would be now. The climate and fertility of other states would invite both the capitalist, and the laborer, and if we did not ultimately decrease in population, we should become at least, a poor people, possessing neither power nor splendor nor any other cause of distinction, except, perhaps, like the poor Swiss, an ardent attachment to our hills, and the frugal virtues of industry.




The slave population of Barbadoes exceeds
69,000; that of Jamaica, 319,912; and of
gua, in 1810, 30,568.

NEW ENGLAND-MANUFACTURES. (Concluded from our last.)

We have already considered the nature of our resources in commerce: In a carrying trade already lost, with but little hope of its recovery, and of all other species of commerce, the most precaAnti-rious as to its duration; subject to as many Auctuations as the peace of European powers, (than which fluctuations, perhaps, nothing is more fatal to commerce,) and never failing to invite all those depredations, which result from jealousy, cupidity, and commercial rivalship. Besides, if such With the certain loss of the colonial carrying commerce should be restored to us, there is no trade during the general peace, and with the small possible way of employing our capital, in which prospect of its restoration, on the event of a new the community is so little benefitted by the success war in Europe, we have much cause for anxious of the individual. With the difference of purenquiry, as to the future prosperity of the north-chasing an American ship, & employing American ern states. The progress of the other sections seamen, of what importance is it to the people of to wealth and power, is rapid and uniform. Eve- N. England, whether the capital which is constantry year unfolds new sources of prosperity in the ly employed in transporting goods from the West increase of cultivated territory and population, in|| Indies to Europe, belong to an American or permanent and fixed improvements, in the esta- Frenchman? It is true, the capital required in blishment of useful manufactories, and in the this way may eventually be applied to other obgrowing intelligence of the people. Within the jects more immediately in connection with our compass of a life, we have seen the wilderness own industry and it is then only that such an changed into states, with a population nearly equal accumulation of wealth materially adds to the prosto the first of our own, and far superior to most perity of the community. It is, however, on the of them: in the lapse of another life, our compa-magnitude of this capital, and on the proper mode rative territory and population will entitle us to of its employment, that we must reckon for the an inferior grade in the republic.-The rich, the continuance of our prosperity. It is this alone proud, the once great state of Massachusetts, must which can support so dense a population, give fall below the youngest of her children, unless effect to the industry of the people, and throw all the excellence of her moral faculties, shall sup- the splendors of civilization on hills where nature ply the deficiency of her physical; unless, like the has shown but little partiality. little Athens of Greece, her wealth, her science,

There are, perhaps, three modes of employing

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gloomy anticipations; one that the patriotic heart
can contemplate with delight, as alike favorable
to prosperity, to political virtue, and to the splen-
We mean a
dors of civilization and refinement.
general and extensive system of manufactures.
With a territory favorable to none of the great

our commercial capital, in the event of an aban-
donment of that trade, whose continuance we
have considered so very uncertain, and of which
the little profit is a subject of pretty serious com-
plaint on the part of our merchants. In the cir-
cumstances of the United States there is no defi-
ciency of opportunity for the profitable employ-staples of trade; with a dense and industrious po-
ment of capital: and if the mode of its present pulation; with a capital immense in proportion to
employment fail to afford that profit, it will indu- the actual productions of the soil, and to domestic
bitably be applied in a different manner. The commerce, we possess in abundance all the means
capital requisite for the production and transpor- of a manufacturing people, except only skilful and
tation of the great staples of the southern States, experienced workmen. Profoundly desirous of
and for supplying to a rapidly growing popula- augmenting the sources of our own prosperity,
tion their foreign productions, might be very con- we embrace with enthusiasm a pursuit, which in
siderably augmented with but little diminution of our opinion, not only promises the preservation,
profit. Pennsylvania, Maryland, South-Carolina, of all that we have yet acquired, but an extension
Georgia, New-Orleans, and the western states, of them beyond the most sanguine anticipations of
will admit of any practicable increase of their commerce: a pursuit which is no less favorable
commercial, agricultural and manufacturing capi- to our own interests, than to the great consolida-
tal, with scarcely less advantage to the individual tion of the union, and to the independence of
owner, than to the community; and even the America. We are aware of the prejudice which
flourishing state of New-York, with an interior, exists against the pursuits of manufactures; we
inferior to none of them in fertility, would find know that many of these enterprizes have failed,
employment for any surplus wealth of New-Eng- and that an obstacle to their success is found in
land, in wants always developing by an increasing the greater cheapness of European labor; but not
population, and by a territory, changing the char-withstanding all the importance which mature de-
acter of a wilderness for that of cultivation and liberation has given to these circumstances, we do
refinement. If ever these advantages shall attract not hesitate to express it as our thorough convic-
those fortunes which are now employed in mer- tion, that it is in the power of New-England to
chandize, but which will cease to be so when they supply the Americau market, in defiance of the
can be no longer employed with profit, our worst competition of Great-Britain. In this pursuit, we
fears for the future will be rapidly and fatally re- have nothing to fear in the first instance from do-
alized. The United States, perhaps, may not suf-mestic rivalship: The middle and southern states
fer much, but the degradation of New England are neither competent to its pursuit by the dense-
will be complete.
ness of their population, nor by the abundance of
If, however, the force of early habits, and local their capital. The production and transportation
attachments should retain the capitalist at home, of their staples, require all their capital, and the
his property might not be disadvantageously vest. gradual subjugation of their soil, all the industry
ed in the national funds, and the different banking of their people. These pursuits are of more im-
institutions of the country. In this way individual portance in their own estimation, and are in fact
wealth would be productive, in contributing in- more essential to their interests. In every thing
directly to the commerce and industry of other but in the price, of labor, it is, confessed our ad-
states. But the enterprize of the young merchant,vantages will be superior to Great-Britain, when
the skill and industry of the seaman, would be our artists shall acquire the competent degree of
transferred to the theatre of business: and with skill. The soil and climate of this country are
them would disappear all that contributes to the extremely favorable to the grazing of sheep; in
growth, preservation and splendor of cities. The the cheapness of land we have an important ad-
fortunes of individuals would afford some employ-vantage, but one still greater in the lightness of our
ment to those who raised domestic productions, taxation. When we consider that our soil is as
or imported foreign ones; but more than two productive as that of England, when the same
thirds of the active inhabitants of the towns, the pains have been bestowed in the cultivation of it
mechanics, seamen and the lower order of mer- and the amount of rent which the English farmer
chants, would, in a great measure, disappear from must pay to the owner of the soil, and the immense
our population. We can see but little else than tax which he must pay to his government, besides
ruin to the active towns of the north, in a course a tenth part of the produce to his clergyman, it
of circumstances which should place our capital is apparent the produce can be afforded cheaper
in the funded institutions of the country. Nor is by the American farmer, who is owner of his own

it possible even that this benefit could long besoil, and exempt from all taxation but of an inconsiderable amount.-But if the produce will obtain the same price in America, the prosperity of the American farmer will be in the same proportion greater than that of the English.

derived from such a mode of employing our capital. However large private fortunes may be at this moment, yet, with our statute of distributions, and the correspondent habits of the people, a new generation would find them to lessen by division, till their product would no longer afford the means of inactive support: With the necessity for active business would result an emigrationers are children, whose employment otherwise of the holders to scenes where it might be obtain-would be of no value; as these can be supported ed. Even under the past circumstances of this cheaper here than in Great-Britain, either their country, these causes have contributed not a little labour would be less costly, or their profit greatto the diminution of our population. er. In either case, the public prosperity would be equally insured by their employment.

In the price of labor, the importance is probably less considerable than has been ascribed to it. In a manufactory, many of the productive labor

But there is still another resort of the New England capitalist, which does not excite these

We have not sufficient data to determine the

whole cost of manufacturing a yard of broad-cloth, || beyond the price of the materials. It were desir able that those engaged in this business, would give the public particular information on this point. We are, however, much mistaken, if the entire charge of the manufacturer, for taking the wool and returning the cloth in a state completely fit for use, would be equal to the difference in the price of the same yard of cloth, when purchas-such channels, in a few years, as would carry in the most direct manner the merchandize to the consumer. It is not till after this experiment has been made, that we shall acknowledge the inabi lity of New-England to supply the United States with manufactures. In the mean time every en

The unskilfulness of artists is overcome by experience. The amount of capital, when manufactures are established, would be in direct proportion to the profits of the pursuit. The reluctance of men to innovations, ceases with regard to a specific object, with its novelty. And though markets are not immediately obtained for cheap articles, yet that cheapness alone would create

ed in England, and when sold in the United States. This difference arises from the freight and insurance, from the duties imposed by our government, and from the reasonable compensation paid to the merchant for the use of the capital employed in the trade. If this supposition be true, our manu-couragement should be given by the general go. facturers could hold a competition with those of vernment, by duties on importations, and by purEngland in our own market, even if the price of chases for persons in the public service; by assolabor in England were nothing. If the difference ciations for the express purpose of their encouragein the price of the same article in England and ment: by all persons in office, military or civil, the United States, would pay the whole expense legislative, executive or judicial, and finally by of manufacturing it in this country, the price of every individual desirous of the real independence the article here, would only be in addition to this, of his country. Then should we see the comthe cost of the materials; whereas, in England, itmerce of New-England equal to the other states would be the cost of the materials, together within her domestic productions; the industry of her the sum demanded by the artist.-Or, in other dense population actively exercised, and profita words, the American manufacturer would have bly rewarded; and her agriculture doubly proan advantage in our market, equal to the price of ductive by finding an unfailing market in every labor in England. neighboring village, growing into flourishing towns, by the increase of a manufacturing population.



But to this theoretical reasoning, is answered, what in the opinion of some men is conclusive, || that if this advantage really existed, our manufactures would flourish at the expense of England; whereas the contrary being the fact, proves the falseness of the hypothesis. But to this deduction we beg leave to dissent. Because the expense attending the introduction of manufactures, is no It is believed that there are very few crops criterion of their price when eventually establish- that so well compensate the labours of the hused; the maxim that trade will regulate itself, hav-bandman as that of hemp. Many persons have ing many exceptions, (the truth of which has been erroneously supposed that it required a peculiar assented to by the great idol of federalists, Alexan- || soil, and that its cultivation was attended with der Hamilton) in the commencement of a compe- much uncertainty. It is now, however, ascertition, if it have none in its maturity. The obsta-tained from daily experience, that not only the cles to a fair competition between our manufac- fertile banks of the Connecticut and Genessee turers and those of England, are, first the inexpe- rivers, but most of our warm uplands if properly rience of our workmen; secondly, the amount of prepared, produce it in abundance. The situa capital which can be applied to a single establish tions of many of our river towns, particularly of ment; the funds of few individuals being suffici- Wetherfields, is on many accounts peculiarly faent, and a combination of many being a work of vourable to its production. Their light warm difficulty: thirdly, the reluctance of mankind to soil, their convenience for water rotting in the innovations in their accustomed habits; a preju-cove, and the facility with which it may be sent dice so strong as to become a serious obstacle to to market by the river, are great and important the introduction of any improvement, however advantages. Still, without these, there are few strongly recommended by economy, and altho' its towns in the State where any other seed can be utility has been absolutely demonstrated. But a put into the ground that shall yield so many hundifficulty more formidable than any of these; isdred fold. As evidence of the profits arising that of obtaining an immediate market. It is not from the cultivation of hemp, I will state, that only necessary that manufactures should be cheap, thirty-five dollars per acre have been paid for but establishments must be made for supplying one year's use of land for this purpose. And I am the consumers with every possible facility. There credibly informed that the town of Long-meadow is scarcely any amount of profit which can coun- has received, at Boston, New-York, and Newterbalance the disadvantage of having no channels Haven, thirty-five thousand dollars for one year's for the immediate sale of the article. That all crop. An average crop from land in good heart these difficulties cannot at once be surmounted may be considered from 8 to 12 cwt. per acre; by the efforts of one or a few individuals, is but and the land, if properly taken care of, the setoo obvious. They require the utmost encourage-cond year, will produce more than it did the first. ment of the government, capitals formed by the A judicious farmer in my neighbourhood lately combination of numerous and wealthy individuals; told me that he had taken 8 cwt. off an acre last and facilities from the friends of such institutions year, and had no doubt, that with little more atcomprehensively combined and associated for tention, he should this year at least get 12 cwt.such purposes. All these obstacles we have enu- I have noticed in the Courant, that S 415 per ton merated, emphatically attend the introduction, had lately been paid in Boston for hemp raised and not the eventual success of manufactures. at Longmeadow-this is a very unusual price-it

has been considered a fair peace price at $ 200,
when our intercourse was open with Russia; and,
at that, it will pay vastly more than any other
crop, as may be seen by the following very liberal
estimate of cultivation and dressing the product
of one acre of land that is in good order:
12 loads of manure,
Ploughing and harrowing 3 times, 6,00
24 bushels of seed, at 4 D.
Sowing and harrowing,
Pulling and carting,
Breaking and swingling,






We have seen lately the translation of a treatise upon the Woad, or colouring matter employed with or as a substitute for indigo. The translation is from the worthy son of Gen. Dearborn, who is the Collector of the port of Boston. This gentleman has directed his patriotism to inquiries into the means of bringing the cultivation of the plant from which the colouring matter is obtained, into use. He has not contented himself with the gift of translation, but we are assured is actually engaged in experiments upon a large scale, which promise to explain our best hopes from the cultivation of the plant in our country. He holds one of the best estates for the full extent of all his experiments. In his preface he says, "There is not a doubt but that the plant he recommends can furnish a blue pigment for all the States where indigo cannot be cultivated, at a cheaper rate than they are now supplied with that colouring ingre dient." He had received some of the seed, which he had successfully cultivated. The plants were not injured by the frost, and appeared before our common grasses. He declares the object of the publication to be the advancement of our agricultural and manufacturing interests; and he offers to the experimentalist any assistance with the gift of seed, or his information, can furnish. The

The following method of cultivation has been practised with great success. The ground, if not already broken up to be thoroughly ploughed in the fall, that the turf may be well rotted; and in the spring as early as the season will permit, to be ploughed again with more or less manure, according to the condition of the land; the plough-history of the cultivation is given most circuming to be repeated until the soil becomes light stantially in this work, and of all the policy which and mellow; that which is peculiarly proper had been employed to render the plant, not only would not require more than two ploughings in of public utility, but of advantage to the countries the spring: the seed to be sown, and well har-in which it was cultivated. It appears yet to inrowed in, on a very even surface from the 1st to the 10th May, that it may be out of the way of frosts, by which it is liable to be injured.When the blossom falls from the male hemp, as it will about the middle of August, it is to be pulled by making alleys through the field and selecting the male from the seed hemp, which is to be left a month longer to ripen. To be bound with rye straw in small bundles and left a few days in the field to dry, that the bark may be tougher and not injured in moving-the bundles to be laid under water to rot from 10 to 20 days, according to the weather, as it rots much the fastest in warm weather. Clear, standing, soft water is best for this purpose, and salt water, by a recent English publication, is considered altogether inadmissible. After it is sufficiently rotted, which is easily ascertained by drying and breaking a little of it, the bundles to be dried the open air, and when thoroughly dried, to be housed; when dressed, first to be passed through a course brake, and afterwards through a common one, and swingled like flax.

vite other experiments. As yet the work is accompanied with no experiments in our country. The wish, however, to extend our agriculture to every thing of which it is susceptible, and to introduce every useful plant, while we have no habits to prevent a proper attention to such things as may be useful, cannot be too much encouraged, The history of the plant before us will explain how often the cultivation has been directed by a very limited policy, and how easily its reputation may be made to depend on the prejudices or neglects of particular situations. The opportu nity for fair experiment, and the seasonable notices of the true causes of any partial ill success, cannot be too highly valued. For while many persevere in less profitable labour, from ignorance of any other means they can employ, the greater number are averse from every thing which reinquires the labour of thought, and the hazard of any new experiment.-Esser Register.



threshed again-it is then to be treated as before directed for the male hemp.

This may serve as a general direction; but the intelligent farmer will make such experiments as his land, his situation, and his convenience will permit, and by communicating the result, will confer an obligation on the community. Connecticut paper of 1811.

Sure profit per acre,

Half a ton, at 200 D. is


The above estimate, which is undoubtedly as high as it should be, would be reduced considerably by having the hemp dressed in a mill; for which purpose a number are already erected about the country, and by converting the stocks for shieves of manure, which purpose they answer to a considerable degree.

There exists no danger from a glutted market, it will never be imported cheaper from abroad, and should we go successfully into the cultivation, of it, for many years to come we should not more than equal the demand there would be as soon as our ships are permitted to spread their sails on the ocean.

The seed hemp is to be pulled as soon as the seed begins to fail from the stalk, and to be bundled and carried immediately to the place where it is to be threshed, there to be set up in the sun a few days, and then gently threshed; and again put in the sun a few days more, and afterwards


From the American Daily Advertiser.
Phillipsburgh, Centre County.


As I trust my last communication in your paper proves that the change in timber,a which

a See Nat. Reg. No. 21, p. 333.

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