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takes place in our forests, is immediately opposed circumscribed, yet this does not seem to hasten to that mode of changing seeds which Judge Pe- their destruction. The immense heap of oyster ters has attempted to establish from it, I now shells which covers the ground near the rivers mean to show, that the changing of animals, which and creeks, in our older settlements where this has been advocated by him, is equally erroneous; shell fish is found, seems to determine, that, alalthough, to substantiate his system, he says, that though they are as located as plants, they have "Nature, the creature and agent of the Divine existed there, at least, ever since the aborigines inAuthor and Director all things, without inter-habited this country; & they still exist in the same mission, where special interferences do not occur, places, (except where a very increased populaprogresses in a system prescribed to her, and em- tion has destroyed them) while the Indians, whose ploys the most flagitious of the human race to wandering habits seem much less likely to render destroy, and finally to produce a change, renova- their partial locality burthensome to nature, are tion, or substitution in nations or races of men." destroyed. It proves, that the evils arising from And soon after this, speaking of Timber and Plants, their locality, did not render it necessary to exhe observes, "these flourish on the destruction of tirpate the savages, and introduce Europeans; others, as do Men and Animals, whose numbers consequently, that heaven had no more to do with and vigour increases by changes of race and lo- the destruction of the former, than it had inspiring cality-and to convince us of this supposed that thirst for gold, which induced the Spaniards, fact he says, "how many of the Aborigines of not only to butcher, but to inflict the most cruel South America have been extirpated! Nearer tortures that monsters in human shape, could dehome, in our part of the Continent, whole Tribes vise, on the unoffending inhabitants of South Ameand Nations have been exterminated; their places rica are now tenanted by those destined to extinguish and succeed them."d

The knowledge we have of that very ancient and numerous nation, the Chinese, as well as of Are we to infer from this, that a strong and suc- the very located habits and customs of this very cessful combination of the "most flagitious of the singular people, is, in itself, sufficient to teach human race," act under the broad seal of heaven: us, that the same race of men may long occupy and that weaker and less successfull villains, of the same soil, before infinite wisdom and benevothe same description of men, instigated by Satan,lence will find it necessary to relieve nature of and being caught, are justly sentenced by the the oppressive burthen occasioned by their loJudge to be hanged by the neck, that the world cality, by commissioning the "most flagitious of be rid of such inefficient instruments in the necesthe human race to destroy them," for the express sary changes of men and other animals, "whose numbers and vigour increase by changes of race or locality?" "Whether the purpose be achieved, peacefully or violently, by those encircled with diadems, or hordes of savages, not less destructive or fierce, the same ends are accomplished."e

pose of "renovating" the soil, by the introduction of the most profligate of men.

It was once a generally received opinion, that unless Merino sheep were kept rambling from one place to another they degenerated; but it has been since clearly proved, that this rambling, savage-like practice, was actually injurious to them, as a fixed residence has greatly improved that very valuable animal.

The president remarks, that "this picture may not be valuable for its colouring, but the likeness is drawn by history and experience, with the pencil of truth." History has drawn a shocking pic- As it clearly appears, that no proof can be ture of the miseries inflicted by wicked men, but brought, either from the habits of man or inferior I do not recollect that it says, "the Divine Au-animals, or from the revolutions in nations, or in thor and Director of all things, employs the most the different classes of animals, that the changing flagitious of the human race" to effect this evil;of the latter from one neighbourhood or country and however different the opinions of Christians to another, is productive of any good, when may be on other subjects, they all agree in the change is the only object, reason dictates that the moral obligations of man also, that offensive and farmer should improve his present live stock, by unprovoked war, is immediately opposed to the every rational means, until an opportunity offers doctrines contained in the New Testament. But to change it for such as are evidently superior, if it was just to employ the most flagitious of the or may better suit his soil, climate, or purposes. human race, to destroy and produce a change, reAnd as it has been proved, that although nanovation or substitution in nations and races of ture sets the example of change in vegetation, .. men," for the express purpose of increasing the and that means have been provided to effect it number and vigour of them, it would not be wise extensively, still, as this is not done by the inunless men had been constructed like certaintroduction of distant seeds, or the creation of new worms, which are multipled by being cut into pieces. And although man and most other animals, are endowed with the power of removing from one place to another and many of them ramble wide and some far distant from their native soil, yetties, or for such as may suit his soil, climate, or vastly more live, and also die on it, without the purposes, better than his own. The change, for aid of the sword or tomahawk-and there are nu-change sake, naturally places him much in the merous animals, as incapable of moving from the same situation as the wandering Arab, who never spot where they were first propagated, as plants: continues long enough in one place, to admit of and the circle in which many others move, is very the practice of valuable improvement to any considerable extent. In fact, the practice must have

plants, but by a succession of different plants, grown from seeds propagated on the same grounds, there is nothing in the economy of nature, that ought to induce the cultivator to change his seeds or plants, unless it be for better varie

b See 1st vol. Phi. Agr. Mem. pages 23 and 34,

e See ditto, page 36.

d See ditto, page 34.

e See ditto, page 36.

If supernatural agency was employed in this horrid massacre, Satan must have been the promoter of it, if Milton has drawn his picture" with the pencil of truth."

upon the commerce of Europe. Often have propositions been made to put an end to them; but no causes have yet combined to produce a common consent in so generous a design. Much was expected from the ambition of Charles II. but eventually nothing was done. From Tripoli, great depredations were made on the English trade, so that a fleet was sent in 1675 to demand satisfaction. Sir John Narborough blocked up the port, and sent all his boats into the harbour, under the command of the afterwards justly celebrated Sir Cloudesly Shovel, and burnt all their vessels. The Tripolitans, under the alarm, made an instant peace. But when a negociation ensued for the losses the English sustained, they refused any acknowledgment. A cannonading of Tripoli ensued, but without success; and the event made the Tripolitans more insolent. Whatever could be destroyed by the English was destroyed, but the people were not more yielding. The British fleet withdrew to Malta, and, returning suddenly, so far intimidated the Tripolitans as to get peace upon their own terms. But soon after, some of the vessels of Tripoli came back from their pi


From the Philadelphia True American. The following articles are communicated by a gentleman to whose friendship we are frequently indebted for valuable and interesting infor-ratical expeditions, expressed their dissatisfaction, deposed the Dey, and began to take every EngThe Franklin manuscripts are at length pre-lish vessel they met. The English again appearparing for publication in London. They consist of ed, and made a furious attack on Tripoli. The his life, written by himself to a late period, and peace was renewed, and the persons who had continued by his grandson and legatee William violated the treaty were delivered up to venTemple Franklin, to the time of his death: his pri- geance. In a few years afterwards the same advate and familiar correspondence, posthumous es-miral was sent against Algiers, who had violated says, &c. &c. English property. By force a peace was obtained, Mr. John Scott, late of the city of Edinburgh, but for a short time only. Another expedition chemist, has bequeathed to the corporation of was necessary, and three years had not elapsed the city of Philadelphia, 3000 dollars of the 3 per before it became indispensable. The English had cent stock of the United States, to be applied to conceived that by other means they might overthe same purpose as Dr. Franklin's legacy, and the awe the Barbary states. They determined to forfurther sum of 4000 dollars of the same stock, the tify on the coast. The immense works of Taninterest of which is to be laid out in premiums for giers were the result of this policy. The diffithe discovery of useful inventions. We are in-culty of the execution did indeed retard, but formed that this very laudable and liberal bequest | could not prevent this work, and the expense has recently been received by the treasurer of the was incalculable. It was finished, and was a mocorporation. nument of national energy. But the nation was soon opposed to a work from which it seemed to derive no serious benefit, and Lord Dartmouth was sent to demolish the works, and the fame of the ability of Charles II. for maritime affairs, was insufficient to gain public favour to this vast undertaking. In the same manner have the Barbary states conducted in the past century. Powerful fleets threatened destruction, and promised an end to their depredations. But the expeditions,

Among other ill-advised measures of the present government of France, is the dissolution of the compact of men of letters and science, known by the name of the Institute, an association whose transactions will do honour to human genius in all future ages. A shadow of the substance has been set up in its stead, and the name of the Academy has been revived. The names of the members have not been published, but those of the Institute, honored by an exclusion have ap-great as they seemed in some few events, have peared in the public prints. The Polytechnickleft nothing favourable to them in the general school, in which 1500 sons of the first families in sentiment of Europe. The work is just as it has France have been liberally educated at the public been for three centuries. The peace they make expense, has also been abolished. From this se- whenever their policy seems to require it, and minary also came the 800 brave youths, who, like they disregard it at the first opportunity to vio300 Spartans, at Thermopyla, sacrificed them-late it. They have so often renewed their peace selves at the batteries of Montmartre, when Paris and violated it, that it is the system of their afwas betrayed into the hands of the hostile hordes, fairs, and no nation has any presumption but from in 1814. its power. The late acts of the Algerines seem the result of most desperate resolution; but as they have no discretion in their measures, their violation of property and life might as readily follow the first burst of passion as the most deliberate purposesof revenge. The accounts from Sar-. dinia appear to have every circumstance of probability respecting the fate of the Europeans in Bona, which is within one of the governments of Algiers. As the life of the Dey may be offered

originated among barbarians, whose wandering, idle habits, and circumscribed ideas of improvement naturally led them to seek it in change; than which there can be scarcely any thing introduced that is more extensively injurious to agriculture, as it strikes immediately at the root of rational improvement; for no man who believes in this doctrine, can, without acting inconsistently with his opinion, attempt either to preserve or improve the properties of his seeds or animals, as he believes, that, notwithstanding all his efforts, "locality" must, and will degenerate them. But the farmer should never forget, that a judicious change, or rotation of plants, on the same soil, is not only sanctioned by nature, (which we should always consult) but also by reason and practice.

Yours, very respectfully,



From the Essex Register.

The subject which engages notice at present is the conduct of Algiers. It is now six centuries since little governments have been established on the northern shores of Africa; and for half that time have been incessant practisers of piracy


To the inhabitauts of the province of Carraccas.

upon every change of measures, it is not to be supposed that Europeans can calculate upon any knowledge they have of the country. It is the force they can command, and that only, upon which they can depend. And that nation which can display the greatest naval skill, the most enterprise, and the most persevering courage, will command the best and the longest peace. It can be easily understood, that whatever obedience such a people might profess to any power, it must be doubtful what obedience they would pay. is because the court of Constantinople leaves them much to themselves, that they seem to hold an allegiance to that power. Nothing is real, and any attempt to assert authority would produce as ready resistance to the Turkish as to any other government. The success of the influence of the United States must end where it begun. In the most positive demands, and the full power to enforce them, peace will be sure through fear; but the first circumstance which relaxes fear will create war. The history of their treaties at the remote period we have noticed, is confirmed by the history ever since. While they fear us they will be at peace with us. But even the peace will be An army, a numerous park of artillery, muskets attended with every wish for war, without any and ammunition are now at my command to libecalculation what the peace or war may cost them. rate you!-Your tyrants shall be destroyed or exWe are not to suppose this character of the Bar-pelled, and you shall be restored to your rights, bary powers is common to all their subjects, or held by any in an equal degree. They have the same manners at home as they have abroad. As we observed, Tunis secures its treasures by its acknowledgements to the cities of Algiers and Constantinople. A constant jealousy exists, and the countries which are subject to the cities, have all the interest which the contending interests can give them, and in their divisions they are more surely at the will of their proud masters. We discover from England, that the treaty lately made between that country and Algiers has been a subject of inquiry even in parliament, and public assurances have been given of some things which are declared not to be in it. Its real character is yet unknown. In Europe the events of the treaty have not been agreeable to expectation. The Italian powers still find themselves exposed, and an uncommon insolence marks this age of piratical adventurers. The various projects for defence must ultimately depend upon the concurrence of the maritime strength of Great Britain: we must therefore expect, while British commerce is invaded, and British subjects and property destroyed, more serious designs to restrain the Barbary states, than from all other causes put together.

was soon after evacuated, and the victorious inde pendent army took the road to Carraccas. This morning admiral Brion arrived off this harbor and obtained permission to land for the purpose of having a conference with admiral Kikkart and brought the intelligence of Carraccas having surrendered to the patriots. The Spanish soldiers are daily deserting their monarch's cause to enlist under the banners of the liberators-they declare that they are starving under the cruelty of their government, and wish no longer to be slaves.Previous to their landing at Carupano a naval action took place, in which Don Mateu Leo Campo was killed; Biron was slightly wounded but is now perfectly recovered."

[Translated for the Democratic Press.] Head Quarters at Ocumare, 6th July, 1816. Simon Bolivar, supreme chief of the Republic, and captain general of the armies of Venezue. la, and New Grenada, &c.

to your country and to peace.

The war of extirmination carried on against us by our enemies shall be ceased on our side. We shall pardon those who may surrender, even although they be Spaniards! Such of them as serve the cause of Venezuela shall be regarded as friends, and consequently shall be employed ac cording to their merit and abilities. The hostile troops that come over to us shall enjoy all the benefits that the country can bestow on its benefactors.

No European Spaniard shall be put to death unless in battle. No American shall suffer the least injury for having joined the king's party and committed hostile acts against his fellow-citi


NEW-YORK, aug. 16.
Extract of a letter from Curacoa, received by a
gentleman in New-York, dated July 13.

"The squadron under the command of admiral Brion landed its forces at Carupano, whence Bolivar detached Marino, his second in command, to march upon Cumana and Piar with 1500 cavalry upon the plains. Margarito and several other places were taken and great clemency shown by the conquerors to the Spanish troops. Thence they sailed and landed at Ocumares with 2000 troops, where they were soon joined by 700 inhabitants. They consequently took possession of Cabrera and Maracay. Valencia, (not the city) ||

The unhappy portion of our brethren, who have groaned under the calamities of slavery, is hereby set free. Nature, justice and policy, demand the emancipation of the slave; henceforward there shall be known in Venezuela only one class of men-all shall be citizens.

After taking the capital, we shall convoke the representatives of the people to a general congress, in order to re-establish the government of the republic.

Whilst we are marching to Caraccas, general Marino, at the head of a formidable corps, attacks Cumana; general Piar, reinforced by generals Roxas and Monagas, become master of the plains (Uanos) advances to Barcelona, and general Arismendi, with his victorious army, occupies Margarita.


From the Buffalo Gazette of August 6. NEWS FROM THE WEST. The hermaphrodite brig Union, James Beard master, left Detroit on the 23d ult. and grounded near the head of Gros Island, about 8 miles below Detroit-her own boat being too small, she obtained one from the U. S. garrison at Gros Is land, for the purpose of getting her off, which

Africa. A dreadful war is said to have broke

was effected on the morning of the 24th. The wind being ahead, she beat down the river nearly abreast of the garrison, to which two men were sent to return the boat; being in sight of Amherstberg, a boat was seen to leave the latter place at the same time ours left the brig, and to proceed in the same direction until our boat came near the garrison: she then put about for the Union, having on board an officer, in a midship-out on the western coast of Africa, in the kingman's uniform, and six men, who immediately || dom of Ashantee and on the coast of Fanchee. came on deck. The officer inquired for the master The war is said to have originated from an of of the brig, and told him he had come to search fence given by some of the island princes to the his vessel for deserters. Mr. Beard observed, his king of Ashantee. men were all on deck, except those sent ashore in the boat. The officer then ordered his men into the hold and forecastle, to search. Mr. Beard remonstrated against such unwarrantable proceedings, and forbid it. The officer then replied, that he was ordered to search her, peaceably, if he could, if not, to use force, saying, 66 your government allows it, and why should not you ?" At this time there were 2 pieces of artillery drawn up on the Canada shore, apparently well manned, and not more than one hundred yards from the Union. M. Beard told the British officer, that, if he would search the brig, he must take charge of her-which he did, by taking the helm, and ordering his men to take in sail and bring the brig to anchor, which was done. The brig was then searched, and the officer told Capt. Beard he might resume the command of her. On Capt. Beard asking him, by what authority he acted, he replied, that his name was Henry Brooks -that he acted under a verbal order from his commanding officer.

A suitable notice of the above transaction will be forwarded to the head of the proper ment at Washington.


Russia.-The Emperor Alexander is represented to have an army of 100,000 men stationed in the vicinity of St. Petersburg, and that he frequently reviews them in person, accompanied by the hereditary Prince of Orange.



It has been reported at Knoxville, Ky. and said to be upon respectable authority, that the Secretary of War has declared that commissioners have been, or will be, appointed, to ascertain the western line of the Cherokee nation, as it existed be fore and at the time of the late war with the Creeks, to the end that if any imposition has been practised on the government in ing the late treaty with the Cherokees, it may be correctedA meeting has been held in Tennessee at which a resolution was unanimously adopted requesting the members of Congress from that State, and all," to resign their seats to make room for depart-men who will neither vote for unreasonable pay, nor receive it when fixed. We have not received all the returns for the late election in Kentucky. Messrs. H. Clay, R. M. Johnson, and Jos. Desha, are re-elected by large majorities, notwithstanding their having advocated the compensation bill. It is believed that all the others will be new members. The election for governor in the new State of Indiana is warmly contested. Thomas Posey & Jonathan Jennings are the candidates.--In North Carolina, Charles Hooks, Esq. has been elected a representative to Congress in the place of Wm. R. King, Esq. resigned. Samuel Dickens, Esq. (a federalist) is also elected, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Mr. Stanford.-The political parties in Maryland manifest much zeal and an unusual degree of asperity in their electioneering discussions, which increases as the election approaches: both parties speak with con fidence as to the result. It is considered the most important election that has taken place in that State for several years, as electors are to be



England.-G. C. Antrobus, Esq. has been appointed secretary to the British legation in the|| United States. The Prince of Cobourg is admitted a member of the British privy council.— The gas light company of London have laid down 30 miles of pipes. This company has been incorporated.-A British sloop of war has captured two Portuguese slave brigs, having on board 900 slaves.-The English merchants complain that the seamen leave their ships as soon as they arrive at Quebec, and enter into the lake service, where they get 90s. per month; in the merchant service they get but 358. Lord Melville said he knew not how 90s. could be given, except it included bounty, as government allowed only 45s.chosen to choose a senate, which will, no doubt, Merchants asked to what extent government want- determine the party character of that State for ed hands there, and for what purpose they were five years. to be employed; but Lord M. declined giving an answer.-General R. A. Seymore is appointed governor of St. Lucia.

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Portugal. The new Prince of Portugal takes the title of Joseph II.

South-America.-A Carthagenian privateer has lately captured a number of Spanish vessels in the Sail Rock passage: among the number was a packet on board of which were three merchants of Porto Rico, who were detained on board of the privateer until a ransom of $1,500 for each was received.

The Macedonian frigate has arrived at Boston from Annapolis. The U. S. sloop of war Prome theus, Capt. Wadsworth, sailed from Boston for Russia, on the 14th inst. with Mr. Edward Coles, bearer of despatches from our government to the court at St. Petersburg.

France Generals Lallamand and Savary have made their escape from Malta, and had arrived at Constantinople, on their way to Russia.-The memoirs of Fouche, in two volumes, are said to be ready for publication.-A French vessel of war Maj. Gen. GAINES arrived in this city yesterday, has sailed from Toulon in quest of a privateer inaccompanied by Col. ARBUCKLE, on their way to the Mediterranean which had captured a French New-York, to attend the court martial for the and Spanish ship. trial of the former.








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