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merchandise imposed by the act of December 1814. The communication of intelligence between the different parts of the country it appears to the committee to be the just policy of our government to facilitate and encourage; and although it might have been right to exact a revenue from it, under circumstances which made it necessary to apply every resource to the defence of the state, the present situation of the Treasury may well allow of its repeal. The duties on licenses to retailers admit, in the opinion of the committee, of a modification, which, by proportioning the price of the licence in some degree to the business of a retailer, shall render them as productive as the new rates, and less oppressive than the old ones. But as such modification could only apply to licenses for 1817, the committee propose to make it the subject of a future report.
To this estimate of annual expenditure might be added the amount of about $1,850,000, ap
The permanent laws now in force may be ex-propriated to the payment of the principal of the pected, after the expiration of temporary duties, public debt; hich, with the $ 6,150,000 applicato produce a nett annual revenue of $25,278,840 || ble to the payment of the interest, constitute the The direct tax a sinking fund of $8,000,000. But perhaps an eanett amount of sier view of the subject may be afforded by staThe sale of public ting seperately the whole sum which it is propolands, sed to apply to the payment of the principal of the public debt, exclusively of the interest.
Licenses to distillers, gross amount, 1,200,000 Carriages,
Licenses to retail
If the annual revenue, under the law proposed, be 25,369,500, and the ordinary annual expense be $15,778,669, there will be a balance of $9,590,831, which may be applied, as Congress shall direct, to national defence, to internal improvement, and to the extinguishment of the public debt. The considerations which have been already adverted to as enjoining the policy of pro. viding for the extinguishment of the public debt as soon as the resources of the country and the conditions of its contracts will permit, induce the committee to propose that to that object may be annually appropriated seven millions. after the year 1816; which added to the sum appropriated to the payment of interest, will form a sinking fund of $13,150,000, and extinguish the public debt in less than twelve years. This appropriation would still leave an excess of annual revenue above the estimates of ordinary expenditure gov-furnished by the Secretary of the Treasury of upwards of two millions and a half, to be applied to any other branch of the public service.
The committee have confined their observations to the receipt and expenditure of a permanent peace establishment The modification of the plan of the Secretary of the Treasury which they have proposed, will produce too small an effect upon the The nett amount of duties on furniture and watch-receipts of 1816 to require a distinct exposition
es, on manufactures and distilled spirits,
of them, and the deficiency in the receipts of 1816 (which is suggested in the Treasury report,) cannot disturb the calculations which have been submitted to the receipts and expenditures of succeeding years, since the estimated deficiency is less than seven millions, and outstanding revenue on the first of January 1817, will be about twenty millions. If however the demands upon the treasury in 1817, in consequence of Congress assuming the payment of expenses incurred during war which it has not yet sanctioned, or from any other cause, shall be increased beyond the present estimates or beyond an amount for which the unapropriated revenue may provide, the sinking fund may be charged for the year 1817 with the payment of the treasury notes which may be issued under the laws now in force. In prevent
2,675,000 2,514.500 n amt.
Duties on furniture and
4,111,000 3,864,340 n amt.
Such is the estimate of the annual revenue which by law is declared to be pledged " to provide for the payment of the expenses of ernment, for the punctual payment of the public debt, and for creating an adequate sinking fund." If the recommendation contained in the report of the Secratary, with the modifications proposed by the committee, shall be carried into effect, there will be deducted from this revenue of $25,278,840
The postage duty,
The duty on stamps,
On refined sugar
But there will be added to the revenue;
By the additional duty on
rate of permanent duty, 5,040,000
Making the excess of revenue added, above that deducted, 90,660
And the annual revenue,
In the report of the Secretary of the Treasury,
The annual military expenses, at
3. Resolved, That it is expedient to continue in force the ac entitled "an act laying a duty on imported salt; granting a bounty on pickled fish exported, and allowances to certain vessels employed in the fisheries;" passed on the 29th July, 1813.
act entitled "an act to provide additional revenues for defraying the expenses of government and maintaining the public credit, by laying duties on various goods, wares, and merchandize, manufactured within the United States," passed on the 18th of January, 1815, and also the act entitled "an act to provide additional revenues for defraying the expenses of government and maintaining the public credit, by layign a duty on gold, silver, and plated ware, & jewelry, and paste work, manufactured within the United States," passed on the 27th of February, 1815, from the same day.
Resolved, That it is expedient to repeal the act entitled "an act to provide additional revenues for defraying the expenses of government, and maintaining the public credit, by laying duties on household furniture, and on gold and silver watches," passed on the 18th of Janary 1815.
3. Resolved, That it is expedient to continue in
4. Resolved, That is is expedient to continue in
5. Resolved, That it is expedient to repeal, from
6. Resolved, That it is expedient so to amend the act entitled "an act to provide additional rev. enues for the defraying the expenses of go. vernment, and maintaining the public credit, by laying a direct tax upon the United States, and to provide for assessing and collecting the same," passsed on the 9th of Jauuary, 1815,
to reduce the direct tax to be levied for the Report of the Director to the Pre ident of the year 1816, and succeeding years, to three millions; and also to amend the act entitled "an act to provide additional revenues for defraying the expenses of government and maintaining the public credit by laying a direct tax upon the District of Columbia," passed on the 27th February, 1815, as to reduce the direct tax to be levied therein, annually, to 9999 20-100. 7. Resolved, That it is expedient to repeal the act entitled "an act to provide additionl rev. enues for defraying the expenses of government and maintaining the public credit, by laying duties on spirits distilled within the United States and Territories thereof, and by amend-pieces, amounting to 20,483 dollars.
In gold coins, 635 pieces, amounting to 3,175 dollars:
In silver coins, 69,232 pieces, amounting to 17,308 dollars; making in the whole 89,867
ing the act laying duties on licenses to distillers of spirituous liquors," passed on the 21st of December, 1814, excepting only the 16th, 18th, 19th and 24th sections thereof, from and after the 1st day of April next, and from the same day to add 100 per cent, to the amount of the duty which all stills now subject to duty are liable to pay.
The high price of gold and silver bullion, for some ime past, in the current paper money of the country, has prevented, and, as long as this shall continue to be the case, must necessarily prevent deposits of these metals being made for coinage, to any considerable amount. fresh supply of copper having lately been received at the mint, we have again resumed the coinage of cents; and it is believed that we shall, in the course of the year, should no fai
8. Resolved, That it is expedient to repeal, from and after the 18th day of April next, the
10 Resolved, That it is expedient so to amend the rates of duties upon imported articles, after the 30th of June next, as that they shall be estimated to produce an amount equal to that which would be produced by an average addition of 42 per cent. to the permanent rates of duties.
Resolved, That the deficiency arising from the reduction or abolition of any of the duties here. tofore pledged by law for the support of the government, for the payment of the public debt and the establishment of a sinking fund, shall be supplied by appropriating to those objects, a sufficient amount from the product of the taxes or duties proposed to be continued or increased.
12. Resolved, That it is expedient that from and after the year 1816, an addition shall be made to the sum of 8,000,000 of dollars, now annu. ally appropriated for the payment of the interest and principal of the public debt, so as to make the whole sum to be appropriated anno ally to that purpose, 13,500,000 dollars.
MINT OF THE U. STATES, Jan. 1, 1816. SIR-I have the honor, at this time, of laying before you, a report of the operations of the Mint, during the last year.
From the statement of the treasurer, herewith transmitted, it will appear, that during that period there have been struck at the mint.
lure in the expected supply of copper take place,cuted in all such other ways as the law be fully able to coin fifty tons weight, amount ing to nearly 47,000 dollars; and that, with a regular supply of copper, which can readily be procured, on terms highly advantageous to go. vernment, we can continue to coin fifty tons per annum, as long as it may be judged expe
In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed to these presents, and signed the same with my hand. Done (L. S.) at the City of Washington, the twelfth day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifteen, and of the Independence of the said United States of America, the fortieth.
The circulation of these copper coins, and of those heretofore issued from the mint, (amounting to 251,646 dollars,) and which must be still nearly all in the country, would, it is presumed, soon supply, in a great measure, the place of the small silver coins, which have now almost totally disappeared.
I have the honor to be, sir, with the greatest respect and esteem, your most obedient ser. vant, R. PATTERSON.
President of the United States.
the President of the United States of America.
By the President,
JAMES MONROE, Secretary of State.
Documents accompanying the Message of the President, transmitting to the Senate the Treaty of Peace with Algiers.
U. S. Ship Guerriere, Bay of Algiers, July 4th, 1815. SIR-We have the honor to refer you to the official reports of commodore Decatur to the navy department, for an account of the operations of this squadron previous to our arrival
Algiers on the 28th ultimo.
WHEREAS it has been represented, that many uninformed or evil disposed persons have taken possession of, or made a settle-off ment on the public lands of the United Having received information that the AlgeStates, which have not been previously rine squadron had been at sea for a considerasold, ceded, or leased by the United States, ble time longer than that to which their cruior the claim to which lands, by such per had been sent from Gibraltar to Algiers to insers usually extend, and that a despatch boat sons has not been previously recognized form them of our arrival in the Mediterranean, and confirmed by the United States: which we thought that they might have made a harpossession or settlement is, by the act of bor, where they would be in safety. We thereCongress passed on the third day of March, fore, whilst they were in this state of uncerone thousand eight hundred and seven, ex-tainty, believed it a proper moment to deliver pressly prohibited; and whereas the due the President's letter, agreeably to our instrucexecution of the said act of Congress, as tions. Accordingly, on the 29th ultimo, a flag of truce was hoisted on board the Guerriere, well as the general interest, require that with the Swedish flag at the main. A boat came such illegal practices should be promptly off about noon, with Mr. Norderling, consul of repressed: Sweden, and the captain of the port, who conMADI-firmed the intelligence we had before received, and to whom we communicated information of the capture of their frigate and brig. The impression made by these events was visible and deep. We were requested by the captain of the port, Mr. Nordeling declaring he was not authorized to act, to state the conditions on which we would make peace; to which we replied, by giving the letter of the President to the Dey, and by a note from us to him, a copy of which (No. 1) we have the honor to transmit herewith. The captain of the port then requested that hostilities should cease pending the negociation, and that persons authorized to
Now, THEREFORE, I, JAMES SON, President of the United States, have thought proper to issue my proclamation, commanding and strictly enjoining all persons who have unlawfully taken possession of, or made any settlement on the public lands as aforesaid, forthwith to remove therefrom; and I do hereby further command and enjoin the marshal, or officer acting as marshal, in any state or territory, where such possession shall have been taken, or settlement made, to remove, from and after the tenth day of March, one thousand eight hundred and sixteen, all or any of the said unlawful occupants; and to effect the said service, I do hereby authorise the employment of such military force as may become necessary, in pursuance of the provisions of the ties, as far as they respected vessels could not cease. They returned on shore. On the folact of Congress aforesaid, warning the of-lowing day the same persons returned, and infenders moreover, that they will be prose-formed us that they were commissioned by the
treat should go on shore, he and Mr. Norderhad pledged himself for our security and return ling both affirming that the minister of marine to our ships when we pleased. Both these propositions were rejected, and they were explicitly informed that the negociation must be
carried on on board the fleet, and that hostili
Dey to treat with us on the proposed basis, and their anxiety appeared extreme to conclude the peace immediately. We then brought forward the model of a treaty, which we declared would not be departed from in substance, at the same time declaring that although the United States would never stipulate for paying tribute under any form whatever, yet that they were a magnanimous and generous nation, who would, upon the presentation of consuls, do what was customary with other great nations, in their friendly intercourse with Algiers. The treaty was then examined, and they were of opinion that it would not be agreed to in its present form, and particularly requested that the article requiring the restitution of the property they had captured, and which had been distributed, might be expunged, alleging that such a demand had never before been made upon Algiers. To this it was answered that the claim was just and would be adhered to. They then asked, whether, if the treaty should be signed by the Dey, we would engage to res tore the captured vessels; which we refused. They then represented that it was not the present Dey who had declared the war, which they acknowledged to be unjust, conceding that they were wholly in the wrong, and had no excuse whatever, requesting, however, that we would take the case of the Dey into consideration, and upon his agreeing to terms with us, more favorable than had ever been made
with any other nation, to restore the ships. which they stated would be of little or no value to us, but would be of great importance to him, as they would satisfy the people with the conditions of the peace we were going to conclude
We consulted upon this question, and determined that, considering the state of those vessels, the sums that would be required to fit them for a passage to the United States, and the little probability of selling them in this part of the world, we would make a compliment of them to his highness in the state they then were, the commodore engaging to furnish them with an escort to this port. This, however, would depend upon their signing the treaty as presented to them, and could not ap
pear as an article of it, but must be considered as a favour conferred on the Dey by the United States.
They then requested a truce, to deliberate upon the terms of the proposed treaty, which was refused: they even pleaded for three hours. The reply was, "not a minute; if your squadron appears in sight before the treaty is actually signed by the Dey, and the prisoners sent off, ours will capture them." It was finally agreed that hostilities should cease when we perceived their boat coming off with a white Hag hoisted, the Swedish consul pledging his word of honour not to hoist it unless the treaty was signed, and the prisoners in the boat. They returned on shore, and although the distance was full five miles, they came back within three hours, with the treaty signed, as we had concluded it, and the prisoners.
During the interval of their absence a corvette appeared in sight, which would have been captured if they had been detained one hour Jonger. The treaty has since been drawn out
anew, translated by them, and duly executed by the Dey, which we have the honor to transmit herewith.
Mr. Shaler has since been on shore, and the cotton and money mentioned in the 4th article, have been given up to him. They now show every disposition to maintain a sincere peace with us, which is, doubtless, owing to the dread of our arms: And we take this occasion to remark, that, in our opinion, the only secure guarantee we can have for the maintenance of the peace just concluded with these people, is the presence, in the Mediterranean, of a respectable naval force.
As this treaty appears to us, to secure every interest within the contemplation of the government, and as it really places the United States on higher ground than any other nation, we have no hesitation, on our part, in fulfilling such of its provisions as are within our power, in the firm belief that it will receive the ratification of the president and senate.
We have the honor to be, with respect, Sir, your obedient servants.
STEPHEN DECATUR, WILLIAM SHALER. The hon James Monroe, Secretary of state. (No. 1)
The American Commissioners to the Dey of Algiers.
The undersigned have the honor to inform been appointed by the President of the United his highness the Dey of Algiers, that they have tiary to treat of peace with his highness, and States of America, commissioners plenipotenready to open a negociation for the restoration that pursuant to their instructions, they are of peace and harmony between the two countries, on terms just and honorable to both parties; and they feel incumbent on them to state explicitly to his highness, that they are instructed to treat upon no other principle, than that of perfect equality, and on the terms of the most favored nations: no stipulation for paying any tribute to Algiers, under any form whatever, will be agreed to.
The undersigned have the honor to transmit
herewith, a letter from the President of the United States, and they avail themselves of this occasion to assure his highness, of their high consideration and profound respect.
treaty, of the line of conduct which it is in consequence adviseable for you to adopt.
You cannot but be aware, that the third article of the treaty of the peace of 1783, contained two distinct stipulations, the one recognizing the right which the U. States had to take fish upon the high seas, and the other granting to the U. States the privilege of fishing with in the British jurisdiction, and of using, under certain conditions, the shores and territory of his majesty for purposes connected with the fishery of these, the former being considered permament, cannot be altered or effected by any change of the relative situation of the two countries, but the other being a privilege derived from the treaty of 1783 alone, was, as to its duration, necessarily limited to the duration of the treaty itself. On the declaration of war, by the American government, and the consequent abrogation of the then existing treaties, the United States forfeited, with respect to the fisheries, those privileges which are purely conventional and as they have not been renewed by a stipulation in the present treaty,) the subjects of the United States can have no pretence to any right to fish within the British jurisdiction, or to use the British territory for purposes connected with the fishery.
Our ancestors erred greatly in planting trees in orchards too close, twenty feet was thought by them to be a proper distance. But they seemed not to consider that in a few years the branches of each tree would touch the and thus by interfering with each other, prevent them from bringing blossoms and fruit. At that distance a plantation of trees must in a few years become like a wood, and prevent either grass or vegetables from being cultivated under them. Not in such a situation will three trees produce as much as one, if at the distance of 40 or 50 feet.
In planting an orchard, care should always be taken to fix on a situation sheltered as much as possible against the violent north west and north east winds. Plant the largest growing trees, such as Priestly's, on the north side, and so descending towards the south that there may be a regular gradation of height, and that the tall trees may not overshadow the smaller.
Apples and pears, for an orchard, ought not to be planted at less distance than in rows at about 40 feet, and each tree in the row at 30 or 35 feet apart. Pears alone may be 30 by 25, and these in general, spread less and grow more erect than apples. Cherries, the larger grow ing sorts at 30 by 20. Peaches, apricots, and nectarines, at 15 feet.
Nothing in the various parts of agriculture and gardening is so lit le understood and consequently neglected, as the planting of trees. The root is generally forced into a small hole, and afterwards left to chance, without the slightest attention either to pruning or manuring.
Such being the view taken of the question of the fisheries as far as relates to the United States, I am commanded by his royal highness the Prince Regent to instruct you to abstain most carefully from any interference with the fishery, in which the subjects of the United States may be engaged, either on the Grand bank of Newfoundland, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, or other places in the sea. At the same time you will prevent them, except under the circumstances hereinafter mentioned, from using the British territory for purposes connected with the fishing vessels from bays, harbours, rivers, creeks, and inlets of all his majesty's possessions. In case, however, it should have happened that the fishermen of the United States, through ignorance of the circumstan ces which effect this question, should, previous to your arrival, have already commenced a fishery similar to that carried on by them pre vious to the late war, and should have occupied the British harbours, and formed establishments on the British territory, which could not be suddenly abandoned without very considerable loss, his royal highness the Prince Regent, willing to give every indulgence to the citizens of the United States, which is compatible with his majesty's rights, has commanded me to instruct you to abstain from molesting such fishermen or impeding the progress of their fishing during the present year, unless they should, by attempts to carry on a contra band trade, render themselves unworthy protection or indulgence, you will however not fail to communicate to them the tenor of the instructions, which you have received, and the view which his majesty's government take of the question of the fishery, and you will, above all, be careful to explain to them that they are not in any future season to expect a continu-pruned close to where they are produced, as ance of the same indulgence.
All bruised and broken roots-all such as are irregular and cross each other, and all downright roots, should be pruned smooth off.
As to the top, the small branches should be
also the irregular ones, which cross each other; and all such as have by any means been broken or wounded, should be cut down to the next good eye, but by no means take off the main
The ground designed for an orchard should be in tillage one year at least before planting; and if well manured, so much the better for the trees. The holes should be dug a foot deep, and at least five feet over, and left to lie a few days to receive the influence of the atmosphere.
If you are to buy the trees, procure them from the nearest nursery you can, for the sooner trees are planted, after being out of the ground, the better. If the small fibres are not dried, they need not to be cut off, but if dried, as they almost always are in carrying a distance, they should be trimmed off, otherwise they will mould and do certain injury to the tree, and often entirely destroy it.
Always keep the roots as long as convenient, which will give them a disposition to run horizontally, from which the roots being more under the influence of the sun, the sap is richer and produces the sweetest, fairest fruit. Nursery men, in taking up trees, are, in general, not sufficiently attentive to give them a good spread of root.