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fuel for the purpose, and of this such as was most abundant in light thus in Lancashire the women spin by the light of canal coal, and in our back country, by the light of pine knots.
It is not easy to trace the history of wax and tallow: the first would be in use in warm southern climates, where bees and flowers were plentiful: the latter in cold countries, where animals used for food, abound in this secretion.
solution) and carbonic acid gas escape; and are conducted first into a vessel of lime water, to separate the uncombined carbonic acid and empyreumatic oil, and then into water. A gas holder, or sheet iron cylinder closed at one end, is suspended by weights and chains that counterbalance it, and is plunged, with its open end downward into the water through which the gas rises. This water is contained in a wooden or sheet iron vessel that is about three or four inches more in diameter than the gas holder inverted in it. As the gas rises, cleansed in its passage through lime water and common water, it strikes against the bottom of the inverted cylindrical holder, and raises it out of the water, displacing the water: from this gas holder, when full, it is conveyed by pipes to any distance, to supply the burners, which let out the gas in apertures about the size of pin holes, in various forms and directions accord
Coal gas was first shewn experimentally by Sir James Lowther to the Royal Society; he brought it in bladders from his coal mines at White Haven: this, I think, was before the year 1736, when Mr. Maude first burnt inflamable air from iron filings before the same society. In 1739 Dr. Clayton exhibited experiments in coal gas before that assembly, collecting it in bladders, and burning it from thence at its exit through pin holes. Dr. Hale and Dr. Watson, bishop of Landaff, both gave an ac-ing to the fancy of the person who uses this count of the gas from coal and the mode of promode of lighting. curing it. In 1792 Mr. Mendoch introduced it instead of candles, in the manufactory of Mess. Thos. Philips and Lee of Manchester; after which a Mr. Winsor pretended to take out a patent for the invention of coal gas in lieu of candles and lamps, and proposed to light the streets of London with it. About the same period a Mr. Herpy proposed it in this country, and informed me he had tried the experiment on a large scale in Baltimore, I think about the year 1795, but we heard no more of it. Mr. Winsor having made attempts at an exclusive privilege by applications to Parliament, was left to contest, if he pleased, his exclusive right with competitors who knew as much about the business as himself. However he succeeded in forming a company, and soon after three or four other rival companies were formed to supply the public streets, the public building, and private houses with gas lights, which have so far succeeded, that fifteen miles in length alto-ty, gether, of the streets in London, many public buildings, and many private houses were supplied with coal gas, to the exclusion of lamps and candles, about the beginning of the last year, (1815.) Lately Covent Garden Theatre has been lighted up by the same means, very much to the public satisfaction. This supply is produced from iron mains laid in the streets, from whence issue smaller pipes that convey the gas to the required place of combustion. There appears to be three principal establishments that supply the necessary quantity; whose gas holders, or vessels containing the gas when extricated, hold altogether about fif ty thousand cubic feet. The process is this: Into iron retorts, surrounded by brick work, a quantity, according to the size of the establishment, of pit coal is put. The retorts are iron cylinders fixed lengthwise; one end opens on the outside of the furnace, by means of which the charge is put in: the other terminates in a tube or tubes which enter into a vessel employed to receive the liquid products of the distillation, viz. the oil, tar, and ammoniacal liquor, which are there condensed: the aerial or gaseous products, consisting of coal gas (which is hydrogen holding carbon and volatile oil in
* See Port Folio, Jan. 1816.
The iron retorts containing the coal, are sur. rounded in the common way with burning coal, as a fuel to supply heat to the retorts and to distil and decompose the coal contained in them.
Such is the outline of the process, which re. quires however several precautions respecting safety in burning this kind of air, and economy in the choice and use of the combustible employed.
Mr. Accum, of London, has published a splendid octavo volume with plates shewing the construction of the machinery, with calculations of the expense attending this method of procuring light, to which those who wish for full information may have recourse: the minute contrivances necessary to insure success are more fitted for a scientific and practical publication than for the Register. But the use of coal gas in London, where as much attention is paid to utility and economy as to beau
gained ground every year from its first introduction, and now threatens to supersede every other method of obtaining light in situa tions where communication.can easily be had with the mains or large pipes of the several companies. The brilliancy, the safety, and the cheapness of this kind of light, has forced it upon public observation and brought it into general use.
But though it be a cheap method of procuring light when the apparatus is once constructed and set at work, the expense of that apparatus in the first instance is such, as not to justify any family in erecting it for mere private and family use. It will do where much light is required, in public buildings and large manufactories, but the saving in the combustible material, whether it be wax, spermaceti, tallow, or oil, is sunk in the interest of the capital necessary to fit up the required apparatus in a mere private family. Hence the necessity of joint stock companies, and of under aking the supply of a district on a large scale. So that in London companies are formed to supply private families with coal gas, on the same plan with the companies who supply water from the New River or Chelsea water works: and the mains in the streets lie along side each other, the one conveying a stream of gas and the other a stream of wate..
The neatness and the beauty of this method of supplying light renders it highly desirable that it should be adopted in our large towns. In Philadelphia, for instance, I suppose it would pay any opulent company to supply the light of a candle equal to six in the pound, during the time such a candle would burn, for two cents at the outside; which greatly cheaper than the present price of light; indeed such a light as that cannot now be had under four cents.
All the materials necessary to such an establishment may be had in this country. We Any person can easily come at the compara. have iron, we have coal. Pennsylvania in par- tive light of two candles by putting one at one ticular abounds in coal of every description, end of the mantle piece and the other at the and even the great towns on the sea board can opposite end, and holding the snuffers or a import it, either from Virginia or from Liver-book or any other object between them in the pool, at a price that would enable the under. middle of the room, so that the shadow of the takers to secure a reasonable profit to them- object shall fall on the opposite wall: the candle selves, as well as to the public. that produces the deepest shadow affords the most light.
For the same reason, where the combustion is most compleat, the heat is greatest.
On all these accounts, I hope ere long to see an establishment for the purpose of supplying light from coal gas ereeted in Philadelphia, and I heartily wish well to the projectors. But to take out a patent for the principle, without a manifest improvement in the machinery itself, appears to me an useless imposition on the public. C.
The advantages attending this method of lighting houses, which may be supplied as they are supplied with water in London, by small pipes let into the mains in the street, are
1st. It can be afforded cheaper than the light of tallow or of oil.
2dly. The light is more vivid and brilliant. 3dly. It does not require snuffing. 4thly. It is safer; not liable to the accident of a candle falling, or lighted snuff dropping
out of the snuffers.
5thly. It is beyond comparison more cleanly than the use of oil or candles.
6thly. It is less troublesome. The cleaning of candlesticks and the dressing of lamps, and the eternal snuffing of tallow candles, constitutes no small objection to their use. How seldom is it that you can safely trust a servant to trim a patent or D'Argand's lamp!
By taking the necessary precautions all smell is avoided, as well as all danger. In short, fifteen miles of London streets would not be so lighted, if the convenience were not out of all dispute.
But there are two other advantages attending these lights, which are obvious when it is compared with the combustion of common candles or lamps: it furnishes more heat; it does not soil the furniture.
forty times during its combustion, if we wish for a clear and clean flame. Hence the great use of wax lights, where the wick is so small that all the combustible matter is consumed. This is so notorious, that every frugal mistress of a family knows that a pound of tallow candles consisting of ten, wherein the wick is so small that air can have access to all the lighted tallow, gives twice as much light, and half as much smoke, as a pound of candles made into four to the pound.
In the common method of making a candle (of tallow for instance) a wick is placed in the centre of a long cylindrical mass of tallow that surrounds it. When this candle is lighted, the lower part of the flame is blue, the middle part is yellowish-white, the tip of the flame is brown, especially if it be not kept perpetually snuffed. Every chemist knows that no combustion can take place without the access of air. To ward the lower part of the wick, the combustion is compleat, for the whole of the tallow is burnt. In the middle part of the wick, a quantity of tallow melted by the heat of combustion at the lower part, is absorbed, of this tallow that on the outside of the wick in contact with the air, is consumed and furnishes heat and light; but that portion of melted tallow absorbed by the middle of the wick, is not burnt or consumed, but is distilled off in the form of a brown smoke that accumulates at the top of the wick, spoils the light, produces the smell of tallow in the room, and soils the furniture. To remedy this, in a candle of six in the pound, we are compelled to use the snuffers
PAPER AND SPECIE.
In the year 1810, Sir PHILIP FRANCIS, one of the ablest statesmen of the present day, but who seems to be kept out of view, because he belongs to the opposition, published some Reflections on the abun dance of paper in circulation, and the scarcity of specie. This little tract contains a mass of solid sense; it is written, says a cotemporary writer, "with the united strength of genius and disdain; and worthy in every word it utters of the earnest attention of the reader." We extract the following.
"Most men are ready to admit, that plainness and simplicity are good moral qualities, and not at all unwilling to encourage them in others. But it is not so generally known, or admitted, that these qualities, instructed by experience, or enlightened by reflection, are the surest evidence of a sound understanding. A cunning rogue may cheat a wiser man of his money, but in an abstract question, to be determined by judgment, it is not possible that skill and artifice can finally prevail over plain reason, which, in the ordinary transactions of life, is called common sense. If it were possible for me to personify the British nation, and if I were at liberty to offer my humble advice to so great a person, the first thing I should recommend to him, would be to adopt the maxim of lord Chatham, to stop for a moment in order to take a general view of his situation with his own eyes, and to reflect on it himself. The first question I would urge to his consideration, as more immediately pressing, though not more important than many others, is, whether this kingdom, with many appearances to the contrary, be not essentially impoverished, and whether the causes of that effect be or be not in a state of progression.
It is in vain to argue with any man, who professes we are willing to pay a light tax for a constant to think that a circulation of paper, not converti-convenience; but not so, when great payments ble into specie, and which may be increased adare in question. For then we know the difference, libitum by those who issue it, is as sure a sign of and that it constitutes an object worth attending wealth as specie itself, or, at least, answers all the to. Would any debtor make a payment of one purposes of gold and silver, as it certainly does thousand and fifty pounds, in guineas, if, by meltsome of them. ing the same guineas, he could pay the debt, and put a hundred pounds worth of the circulating paper into his pocket? The case is just the same in purchase as in payment. If, to buy a certain quantity of corn or cloth, he parts with a thousand new guineas, instead of one thousand and fifty pounds in bank notes, I say he is cheated, or he cheats himself; because the guineas are worth fifteen or twenty per cent. more; which difference he might realize by meiting or exporting them; and, if he were resolved to forego that profit him. self, somebody else would get it instead of him. The public would gain nothing by his forbearance. But what signifies arguing such questions, when we all know that there are no heavy guineas in common circulation, and very few even of those that have been most severly sweated. Does any landlord receive one guinea in a thousand pounds in the rents of his estate? The question was asked in the house of commons seven years ago, and neither then, nor since, has ever been answered in the affirmative.”—p. 13, 14.
His principle, if he be in earnest, which I should very much doubt of any person in possession of his senses, would oblige him, in many other cases, to maintain that the shadow of a good thing is just as good as the substance; or that water, forced into the system, performs the functions of blood with equal effect, and greater facility. With the help of tapping, it might do so, as long as the stamina lasted. But, in these cases, the patient is apt to give the lie, or the slip to the physician, and to die of a dropsy with the panacea in his bowels. He who really suffers his mind to be amused with such fancies, has something to enjoy, and it would be cruel to undeceive him. But, in fact, there is no such person out of bedlam,|| except perhaps on the coast of Angola, where, in former times at least, the honest christian trader persuaded the infidel natives, that cowries 'and glass beads would answer their purposes much better than gold or silver. In this way, they were converted out of their property, but not at all out of their infidelity.
A great foreign expense can only be provided for in one of two ways; either, first, by a credit abroad, equal to all those expenses, which credit cannot be had otherwise than by a proportionate profit on your trade, and, if that was the case now, there would be no occasion to export specie. Gold and silver would remain in statu quo, and the bank of England would never have been under the necessity of stopping payment. Or, secondly, you must pay the balance out of the existing wealth, or substance of this kingdom. For these services the foreign bullion goes first; then go the guineas; for as to silver coin there is none, other than that of Birmingham, for common change, and lately a few dollars; and even of them there is no great plenty, though the bank says they have issued to the number of 4,817,634, since the year 1797, which shows that most of the old ones have taken wing, and will soon be followed by the rest. They are all alike birds of passage. A lame dollar will be as much a curiosity as a woodcock in August, for the dollars go just like the guineas; and, if so, it proves another thing, which the best dreamers never dreamt of; that raising the nomiornal value of your coin, wont keep it from travelling. Finally, the plate must follow the guineas, or you must stop short, and stop payment; and then, I say, that in spite of bank notes and paper circulation, or any agreement among ourselves to receive and pay in that sort of coin, and in spite of a grand sinking fund into the bargain, the nation must be bankrupt, beggared, and undone, and that we are every day approximating to that conclusion.
"Suppose," says he, "the thing, which any man wants to buy, is bank notes, and that he has nothing to pay for them but gold. Yesterday his ounce of gold would only have bought four pounds in paper. To day he can get five pounds of the same paper with the same ounce of gold.
Is the paper cheaper to day by twenty-five per cent, than it was yesterday? But, cheap or dear, is measured by the price, and, if the price be so much lower, is, or is not the value so far reduced? Whether reduction of price be depreciation, or not, or equivalent to it, is a verbal question, very fit to be argued in Change alley; but probably will not be entertained by any man, who has brains enough left to defend his pockets. Here this part of the subject may be dismissed, with one short memorandum to the reader, which he should for ever bear in mind; viz. that, considering specie and paper as equally a medium of circulation, there is this essential and eternal difference between them, that paper, at least, can be nothing but a sign among ourselves, but that, by the common consent of mankind, gold and silver have an intrinsic value, and constitute a real pledge deposit, as well as a sign; and though the price may accidentally vary, according to the quantity and the demand, still an intrinsic value adheres to the substance. If indeed wealth be an evil, and poverty a blessing, there is nothing so easy as to get rid of the evil, and not only to secure the present blessing, but to entail it on posterity. For this desirable purpose, no effort is necessary, but to persevere in the smooth downhill course, which we are now pursuing. The plane is inclined, and the machine once in motion, will go of itself. || is projecting in this town. I never saw the proThere is nothing so easy as the descent of a fallingposals, nor understand any one particular of their body, through an unresisting medium. scheme: what I wish for at present, is only a suf, ficient provision of hemp, and caps, and bells, to distribute, according to the several degrees of honesty and prudence in some persons. I hear only of a monstrous sum already named; and if others do not soon hear of it too, and bear with a vengeance, then am I a gentleman of less sagacity
"I cannot," he observes, "forbear saying one word upon a thing they call a bank, which hear
A Birmingham shilling may do as well for commom change as a shilling from the mint, if such a thing existed, or ever came into sight, because, in petty dealings, where the shilling changes hands every minute, a small shifting loss is not regarded-nulla est de minimis cura; or, because |
There is but one, if we have strength and stamina left to wait the effect of it. The nation must tread back its steps, and reverse its proceedings in the same path, which has brought it to its present decline Stop your foreign expences. Seli more than you buy and then the wealth that has left you will gradually come back again. When the foreign account is against you, the gold and silver must go to balance it; when that balance is reversed, the gold and silver will return, but never till then, or by any other means. This is up-hill work, I know, but this, and nothing else, can save
Democratic Republicans marked
"In better times, while feeling was alive, and when reason was animated by passion, these incentive materials might have furnished some force of thought and energy of language. But age and
infirmities have done their office and their worst. Plurima de nobis anni. The reader, who believes my intention to be good, will make allowance for the natural effects and progress of decay. Any account, if it be honest, has fairly a claim to 'errors excepted.'
"A man of my age, may still be in his senses, when his senses are good for nothing. With a callous heart, there can be no genius in the imagination or wisdom in the mind; and therefore the prayer, with equal truth and sublimity, says, incline our hearts unto wisdom.' Resolute thoughts find words for themselves, and make their own vehicle. Impression and expression are relative ideas. He who feels deeply, will express strongly. The language of slight sensations is naturally feeble and superficial."
David Daggett, F.
Dudley Chase, 2.
"Let no man believe," says he, at page 40, "that I have not sense enough left to feel that these faint ideas, the languid produce of an impoverished mind, left to fallow without manure, hardly deserve the name of reflections. But, such as they are, they may perhaps lead others to a right course of thinking on the subject they relate to. The expiring lamp, that glimmers on a post, shows the passenger his way. He who grows the flax or the wool, is of some little service to art and industry of a higher order, though he cannot manufac-Jeduthun Wilcox, F.
ture the articles himself. Even this insipid essay will not be quite unprofitable, if it furnishes materials to greater abilities, and helps to set some superior understanding at work."
William W. Bibb, R.
William T. Barry, E.
Jeremiah Morrow, R.
Jeremiah Nelson, F.
Asahel Stearnes, F.
Geo. W. Campbell, £.
Daniel Chipman, f.
Westell Willoughby, R.
Lewis Condit, R. Henry Southard, &. Thomas Ward, R.
John Randolph, r.
Jerard Irwine, R.
Penn ylvania. Thomas Burnside, R. William Crawford, R. Wm. Darlington, R. William Findley, R. Hugh Glasgow, R Isaac Griffin, &. John Halm, R. Joseph Heister, R. Samuel D. Ingham, R. Lewis Williams, R. Bartlett Yancey, R. John Culpepper, F. William Gaston, P. Richard Stanford, F. South Carolina. John C. Calhoun, R. John J. Chappell, R. Benjamin Huger, R. William Lowndes, R. William Mayrant, R. Henry Middleton, R. Thomas Moore, R. John Taylor, R. Wm. Woodward, R. Georgia. Alfred Cuthbert, R. John Forsyth, 8. Bolling Hall, R. Wilson Lumpkin, R. Thomas Telfair, R. Richard H. Wilde, R. Kentucky. Hy. Clav, n. (speaker.) James Clark, R. Joseph Desha, R. Benjamin Hardin, R. Rich, M. Johnson, R. Samuel McKee, n. Alney McLean, R. Stephen Ormsby, R. Solomon P. Sharpe, R. Micah Taul, R. Tennessee. Willie Blount, R. Newton Conner, R. B. H. Henderson, R. Samuel Powell, n. James B. Reynolds, n. isaac Thomas, R. Ohio,
John Alexander, R.
Thomas Clayton, F.
George Bare, F..
Philip B. Barbour, R.
Mississippi Territory. Illinois Territory. William Lattimore, . Ben. Stephenson, R. Indiana Territory. Missouri Territory. Jonathan Jennings, R. Rufus Easton, R.
Democratic Republicans, 242 Total 36. Federal Republicans, 125
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
Democratic Republicans, 1172 Total 182,
THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. DECEMBER 5, 1815. This day at twelve o'clock, the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES transmitted to both Houses of Congress the following Message, by Mr. TODD, his Secretary. Fellow Citizens of the Senate
and of the House of Representatives:
I have the satisfaction, on our present meeting, of being able to communicate to you the successful termination of the war which had been commenced against the United States by the Regency of Algiers. The squadron in advance, on that service, under commodore Decature, lost not a moment after its arrival in the Mediterranean, in seeking the naval force of the enemy, then cruising in that sea, and succeeded in capturing two of his ships, one of them the principal ship, commanded by the Algerine admiral. The high character of the American commander was brilliantly sustained on the occasion, which brought his own ship into close action with that of his adversary, as was the accustomed gallantry of all the officers and men actually engaged. Having prepared the way by this demonstration of American skill and prowess, he hastened to the port of Algiers, where peace was promptly yielded to his victorious force. In the terms stipulated, the rights and honor of the United States were particularly consulted, by a perpetual relinquishment, on the part of the Dey, of all pretensions to tribute from them. The impressions which have thus been made, strengthened as they will have been by subsequent transactions with the regencies of Tunis and Tripoli, by the appearance of the larger force which followed under commodore Bainbridge, the chief in command of the expedition, and by the judi cious precautionary arrangements left by him in that quarter, afford a reasonable prospect of future security, for the valuable portion of our commerce which passes within reach of the Barbary cruisers.
It is another source of satisfaction that the treaty of peace with Great Britain has been succeeded by a convention on the subject of commerce, concluded by the plenipotentiaries of the two countries. In this result a disposition is manifested on the part of that nation, corresponding with the disposition of the United States, which, it may be hoped, will be improved into liberal arrangements on other subjects, on which the parties have mutual interests, or which might endanger their future harmony. Congress will decide on the expediency of promoting such a sequel, by giving effect to the measure of confining the American navigation to American seamen; a measure which, at the same time that it might have that conciliatory tendency, would have the further advantage of increasing the independence of our