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ebony color, except a bright yellow streak round || three or four gatherings; but tlietto first are the middle of its body; it is a fly that I have often the best, and will produce three or four times observed in my childhood and regarded as a most as much colouring matter as the third and fourth dangerous wasp, but it is quite inoffensive, as I crop. have had several in my fingers at different times. The leaves in the large way are carried di. But one however, out of many that I had taken | rectly to the mill, with a stone running on the from the trees came to perfection, though I han- edge resembling the oil or bark mills, where they dled them with the utmost caution, placing them are mashed into a smooth paste: if this process in dirt taken from about the trees, &c. ; but finding is deferred, they would putrify. The paste is they would not survive a removal, I let one re. then laid in heaps, pressed close and smooth, and main at the tree, viewing it daily for nearly two | the blackish crust, which forms on the vutside, weeks, but getting impatient I took it up, and find- reunited if it happens to crack. After laying for ing it nearly in perfection, rolled it in a cotton rag | fifteen days, the heaps are opened, the crust and placed it under a glass tumbler, and in a few rubbed and mixed with the inside: it is then days it came out; this served as a specimen, and formed into balls, which are pressed close and I have caught several since Aying in the heat of | solid; these are dried upon liurdles; they turn the day among the peach trees, lighting on them black on the outside if in the sun, if in a close near the root or little broken places in the bark place yellowish; if the weather is rainy, the first for the purpose of depositing their eggs, which is to be preferred. they perform with a sheath that appears white and The good balls are distinguished by their bevery sharp at the point and what I have taken to ing weighty, of an agreeable smell, and when be their eyes are of an oval form, very small, and rubbed, of a violet colour with in. Woad not of a Yellowish color.

only affords a lasting and substantial blae, which RICHARD MENDENHALL. may be reduced into many different shapes, but Jamestown; N. C. July 24, 1816.

is of great use in dyeing and fixing many other P.S. Since making the above observations, I

colours. have found a description of this Fly in the Me.

In the sinall way the leaves may be pounded in moirs of the Philadelphia Agricultural Society;

a trough or wooden mortar, laid smooth in heaps, but as that Book is not in so general use as could

as above directed; and after laying some days, be wished, I have been advised to offer the above the outside crust rolled with the inside, and made for publication, under a hope that some effectual into small balls, about the size of a coffeee cup, remedy may be discovered.

in any convenient vessel which will bear pressing strongly to mould them in: and if the balls hap

pens to crack before they are thoroughly dry, they CULTURE OF WOAD.

may be rubbed together, moulded over again, and

dried on boards in the sun. Woad and indigo are From the Brunswick Times.

frequently used in conjunction, which makes a Having seen in your paper an extract from the very great saving to the dyers. In dyeing blue Aurora, giving an account of the uses and culti-with these substances, it is usual to mix 400lb. vation of the Woad Plant (or Isatis Tinctoria) as woad, 301b. weld, 2016. madder, 8 or 9lb. lime, a substitute for Indigo, and believing that what-|| and from 10 to 301b. indigo, and a quantity of bran, ever may be found a useful substitute for any fo- || which are put at different times in a wooded vat reign article imported into this country, employ- and digested with a strong heat for several hours, ed in our domestic or family manufactures, tends if after which the substances to be dyed are imnot only to render us independent of foreign mersed in the mixture. nations, but, with some attention, may become Silk, woollen, linen, and cotton are alike dyed sources of wealth to our industrious farmers and with these ingredients, but with some variation citizens, I have annexed herewith some further of the proportions. A solution of woad and inaccount of this valuable plant, which I should be digo in sulphuric acid forms what is called the glad if you will publish for the benefit of my || Saxon blue. For dyeing yarn in the small way, brother farmers ; not doubting, that if generally woad may be used in the sainc suauer as indigo: known with what ease this plant is reared and or a proportion of the ingredients before men. prepared for use, that every lady who is in the rioned may be added: but the best colour will habit of making cotton, linen, and wollen cloths, be produced by using each in the proportion of for private use, would, instead of running to the one ounce indigo to twelve ounces woad; the latshops for indigo, procure a small quantity of the ter gives solidity and substance to the colour, the woad seed and cultivate in her garden a very former brightness. small spot, being sufficient to raise seed enough The woad was once the great staple of Langue. to sow two or three acres. This plant may be dock, is now cultivated generally in France, Spain, sown any time previous to the first of August, | Portugal, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, and in either in the broad cast way, or in the same man- || many parts of England, and in the small way in mier as carrots and parsnips are generally sown, || America. The produce of an acre of ground and its leaves are fit for use the summer follow-| from woad may be estimated to be worth from ing. It is biennial, the lower leaves are of an one to two hundred dollars. oblong oval figure, thick, ending in obtuse round- That the farmers and dyers may make trial of ish points of a lucid green. The stalks rise about the woad, induces this communication. four feet high, dividing into several branches,

A MIDDLESEX FARMER. terminated by small yellow flowers. The time for gathering the crop is about the end of June, or whenever the leaves are fully grown, while

NEWS DIRECT FROM BUENOS AYRES.. they are perfectly green. If the land be good We have seen a manifesto from the Directory and the crop well husbanded, it will produce ll of Buenos-Ayres, announcing the installation of

the National Congress of the provinces Rio de la y ber of Indians, had reached the Fort and comPlata, -&c. in the city of Tucuman, on the 25th menced an attack upon it, (which had continued of April. This grand and portentous event has several days) before the arrival of Col. Clinch's been caused by the good understanding which detachment. The fire was returned by those in now prevails between the governments of Buenos- | the fort, but no injury sustained on either side. Ayres and Monte-Video. The republican armies While Col. Clinch was erecting a battery to play have made great progress in Peru. The royalist on the fort, three of the Gun Boats from New-Orgovernor of Chili has put under arrest in the || lcans arrived below it. In ascending the bay, 7 capital all the principal inhabitants of that part men who had landed from one of these boats were of the country which is still under his command. | attacked by the negroes and six of them killed; It is prohibited to them the handle of arms, even the seventh made his escape by swimming. The a stick. The slightest disobedience is punished Gun Boats having been brought up (by order of with death, without regard to age or sex. But Col. Clinch) opposite the Fort, commenced firing the republican generals of Chili and Buenos-Ayres on it with heavy ordnance. After the proper ele. are at the head of powerful armies, exasperated || vation of the gun had been ascertained by three against their bloody tyrants. Now that the best or four discharges, a hot shot was fired, which peharmony prevails amongst the republican govern.netrating one of the three magazines, containing ments of that part of South America, the most || 100 barrels of powder, created a dreadful explobrilliant results for the cause of freedom will be sion, which our informant supposes must have kilthe consequence,

led more than an hundred the others were tak, It has been reported that a Portuguese force en prisoners, without making further resistance. intended an invasion of Buenos Ay res, by virtue of a

a treaty with Ferdinand of Spain. The repub- || Copy of a letter from Lieutenant Colonel Duncan L. lican general, Artegas, is waiting for them on the Clinch, to his Excellency Goveruor Mitchell, dated frontiers with 30,000 men All the population

“ CAMP CRAWFORD, 4th August, 1816. are under arms-even women. We are positive. “SIR-I have the honor to inform you, that on ly informed that there are whole companies of the 28t: ultimo, the Fort on the Appalachicola in women, furious and enthusiastic, who have volun- East Florida, defended by one hundred Negroes teered on the occasion. The invaders may be. and Choctaws, and containing about two hundred come the invaded.-(N.Y. Columbian.

Women and Children, was completely destroyed. I have the honor to enclose you the names of

the negroes taken and at present in confinement at BANK OF THE U. STATES.

this post, who say they belong to citizens of the Amount of subscriptions to the bank of the Unit- State of Georgia. I have given the chiefs direced States, as it stands at the closing of the books. tions, to have every negro that comes into the na1 Philadelphia,

$ 8,861,000 tion taken and delivered up to the commanding 2 Baltimore,

4,014,100 officer at this post, or at Fort Gaines." 3 Boston, including Portland, 2,605,900 4. Charleston,

2,598,600 5 New-York,

2,001,200

Extract of a letter from a lieutenant of the Ameri6 Richmond,

1,698,700 can navy, attached to the Mediterranean squa7 Washington city,

1,270,000

dron, to his friend in Virginia. 8 Lexington,

958,700

“U. S. Ship Washington, 9 Augusta, 826,300

Gibraltar Bay, July 6, 1816. 10 Providence,

741,900 "I wrote you on the morning of our arrival .11 Middleton, (Con.)

587,300. when I supposed we should not remain here more 12 Wilmington, (Del.)

470,600 than twelve hours; some days, however, have 13 Cincinnati,

470,000 elapsed, and we are still in Gibraltar. The Java 14 New Orleans,

315,000 arrived yesterday, and we are momentarily ex15 Raleigh,

258,300 pecting to see the Constellation and Erie; this I 16 Trenton,

130,200 presume accounts for our delay. 17, Portsmouth,

120,600 "Our minister, Mr. Pinkney, is treated with 18 Nashville,

: 53,600 much attention by the governor, &c. and bas din19 Vermont,

6,300 ed on shore. The English officers seem disposed

on all occasions to be very attentive; and I hope Total, 28,000,000 there is no desire on our part not to reciprocate

the feeling

“The Dutch feet, under admiral Van Capell, From the Georgia Journal of the 14th insi.

consisting of four frigates and one sloop of war, NEWS.

is laying in the bay; he has been off Algiers, It will be seen by the following letter from Col. but failed in the negociation, and is now waiting Clinch to the Executive of this state, that the Fort the arrival of a reinforcement from Holland, when on Appalachicola Bay in East Florida, where the be contemplates a second visit. The Dutch offiruffian Nicolls commanded a motley force of Bri- cers have also been very civil, and profess great tish, Indians and Negroes during the late war, and friendship for the U.States. which has since been occupied by runaway ne- “I was this morning introduced to the above ad. groes and hostile Indiana, was completely destroy- | miral, who appeared to be well acquainted with ed by our troops on the 27th ultimo. Mr. Hughes, my character, as he said, from English accounts. the bearer of Col. Clinch's letter to Gov. Mitchell, He expressed much surprise to find me so young and who accompained the detachment of our a man, saying it was no use for the Americans troops on that expedition, states, that the cele to go to sea to acquire their profession, for it apbrated Chief M'Intosh with a considerable num- | peared to be their birthright

FOREIGX.

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"I should infer, from all I can learn, that a war, 130 feet beam, and 670 tons burthen-Ber engine either with Spain, or some of the Barbary powers, is of 50 horse power. is by no means an improbable event; and that too

DOMESTIC. at no fur distant period.”

There was a deficiency in the subscription to the National Bank of 3 millions, which has been

taken by Stephen Gerard of Philadelphia. The Hager: Town, August 13.

secretary of war has returned to the city. Flour A HUMAN SKELETON

is said to be $18 per barrel in Charleston, S.C. That occupied a space of more than six feet, In Delaware electioneering is carried to great about eighteen inches from the surface of the heighths, and there appears to be a violent strugground, was discovered yesterday morning, bygle for power—there are 17 candidates for go. some men levelling a yard, four miles from this vernor, 20 for members of congress, and 30 for place. Near the spot stood the famous Indian sheriff. A pretty numerous body. fort, erected and commanded by the gallant Col.

Mr. Gallatin our minister to France, arrived at Cresap, upwards of sixty years ago. It is pre- Paris on the 12th July. It was rumoured that ratisumed to be the carcase of a savage who proba- fications of a treaty of commerce between the U. bly fell at an assault upon Castle Cresap, some.

S. and Russia was to be exchanged at Paris. where about the middle of the last century.

'The convention which was to meet at Staunton, to confer on the best means for calling a general

convention for the purpose of effecting an amend. SUMMARY--FOREIGN & DOMESTIC. ment to the constitution of the State of Virginia,

so as to equalize representation in the legislature, England.-Richard Brnisley Sheridan, the great assembled on the 19th inst

. Sixty-five gentlemen orator and dramatist, dicd, in London, on the appeard ; two deputies from a county, except 7th of July last. New dollars are 48. 104d.-Bedford, which sent but one. The lower counLord Liverpool retires from office, it is said fromties did not send any members. The convention ill hсalth. Wellesley and Lord Erskine have is composed of respectable citizens; many of been solicited to join in the new arrangements.com them are public men, and of known abilities. A new work has lately been publislied proving || Gen. Breckenridge, of Botetourt, was called to that De Colme is the author of Junius. An En-| the chair. Three propositions were submitted glish philosopher has discovered an improvement for consideraation : one for a convention of the in music, by which all dissonance, harshness and people, without the interposition of the legislamusical defect are removed. Papers of the 19thiture-another for an address to the legislature to July continue to give assurances of the continua. call one and a third to dispense with a convention of the peace in Europe, and are full of re- tion, on the ground that the object might be atmarks on the distresses of the people of England. ||tained in the senate-without it.

The London papers contain a petition signed A letter received at Newburyport states, that by nineteen thousand cotton manufacturers, in the French Aag was hoisted at Gaudaloupe on ** which they declare their inability to obtain food; || the 25th July, and that American vessels were that except some speedy relief can be devised, || permitted to enter. one common ruin must involve masters and work. The President of the United States has recog.

nized William Dawson, Esq. as Consul to his Bri. Russia. It is rimoured that Russia has declar-tannic Majesty for the State of Maryland. ed war against Prussia-and that the emperor Mr. De Vainais has been recognized by the Alexander has communicated through Puzzi di President of the United States as Consul of the Borghs an autograph letter to the king of France,|| King of France and Navarre for the port of Boston, in which he recommends an equitable commercial systern similar to that adopted in other states, and promises his protection.

We understand the commanding officer in the Françe.-The government of France is arming || Mediterranean fleet has been authorized to noti. for the Bourbons the French funds 6 per cent. fy the Dey of Algiers, that he must acknow, 59 f. Austrian politics give much uneasiness ledge the treaty or expect an immediate war. here. The trial of the conspirators ended on the His refusal, we are informed, will amount to a de7th July.--23 were put to death, 6 acquitted, and claration of hostilities. the remainder, some to be transported, and others to be imprisoned for various periods. Austria. The emperor is pouring troops into

TO CORRESPONDENTS. Italy-the French are much dissatisfied with the Our unknown correspondent at Baton Rouge, distinction with which he treats the young Napo- | Louisiana, may be hereby informed, that we can leon.

never consent to give publicity to any thing of a South America --Gen. Bolivar has sustained a demoralizing tendency. The constitution of the total defeat on his march to Caraccag-his army | American Bible Society we considered proper consisted principally of blacks, about 800.-very for the pages of the Register, because it purports few escaped the general massacre. 17 sail of pa-l to be free from sectarial prejudices, and to unite, triót vessels were lately off the Balize destined by including, the several sects of Christians. against Pensacola.

Whatever may be its effect in operation, we bare Canada.-New-York bank notes are said to be charity to believe-it was dictated by pure and beabout 2 per cent. better than specie in Montreal-nevolent motives. flour $13 per barrel com from $2 to $ 2 50 The communications from “ A Subscriber," at per bushel. The steam boat Car of Commerce, Northampton, N.C. we are pleased with; but the which runs between Montreal and Quebec, is said subject we deem improper for the Register. Poto be a superb vessel. She is 172 feet upon deck, l etry must be admitted but sparingly.

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IMPORTANT:

1

No.%. VOL. 11.) WASHINGTON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 7, 1816. (WHOLE NO.28.

PUBLISHED WEEKLY, BY JOEL K. MEAD, AT FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM.

PREPARATION.

be experienced. We regret exceedingly that

government has paid so little attention to those It is the evident policy of nations to be pre- great objects of national importance-preparapared for war while yet åt peace. This is a policy || tions for defence: we regret it, because it evinces which wisdom would suggest and experience || an indifference to the salutary and wholesome dictate. In examining the history of the world, | lessons which experience inculcates, and goes to it will be found that those nations which have prove, that though, in some degree, a govern. neglected this salutary precaution, have become ment of experiment, it does not seem to benefit the unresisting victims of ambition, or the easy || by the past. Let us suppose that Spain, aided prey of lawless lust of power. In the heroic by Great Britain, should declare war against the ages, the weaker States of Greece were frequent. United States, an event not in the least improbaly subdued and conquered by their neighbours, || ble, and throw 30,000 men into Louisiana, Jack when not prepared for attack and defence; and son might, indeed, call down his hardy mountainin later ages, less warlike, but not less ambitious, eers and hunters, but it would perhaps be too a similar destiny has been experienced by nations late to prevent the capture of Orleans, or the while slumbering in the lap of security, and not expulsion of the enemy. It would then be too anticipating the fate that awaited them. It is late, indeed, to say we ought to have been, but wisdom, even among individuals, to be prepared we were not, prepared for such an eveat; and for unexpected casualities, or for those unavoid government would be justly censured for its inable misfortunes which human foresight cannot difference and neglect. grasp, and human prudence cannot avert; and if We are no advocates for large standing armies; they should not occur, preparation will not be || but we cannot but think the monstrous reduction attended with injury.

of our late army was a measure of precipitancy, Esperience is the best school of wisdom : but at least, which cannot admit of defence. There some nations, like some individuals, seem to be || is, at present, scarcely force enough left to man incapable of benefiting by the knowledge thus | our garrisons; and should they be increased as acquired, and continue to blunder on without they ought to be, a greater force becomes esplan and without system. It was to be presumed, sentially necessary. The apprehensions generally that from the experience acquired during the entertained of standing armies, however just in last war, a different system of conduct would be monarchies, are futile, and perhaps ridiculous, pursued upon the restoration of peace, and that in a republic like this, composed of a union of the enemy would hereafter find us not so unpre- States, each in itself a distinct sovereignty, and pared and defenceless. But we are sorry to say, bound together by mutual interest, and a conthat nothing of moment has yet been done for sciousness of individual weakness. The ambitious the protection of the country. The navy has, in- general who should attempt, at the head of an deed, been inconsiderably augmented, but the sea- || army he migåt have corrupted and stimulated to board is still as defenceless as formerly, and the desperate enterprize, to invade the liberties and ports and harbours of our principal cities are destroy the government of his country, would still unprotected and exposed. Should another have effected only the twentieth part of his diawar immediately break out between this country bolical purpose, should he even succeed in suband Great Britain, we are not one tittle better pre- || duing one of the States; because each State is in pared than we were at the commencement of the itself a power possessing the means of defence last, and should unquestionably have to encoun- and resistance, and capable of contending for its ter the same difficulties and embarrassments we individual rights and liberties. But give a man experienced before. What is the state of Orleans the possession of an army in Europe, and bre in. and the District of Columbia ? Are they more stantly becomes master of the destinics of the secure from invasion than they were prior to the nation to which he belongs. We do not, there. last war? Are they capable of displaying a more | fore, apprehend any injurious or fatal conse. formidable show of resistance than they were? ||quences from the existence of a standing army, We conceive not. Then what would be the con- of reasonable magnitude in this country. The sequence in the event of another war? The expense necessarily accrning from such a military same evils would occur, and the same difficulties Il establishment would, indeed, be an objection; VOL. II.

B

tact.

but when we consider the increased expense, the || for so we may fairly denominate his hiss and his numerous fosses and great embarrassments ex- || rattie, when fairly translated into English, is this:

pericnoed by the want of one when required, this Nature has made us mutual enemies; depart in i ohjection will vanish, and leave us nothing to peace; the world is wide enough for us both: all fear or regret at its existence in time of peace. | that I require is, that you should leave my pre

We have observed, from time to time, that the sence unmolested: approach and touch me, and British are increasing their force on the lakes, || I now forewarn you, that death is in the conand making every preparation for defence and You know my power of inflicting injuries ; annoyance in the event of another war: this, il you know that this tail is not brandished to bid therefore, requires a correspondent vigilance and you welcome; you know my poisons, and be. activity on our part, which should induce us to ware! Now we will suppose that nature had keep pace with the exertions of our neighbours. || implanted the same hostility between two indivia We would then humbly suggest the propriety of duals of the same species; of the human species, increasing our naval and military force, at least for instance; we will suppose that two individuto such a degree as to make it an object of se-l als, so abhorrent to each other, should accidentcurity and protection; of augmenting the number ally meet, and one should use to the other this of our forts; of erecting at least one steam bat. dialect, which Divine Providence has taught the tery in every harbour of the United States ac- rattle snake to utter with such emphasis. Would cessible to an enemy; and of protecting and de- not this man be thought a generous, humane, and fending the sea-board from Maine to Louisiana. heroic enemy; one that scorned to circumvent

These suggestions we throw out merely to call his enemy by fraud and deception; one who gave tiic atteption of government to the subject, that || him fair warning of his danger; one who was the necessity of what we have urged may not es-- averse to the shedding of human blood; one who cape them, and that proper measures of defence would only strike in self-defence? We will ask, and protection may, while we have the power, if mankind whom fortune, and not nature, have be adopted.

made enemies, do even now show to each other the generous hostility of the rattle snake? No;

they employ all their means, not to put an enemy For the National Register.

upon his guard, but to fight when he is unguard. MAN'S AVERSION TO SERPENTS.

ed. They steal upon the slumbers of each other, There is nothing, in all animated nature, more and they watch for the hour of vengeance, the curious than the mutual horror subsisting be. season dedicated to repose, to silence, and the tween the human and the serpentine species. | refreshment of exhausted nature. Strange as the Many animals are far more formidable to man fact may appear, it is literally true, that the most than the serpent; more capable of inflicting dead-deadly enemy to man, of all the enemies of man, ly injuries; more venemous, and more prone to is a hero in his mode of warfarehe disdains deexercise their power of doing mischief: but none, || ception; he never strikes without sounding an ‘notwithstanding, are held in such execration alarm; he inflicts a wound at last with reluctance, and abhorrence. Let us make this principle more and, although unconsciously, he practises on a plain by a familiar instance: of all four-footed | principle recognized in the books of English animals, the tiger is the most sanguinary and fe- cormon law, which is, that it is lawful to shed rocious: other quadrupeds show mercy when the blood in self-defence. A rattle snake, if he was rage of hunger has abated-he, none; he delights indicted for murder, could produce precedents in the infiction of pain, and ravages because in abundance, from English law books, to prove carnage constitutes his enjoyment. In the com- that he had only committed justifiable homicide. pany of this four-footed ruffian, we expect no He could eal to the pages of English juris. mercy. Now, of the two animals, a rattle-snake prudence to show that it was lawful to shed blood and a tiger, which is the most deadly foe to man: || in self-defence; he could show that he had shed The former is sluggish and inert, and never blood only in self-defence; he could show that strikes before he sounds, as a warning, his death not one of his species, from the time of creation denouncing rattle; if his assailant still approach-|| down to the present day, ever inflicted murder es, his tail vibrates with more fury; the warnings on man. With all his hereditary hate to our are given louder and more impetuous; but he species, he could show that he never yet, in the still delays the blow, until his enemy comes with course of all his hostility, ever employed artiin the reach of his bound; which is never morefice; he could show that all was plain, downright,

an the length of his body. He acts exclusively open, undisguised, honest hostility; he could on the defensive, and his serpentine phrascology, I show that he was not such an enemy to the hu.

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