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The Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, within the limits determined by the act annexed to the treaties of the 19th of April, 1839, under the guarantee of the courts of Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, and Russia, shall henceforth form a perpetually neutral state.
It shall be bound to observe the same neutrality towards all other states.
The high contracting parties engage to respect the principle of neutrality stipulated by the present article.
That principle is and remains placed under the sanction of the collective guarantee of the powers signing parties to the present treaty, with the exception of Belgium, which is itself a neutral state.
ARTICLE 3. The Grand Duchy of Luxemburg being neutralized, according to the terms of the preceding article, the maintenance or establishment of fortresses upon its territory becomes without necessity as well as without object.
In consequence, it is agreed by common consent that the city of Luxemburg, considered in time past, in a military point of view, as a federal fortress, shall cease to be a fortified city.
His majesty the King Grand Duke reserves to himself to maintain in that city the number of troops necessary to provide in it for the maintenance of good order.
ARTICLE 4. In conformity with the stipulations contained in articles 2 and 3, his majesty the King of Prussia declares that his troops actually in garrison in the fortress of Luxemburg shall receive orders to proceed to the evacuation of that place immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty. The withdrawal of the artillery, munitions, and every object which forms part of the equipment of the said fortress shall commence simultaneously. During that operation there shall remain in it no more than the number of troops necessary to provide for the safety of the material of war, and to effect the dispatch thereof, which shall be completed within the shortest time possible.
ARTICLE 5. His majesty the King Grand Duke, in virtue of the rights of sovereignty which he exercises over the city and fortress of Luxemburg, engages, on his part, to take the necessary measures for converting the said fortress into an open city by means of a demolition which his majesty shall deem sufficient to fulfil the intentions of the high contracting parties expressed in article 3 of the present treaty. The works requisite for that purpose shall be commenced immediately after the withdrawal of the garrison. They shall be carried out with all the attention required for the interests of the inhabitants of the city.
His majesty the King Grand Duke promises, moreover, that the fortifications of the city of Luxemburg shall not be restored in future, and that no military establishment shall be there maintained or created.
The powers signing parties to the present treaty recognize that the dissolution of the Germanic Confederation having equally produced the dissolution of the ties which united the Duchy of Limburg, collectively with the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, to the said confederation, it results therefrom that the relations, of which mention is made in articles 3, 4, and 5 of the treaty of the 19th of April, 1839, between the Grand Duchy and certain territories belonging to the Duchy of Limburg, have ceased to exist, the said territories continuing to form an integral part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
ARTICLE 7. The present treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at London within the space of four weeks, or sooner if possible.
In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.
Done at London, the eleventh day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven.
For GREAT BRITAIN: (L. S.) STANLEY
(L. S.) VAN DE WEYER
(L. S.) LA TOUR D'AUVERGNE ITALY:
(L. S.) D'AZEGLIO NETHERLANDS : (L. S.) BENTINCK
(L. S.) TORNACO
(L. S.) E. SERVAIS PRUSSIA :
(L. s.) BERNSTORFF Russia:
TREATY BETWEEN ARGENTINE REPUBLIC AND CHILE, ESTABLISHING THE
NEUTRALITY OF STRAITS OF MAGELLAN.
Signed July 23, 1881.
In the name of Almighty God! The governments of the Chilean and Argentine Republics, wishing to solve in a friendly and dignified spirit the boundary question which has existed between the two countries, and in fulfilment of article 39 of the treaty of April, 1856, have resolved to conclude a boundary treaty, and for that purpose have named two plenipotentiaries, namely:
By his Excellency the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Francisco B. de Echeverria, consul-general for that Republic; and
By His Excellency the President of the Argentine Republic, Dr. Don Bernardo de Irigoyen, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs;
Who, after exhibiting their full powers, and finding them sufficient, have agreed to the following articles:
ARTICLE 1. The limit between Chile and the Argentine Republic is the Cordillera of the Andes from the north to latitude 52° south. The frontier-line shall follow the crest of the Cordillera, which divides the waters, and will pass between the sources thereof on either side. Any doubts due to the existence of valleys formed by the forking of the Andes, where the line dividing the waters is not clearly determined, shall be amicably settled by two experts, one named by either side. In case of disagreement a third expert, named by both, shall be called upon to decide. A copy, in duplicate, embodying their operations, shall be signed by the two experts, and by the third in those cases where his decision has been called for. This act shall take full effect from the time it is written, and shall be considered valid and binding without further formality or procedure. A copy shall be forwarded to each government.
ARTICLE 2. In the south part of the continent, and to the north of the Straits of Magellan, the limit between the two countries shall be a line leaving Dungeness Point, passing overland westward by the highest points of the chain of hills to the summit of Mount Aymond. Thence the line will continue to the intersection of the meridian 70° west (Greenwich) with 52° south latitude, and thence westward along that parallel as far as the divortia aquarum of the Andes. The territory north of the above line shall belong to the Argentine Republic, and south to Chile, without prejudice to the dispositions of article 3 relative to Tierra del Fuego and the adjacent islands.
ARTICLE 3. Tierra del Fuego is divided by a line starting from Cape Espiritu Santo at latitude 52° 40' south, and following longitude 68° 34' west (Greenwich) to Beagle Channel. Divided thus, Tierra del Fuego is Chilean to the west and Argentine to the east. In regard to the other islands, Isla de los Estados belongs to the Argentine Republic, with the islets next it, and the other islands in the Atlantic and east of Tierra del Fuego and the coasts of Patagonia; while to Chile belong all the islands south of Beagle Channel down to Cape Horn, and those west of Tierra del Fuego.
ARTICLE 4. The experts referred to in article 1 shall fix the lines indicated in the two preceding articles, and shall proceed in the same manner as therein described.
ARTICLE 5. Magellan's Straits are neutralized for ever, and free navigation is guaranteed to the flags of all nations. To insure this liberty and neutrality no fortifications or military defences shall be erected that could interfere with this object.
ARTICLE 6. The governments of the Chilean and Argentine Republics shall exercise full dominion for ever over the territories respectively assigned to them by the present arrangement. Any question unfortunately arising between the two countries, whether relative to this transaction or from any other cause, shall be submitted to the decision of a friendly power; the boundary limits of the present arrangement remaining unchangeable in any case.
ARTICLE 7. The ratifications of this treaty shall be exchanged within 60 days, or sooner if possible, and the exchange shall take place either in the city of Buenos Ayres or in that of Santiago de Chile.
In faith of which the plenipotentiaries of the Chilean and Argentine Republics have signed and sealed the present treaty, in duplicate, with their respective seals, in the city of Buenos Ayres, on the 23rd day of July, in the year of Our Lord 1881.
(L. S.) FRANCISCO B. DE ECHEVERRIA. (L. S.) BERNADO DE IRIGOYEN.
CONVENTION RESPECTING THE FREE NAVIGATION OF THE SUEZ MARITIME
Signed at Constantinople, October 29, 1888. In the Name of Almighty God, her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India; His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, King of Prussia; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic King of Hungary; His Majesty the King of Spain, and in his name the Queen Regent of the Kingdom; the President of the French Republic; His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxemburg, etc. ; His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias; and His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans; wishing to establish, by a Conventional Act, a definite system destined to guarantee at all times, and for all the powers, the free use of the Suez Maritime Canal, and thus to complete the system under which the navigation of this canal has been placed by the Firman of His Imperial Majesty the Sultan, dated the 22nd February, 1866 (2 Zilkádé, 1282), and sanctioning the concessions of His Highness the Khedive, have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say :
(Here follow the names.) Who, having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following articles:
ARTICLE 1. The Suez Maritime Canal shall always be free and open, in time of war as in time of peace, to every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag.
Consequently, the high contracting parties agree not in any way to interfere with the free use of the canal, in time of war as in time of peace.
The canal shall never be subjected to the exercise of the right of blockade.
ARTICLE 2. The high contracting parties, recognizing that the FreshWater Canal is indispensable to the Maritime Canal, take note of the engagements of His Highness the Khedive towards the Universal Suez Canal Company as regards the Fresh-Water Canal; which engagements are stipulated in a convention bearing date the 18th March, 1863, containing an er posé and four articles. They undertake not to interfere in any way with the sec
ecurity of that