History of Europe: From the Fall of Napoleon, in 1815, to the Accession of Louis Napoleon, in 1852, Volume 4

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W. Blackwood and sons, 1855 - Europe
 

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Contents

Pernicious effects of the potato
10
Want of poorlaws
12
Absentee proprietors 13 Ribbonmen and secret societies 14 Orange lodges
14
Irregularity and uncertainty in the administration of justice
15
Intimidation of juries and witnesses
16
Catholic emancipation the only remedy proposed by English Liberals and Irish malcontents
17
Effects of that measure
18
Disturbed state of Ireland in 1823 and prosecutions for the riot in the Dublin theatre
19
Disturbed state of the country
20
Renewal of the Insurrection Act and composition for tithes
21
Debates on Irish corruption and Catholic emancipation
22
Improvement of the country in 1824
24
Beneficial working of the TitheComposition Bill
25
Rise of the Catholic Association
26
Real objects of the Association
27
Roman Catholic question in reference to England
28
Parliamentary Reform Alien Bill and reversal of Scottish attainders
29
Reflections on the Alien Act
30
Act for uniformity of weights and measures
32
VOL IV
33
The bill is carried and immediately evaded
40
Gloomy prospects of the nation in the beginning of 1826
48
The bill is carried by a large majority in both Houses
56
molcontents
58
30
60
What should have been done with the currency
62
Commencement of the emigration question
68
Discussion on particular boroughsAppleby
74
Division on the question and interim admission of foreign grain
79
Bill thrown out by a majority of fortyone
81
Kings message regarding Portugal
84
How this had come to pass
85
5053 Mr Cannings speech on the subject in the House of Commons 8688
86
Vast effect of this speech and the expedition sets out for Lisbon
89
Reflections on this point
90
Improved state of the country in the beginning of 1827
91
Death of the Duke of York
92
5859 His character
93
Illness and retirement of Lord Liverpool
95
Difficulty in the choice of his successor and Mr Cannings appointment
97
What made his Tory colleagues resign?
98
Composition of the new Cabinet
99
Importance of these events on Englands future history
100
Manner in which the changes were received in Parliament
101
Character of Lord Eldon who now retired from public life
102
His character as a statesman
103
The Catholic Bill is rejected
104
7276 Mr Peels speech against Catholic emancipation 105108
105
7778 Ministerial measure on the Corn Laws 108109
108
Result of the debate in the Commons and Lords
110
Important and curious things occurring in the course of the debate
111
Finances of 182618271828
112
Other proceedings in Parliamentsilkweavers shipowners
114
Proud position of Mr Canning
116
His susceptible disposition and increasing illness ib 86 His last illness and death
117
Reflections on this event
118
Had he lived he would have disappointed their expectations
119
Review of his last acts
120
His character as a statesman and orator
121
Lord Goderich made premier and reconstruction of the Cabinet
122
Weakness of the new Cabinet and its cause ib 93 Impolitic reduction of the yeomapry
123
Dissolution of the Goderich Cabinet
124
The Duke of Wellington appointed premier and his Cabinet
125
Reconstruction of the Cabinet by Wellington
127
Notice of the battle of Navarino in the Kings speech
128
Finance Committee and Catholic question
129
Cornlaw Bill
130
Bill for the suppression of small notes
131
Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts
133
104106 Argument for the repeal 134135
134
107108 Answer of Ministers 136138
136
The bill is carried in both Houses
138
Division on the question and violent resistance to the bill in the country 173
148
His violent language and ingratitude
154
Effects of these changes on the population and Catholics of Ireland
170
Page
172
His good qualities
183
Unworthy spirit in which emancipation was received by the Roman
196
CHAPTER XXII
200
Great effect of the entire suppression of small notes in March 1829
207
Preparations and conference of Austria Prussia and Russia
211
The expedition to Terceira
213
Meeting of Parliament
219
Sir James Grahams motion for a reduction of the salaries of public officers
227
Reflections on the abandonment of the Sinking Fund
237
Which was occasioned by the contraction of the currency
239
Which also produced the cry for Reform
240
Disinclination of the Whigs generally to parliamentary reform
241
session of 1830
243
Various motions on parliamentary reform made in Parliament during the 44 Rise of the political unions and their great influence
244
Illness and death of George IV
245
Character of George IV variously given by opposite parties
246
Great events of his reign ib 48 His remarkable talents
247
His failings and vices
248
And failings
250
His personal character and Queen
251
Precarious condition of Ministers after the accession of William IV ib 54 Debate on the question of a Regency in the event of the Kings death
252
Prosecution of the press and West India Question ib 56 Prorogation and dissolution of Parliament and French Revolution
253
Result of the elections favourable to the Liberals
255
Distracted state of Ireland and entire failure of emancipation to pacify it
256
Successive efforts of the agitators and their influence on the elections
257
Opening of the Manchester and Liverpool Railway ib 61 And death of Mr Huskisson
258
Reflections on the railway system and its rapid growth
259
Its vast and lasting monetary effects
260
And moral and political effects ib 65 Political effects of the railway system
261
Its evils and dangers in the undue sway of the capital
262
Its political effects
263
Military results of the railway system 26
264
Disturbances and incendiarism in the southern counties
265
Kings speech
266
Lord Greys declaration on reform
267
Duke of Wellingtons famous speech against any reform
268
Immense effect produced by this declaration
269
Mr Broughams plan of reform
270
Postponement of the Kings visit to the City
271
General consternation on the occasion
272
Speech of Mr Brougham on the occasion
273
CHAPTER XXIII
275
23 Causes which rendered the change so decisive
276
What had set these causes in motion
277
What made the Dukes declaration against Reform so important
278
The difficulty in forming the new Ministry fixes Mr Broughams claims
279
Character of Earl Grey
280
His character as an orator and in private
281
His defects and errors but noble use of power when acquired
282
He was misled by others as to the effect of the Reform Bill ib 11 Character of Lord Brougham
283
His merits as a Judge
284
His character as a statesman
285
His style of oratory
286
his European reputation
287
His versatile talents and character
288
His character as a diplomatist and orator ib 18 His errors
289
Lord John Russell
290
His intrepidity and selfconfidence 231
292
his administrative powers
293
His inconsistencies il
294
Distracted state of England during the winter
295
Agitation and increased misery in Ireland
296
Agitation for the repeal of the Union and prosecution of Mr OConnell who is allowed to escape
298
The budget which is defeated
300
How it was that Catholic emancipation failed
301
Description of taxes to be taken off and put on ib 30 Committee on the Reform Bill
302
Feeling and petitions of the country
303
Introduction of the Reform Bill by Lord John Russell
304
3341 Argument of the Ministers in favour of the bill 305310
305
Ministerial plan of reform
311
4344 Qualification of voters The 10 clause
313
Plan as to Scotland and Ireland
314
Astonishment in the House at the bill
315
4753 Argument against the bill 316322
316
Clear division of Conservatives and Reformers which ensued in the country
323
Agitation in the country
324
Courageous petition from the merchants and bankers of London against the bill
325
Second reading of the bill carried by a majority of one
326
General Gascoignes motion is carried against Government by eight
328
Dangers on both sides in ulterior measures ib 60 Liberal settlement on the Royal Family
329
Efforts made to won the King by his vanity
330
Means by which the King was induced to dissolve Parliament
331
How the Kings resistance is overcome
332
Violent scene in the House of Commons
333
Scene in the House of Peers when the King dissolved Parliament
334
Violence at the elections
335
Dreadful riots in Scotland
336
Its beneficial effects on the English government
340
Frightful disorders
354
The new Reform Bill introduced
360
Dreadful tithe outrages in Wexford and Newtonbarry
366
The King sends for the Duke of Wellington to form a ministry
372
Reflections on this event and on the act
378
Emancipation has brought a righteous retribution to both parties 193
379
General results of the Reform Bill on the Imperial Parliament
382
Way in which the monied classes had got the command of the pro ducing 422 164 Enormous sums spent by working classes in Great Britain on drink
423
Is this the result of a general law of nature? ib 166 Great political truth evolved by the Reform Bill
424
Its exemplification in France and England ib 168 Great law of nature on the subject
425
Which is intended to limit population in the later stages of society
426
CHAPTER XXIV
427
The real evils of society are not so certainly removed by these convulsions
428
Prosperity of the bourgeois class ib 4 The interests of the bourgeoisie were adverse to those of labour
429
Effect of the spread of machinery steam and railways
430
Increased strength of the Government
431
Dangers to which this led il
432
their chances
433
their chances
434
The Duke of Orléans remains in retirement
435
Arguments for and against the Dukes being called to the crown
436
Important conversation between the Baron de Glandevès and Lafitte ib 14 Project of giving the lieutenancygeneral to the Duke of Orléans and the cr...
437
First placards in the Orléans interest
438
Situation of the Duke of Orléans
439
Irresolute conduct of the Duke of Orléans
440
Meetings of the Deputies and Peers
441
Meeting at the Chamber of Peers
442
Reunion of the Republicans at Lointiers
443
Continued indecision at the Hôtel de Ville
444
Easy defeat of the Napoleonists
446
Arrival of the Duke of Orléans at Paris and his interview with M de Mortemart
447
The Duke accepts the lieutenancygeneral of the kingdom
448
Guizots proclamation of the principles of the Government
449
Visit of the Duke of Orléans to the Hôtel de Ville
451
Reflections on this interview
453
Efforts of the Orléanists to popularise the new dynasty ib 33 Conversation between the Duke of Orléans and the Republicans
454
3439 Noble speech of Chateaubriand 455459
455
Chateaubriand refuses the portfolio of foreign affairs
460
Acceptance of the crown by Louis Philippe
461
Speeches on the occasion of his accepting the constitution
462
Changes in the constitution of the Revolution
463
Peers who resigned and Ministers who were appointed
464
Grievous distress in Paris
465
Reception of the Revolution at Lyons Bordeaux and in the provinces
466
Recognition of Louis Philippe by the English Government
467
Manner in which he is received by the Continental sovereigns
468
His recognition by the cabinet of Vienna
470
opposite views of it
471
Explanation of its seeming contradictions
472
Features good and bad of his character ib 54 Vicissitudes of his life and impress they had affixed to his character 73
474
Dissensions in the Council and violence of the National Guard deputa tion
475
Suspicious death and testament of the Duke de Bourbon
476
the Duke dAumale
477
Injurious reports spread abroad by the bequest of the Dukes property to 59 Attitude of M de Lafayette and its dangers
478
Disturbances in Paris ib 61 First legislative measures of the new Government
479
Discussion on the Electoral Law 63 First financial measures of the new Government
480
Proceedings against the popular societies 65 Speech of the Minister of the Interior on the subject
481
Attempt to revolutionise Spain from Paris
482
Which is secretly favoured by Louis Philippe and his Ministers 68 The enterprise is undertaken and fails
483
State of Belgium and its dispositions
485
Causes of discord among the inhabitants
486
Revolutionary party in Belgium and its great increase by the events in Paris in July
487
Commencement of the revolution ib 73 Progress of the insurrection
488
Negotiations of the insurgents with the King
489
Demands of the leaders of the revolution
490
Speech of the King on opening the Chambers
491
The army is directed by the King and Chambers on Brussele
492
Prince Frederick attacks Brussels
493
The Dutch troops are in the end defeated and retire to Antwerp ib 80 The insurrection extends generally and the separation of Belgium and Holland i...
495
State of political feeling in Germany
496
Disturbances in AixlaChapelle and Cologne
497
In Dresden Leipsic and Brunswick
498
And in Brunswick
499
Political contests in Switzerland ib 87 Convulsions in Italy
501
Change in the order of succession in Spain ib 89 Its motives and political objects
502
Promulgation of the decree
503
Resumé of the influence of the Revolution in France over Europe
504
CHAPTER XXV
506
Cabinet divisions and fall of the Ministry
507
Commencement of the trial of the late Ministers
508
Conduct of the accused before the trial
509
Disturbed state of Paris before this
510
Commencement of the trial
511
Dissolution of the Administration
512
Formation of M Lafittes ministry
514
Lafittes statement of the principles of his ministry
515
Progress of the trial of the exministers
516
Arguments of M Sauzet for the accused ib 12 Condemnation and punishment of the accused
518
Disaffection of the National Guard and the misery of the capital
519
Demands of Lafayette
521
Changes in the Cabinet
522
Effects of reform in inducing Free Trade
523
Great additional expenditure for the army and its forces
524
Competition for the crown of Belgium and its final separation from Hol land
525
Crown of Belgium offered to Duke de Nemours
526
Protocol Jan 20 1831 fixing limits of Holland and Belgium
527
Views in London and Paris on Louis Philippes refusal ib 24 Weak and distracted state of Belgium
528
Perilous state of Italy
529
Insurrections in Bologna Modena Reggio and Parma
530
Intervention of Austria in Italy
532
Entry of the Austrians into Bologna and suppression of the insurrection ib 29 Affairs of Germany and precautionary measures there
533
Defensive measures in Austria
534
State of feeling in Prussia
535
Great fermentation in the lesser states of Germany
536
Troubles in Saxony and HesseCassel
538
Violence of parties and misery in Paris
539
Alarming budget of 1831 and its effects
541
Universal indignation it excited
542
Deplorable situation of commerce and credit
543
General indignation of the democrats
544
Extravagant ideas generally afloat in society at this time ib 41 State of corruption into which the system of centralisation had sunk France
546
Moral statistics of Paris at this period ib 43 Tumult in the church of St Germain lAuxerrois
547
Sack of the church
548
Sack of Archbishops palace at Nôtre Dame
549
Attacks on individuals and deplorable weakness of Government
550
Fall of Lafitte and appointment of Casimir Périer in his stead
551
Views of parties on this change of Ministry
552
Change in the Electoral Law
553
Proscription of the elder branch of the Bourbons
554
Violent opposition of the liberal journals to Casimir Périer and forma tion of the National Association
555
Casimir Périers speech on the principles of his government ib 53 Continued in reference to foreign affairs
556
Louis Philippes efforts to conciliate the electors
557
Disturbances in Paris
558
The Kings progresses into Normandy and Champagne
559
Unfavourable issue of the elections for the Crown
560
Kings speech
561
Defeat of the Government on the choice of President and VicePresident ib 60 Affairs of Holland and Flanders
562
What the London congress should have done
563
Views of Talleyrand and Lord Palmerston
564
Reasons which led them to support the Belgians
565
Leopold of SaxeCobourg elected King of Belgium ib 65 Change which this election made on the views of Holland and Belgium
566
Change in the policy of Great Britain regarding Belgium
567
Change in the language of England and France regarding Luxembourg
568
Progress of the negotiation and secret treaty of France and England
569
The five powers deviate from the Act of Separation and the King of Hol land declares war
570
Commencement of hostilities and position and forces on the two sides
571
Total defeat of the Belgians 572 72 Intervention of the French army in Flanders
573
Armistice and withdrawal of the French troops 74 Renewed conferences and reasons which made the northern powers acquiesce in them
574
Great advantages gained by Holland by this irruption
575
Forcible intervention of the French at Lisbon
576
The French compel the submission of the Portuguese government
577
Vehement excitement in Paris from these events
578
7981 Argument of the Opposition on foreign affairs 579581
579
8284 Answer of Ministers 581583
580
Violent scene in the Chamber on the debate on Poland
584
The Lower House pass the bill by a great majority
598
Increased vigour and capacity this gives to the higher branches of
604
Sin of Europe in the partition of Poland
610
This prosperity increased the passion for independence
616
Appointment of a provisional government
622
His views in regard to the revolution
628
Secret views of Austria and France at this juncture
632
Chlopickis vain efforts to bring about an accommodation
642
Strategetical advantages of the Poles
648
Parallel of Grochow and Sieroczyn with Inkermann and Balaklava
655
Skrzyneckis brilliant success in the centre
661
Bad success of Sierawiki on the right
667
Battle of Ostrolenka
673
Death of Diebitch and the Grandduke Constantine
675
Suspension of hostilities of the two armies and appointment of Paskiewitch to the command
676
Insurrection in Lithuania and final defeat of Gielgud
677
Battle of Wilna and defeat of the Poles
678
Desperate state of the Poles and plan of Paskiewitch
679
Paskiewitchs plans and forces and preparations of the Poles
680
Paskiewitch crosses the Vistula
681
Fall of Skrzynecki who is succeeded by Dembinski
682
Massacres in Warsaw
683
Preparations and forces on both sides for the final struggle
684
Victory of Ramorino over Rosen and Golowin ib 89 Assault of Warsaw
685
Vain attempt at negotiation
686
Fall of Warsaw
687
The remainder of the Polish troops take refuge in Austria and Prussia
688
Kesults of the war to both parties
689
Conduct of Nicholas in Poland after the war and in the cholera 95 Reflections on the fall of Poland
690
Excess of democracy in Poland ruined everything
691
Unity of the East is its strength divisions of the West its weakness
692
Restoration of Poland essential to independence of Europe
693

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Page 228 - Ye friends to truth, ye statesmen who survey The rich man's joys increase, the poor's decay, 'Tis yours to judge how wide the limits stand Between a splendid and a happy land.
Page 87 - I dread it, indeed — but upon far other grounds: I dread it from an apprehension of the tremendous consequences which might arise from any hostilities in which we might now be engaged. Some years ago, in the discussion of the negotiations respecting the French war against Spain, I took the liberty of adverting to this topic.
Page 306 - Parliament in 1265 two knights from each county, two citizens from each city, and two burgesses from each borough. To...
Page 527 - CXVII, inclusive, of the General Act of the Congress of Vienna, relative to the Free Navigation of navigable Rivers, shall be applied to those navigable Rivers which separate the Belgian and the Dutch territories, or which traverse them both.
Page 376 - The King grants permission to Earl Grey, and to his Chancellor, Lord Brougham, to create such a number of peers as will be sufficient to ensure the passing of the Reform Bill, first calling peers' eldest sons. — Signed, WILLIAM R., Windsor, May 17, 1832.
Page 88 - ... source of confidence and security; but in the situation in which this country stands, our business is not to seek opportunities of displaying it, but to content ourselves with letting the professors of violent and exaggerated doctrines on both sides feel, that it is not their interest to convert an umpire into an adversary. The situation of England, amidst the struggle of political opinions which agitates more or less sensibly different countries of the world, may be compared to that of the Ruler...
Page 158 - Constitution; which keeps alive discord and ill-will amongst His Majesty's Subjects; and which must, if permitted to continue, effectually obstruct every effort, permanently to improve the condition of Ireland. His Majesty confidently relies on the wisdom and on the support of His Parliament ; and His Majesty feels assured, that you will commit...
Page 266 - Statesgeneral should have led to no satisfactory result. I am endeavouring, in concert with my Allies, to devise such means of restoring tranquillity as may be compatible with the welfare and good government of the Netherlands, and with the future security of other states.
Page 128 - ... Notwithstanding the valour displayed by the combined fleet, His Majesty deeply laments that this conflict should have occurred with the naval force of an ancient ally ; but he still entertains a confident hope that this untoward event will not be followed by further hostilities, and will not impede that amicable adjustment of the existing differences between the Porte and the Greeks, to which it is so manifestly their common interest to accede.
Page 333 - Yes, sir," said the Chancellor, 'I do know it; and nothing but my thorough knowledge of your Majesty's goodness, of your paternal anxiety for the good of your people, and my own solemn belief that the safety of the state depends upon this day's proceedings, could have emboldened me to the performance of so unusual, and, in ordinary circumstances, so improper a proceeding. In all humility...

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