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ceivably large number of cases, we should determine that the chance of this horned quadruped being ruminant is inconceivably great. But a probability inconceivably great still is not certainty; and those whom Mr. Bailey admits to be of sound sense must confound the two, as is not unlikely with those unused to the considerations of infinitely great and infinitely small quantities, so familiar to mathematicians. But we think our author's statement of the real argument' is incorrect, and that men really mean

All horned quadrupeds are ruminant;

Therefore this horned quadruped is ruminant.'

From the exceeding number of cases observed, they have judged (albeit they had no right so to judge) that the general principle is true -all horned quadrupeds are ruminant; and then forgetting, or not knowing, that the general principle is but one of extreme probability, they receive it as a truth, and then apply it to the particular instance. Men do, in fact, believe that all the horned quadrupeds on the face of the earth-those observed and those not observed-are ruminant: this, then, is their major premise.

If we are to accept Mr. Bailey's 'real argument,' we must receive it for all cases, and should a man put his hand into an urn, and draw out two white balls, it is perfectly correct for him to say,

'All other drawn balls have been white;

Therefore this ball, when drawn, will be found white,'

which would ill accord with the theory of probability. But should Mr. Bailey urge that the number of cases must be very great, we would ask him—What is very great?-how many cases does it include? Take an example :-Imagine a tribe of negroes, who had never come into contact with white men, yet had seen many tribes of black men. Surely, a negro in these circumstances may have seen a very great number of individual men, but they have all been black : if Mr. Bailey's theory be true, he ought to argue, when told that a foreigner had arrived in the neighbourhood—

'All other men, as far as my observation extends, are black;
Therefore this man is black'-

but the foreigner might be an Englishman. Yet, if the negro has a right so to argue, the argument must be just-the inference must be true-the Englishman must be black, and the negro, on seeing him white, ought to doubt the testimony of his senses.

If the ordinary theory be true, the conclusion to be drawn is, this man is most probably black; that is, the negro ought to be very much astonished on finding him white, and doubtless he would be not a little surprised.

Yet the negro, from his many observations of mankind, might judge all men are black; and, taking this as his major premise, might fairly, legitimately, conclude this man is black. Yet the result will show

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that his judgment* was false. He did not rightly discern betweeu certainty and a high probability.

Mr. Bailey's theory of reasoning appears to be, that no theory is required; that every man can reason, if you will only leave him free to do so; and that he will reason rightly if he looks carefully at his subject; therefore he needs no logic in order to reason. This may be plausible, but has been often refuted. It is true to some extent, just as it is true that a man can see who has never studied optics, or can breathe without having studied physiology. If the object of syllogistic rules were to help man to reason, this perhaps might have weight; but as we consider science the analysis of laws, and as we analyse the laws by which we see, and call the science optics-or the laws by which we live and move, and call the science physiology, so may we analyse the laws of thought, and call the science logic. The argument of our author, that logicians never reason by syllogism, but discard it in all their reasonings, has about as much weight in it, as if it should be urged by an objector that the optician never sees by optical laws. If the optical laws be true, he does not, indeed, recognise them every time he uses his eyes, but he does in reality see by them. So, if logical laws be a true analysis of thought, the logician does not formally recognise them every time he reasons; but he does, indeed, reason by them-and not only the logician, but every man who reasons at all. If it be argued (as by Mr. Bailey), that the rules of the scholastic logic are complicated and cumbrous; instead of inveighing against all logical science, the true way would be to improve the science by destroying its complications. Much has been done of late in this direction by the master spirit of Sir William Hamilton. He has reduced the whole of the laws of the schoolmen to one single canon; and this canon should not have been ignored, and the whole system of laws of former days have been held up as the only possible formal logic.†

We must disclaim being shut up to the dilemma in which the volume before us would involve logicians, of receiving one of these views of the employment of syllogism, either as a method of arguing which is to be commonly adopted,' or as a form into which any arguments may be thrown for the purpose of testing their validity.


We con

* Mr. Bailey appears to us not to distinguish between a judgment and an inference; or at all events sometimes to confound them.

† Whilst mentioning the canon of Sir Wm. Hamilton, viz.: What worse rela'tion of subject and predicate subsists between either of two terms and a common 'third term, with which both are related-and one at least positively so-that rela⚫tion subsists between these two terms themselves,' we may remark that it appears to us the canon will require some modification, as we cannot see that it will include the case-All X's are all Y's; all Y's are all Z's: therefore all X's are all Z's; for here there is no worse relation at all. Yet surely the following is a valid syllogism :—

All equilateral triangles are all equiangular triangles;

All equiangular triangles are all triangles having two or more angles of 60°; Therefore, all equilateral triangles are all triangles having two or more angles of 60°.

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tend, on the contrary, that no man can reason without, in his thought, employing syllogism in all its principles; and, though he does not, and is not required to, have the analysis of the form of his thoughts before him, or to express the whole of his process of thought in speech, yet he reasons by syllogism. It is neither a peculiar method of arguing (as has oftentimes been shown), either to be adopted or rejected; it is the method of arguing. Neither is it a particular form into which any argument may be thrown-it is the form in which all argument is found. As such, it is a fair object for scientific investigation.

But at the end of his book Mr. Bailey startles us by an attempt to prove, not only that our logical science is useless, but that its study is highly pernicious; and the fallacy of his argument may be shown, from the parallel which he draws with the rules of Latin prosody. Doubtless he would have studied prosody to small advantage, who should attempt to make Latin verses without regarding the sense, or the poetic perception of figures and of melody; but would not all wellinstructed men say that he had abused his knowledge? and that he, not the prosody, was in fault? So, if it be true that there are those whose use of logic is the attempt to reason on mere words, without regarding the nice shades of signification, or, indeed, in any degree the thing signified by the words, is this an argument against the science, and not rather against its gross perversion? As well might you say that it is bad to eat and to drink, because there are gluttonous and intemperate people in the world.

The Spiritual Exposition of the Apocalypse; as derived from the writings of the Hon. Emanuel Swedenborg. By the REV. AUGUSTUS CLISSOLD, M.A., formerly of Ex. Col. Oxford. Four vols. 8vo. Longman, 1851. We presume the Rev. Augustus Clissold is a gentleman of substance, and can afford to publish four such handsome volumes on such a subject.-The City of Rome; its Edifices and People. Tract Society. A neat and useful manual on the subject, including numerous illustrations-The Doctrines and Practices of Popery, examined in a Course of Lectures by Ministers of Glasgow. Collins. Eleven lectures on such a subject, by such men, neatly printed, and sold for one shilling and sixpence, must sell largely to be profitable; we wish them such a circulation for higher reasons than those which concern the stock-taking of the publisher.-The True Christian. By the REV. W. LEASK. 12mo. Snow, 1851. Good sense, and pious feeling, clearly and agreeably expressed; intended as a help to the afflicted,' and well adapted to its purpose.-Themes for Meditation. By the REV R. BROWN. 12mo, 1851. Thirty-four' exercises" of thought on so many texts of scripture. Instructive, devotional, fitted to be useful to the class for whom it is intended: but the author should not have recorded Luther's error about the epistle of James, without recording his repentance in that particular.-Rural Economy for Cottage Farmers and Gardeners. 12mo. Groombridge. This little book is further described as 'a treasury of information on cow-keeping, sheep, pigs, poultry, the horse, the pony, ass, goat, honey bee,' &c. &c. It is all this. A valuable present for

the cottage.-Baptism. By SEACOME ELLISON. 12mo. Simpkin, 1851. A neat little book, designed to show that without water-baptism there is no remission of sin !-On the Preservation of the Health of Women at the Critical periods of Life. By E. S. TILT, M.D. 12mo. Churchill, 1851. A book of much useful counsel on matters with which the heads of families should be better acquainted than they often are.-The French Verbs. By M. A. THIBAUDIN. 8vo. Simpkin, 1851. The French verbs, regular and irregular, alphabetically arranged and completely conjugated on a plan entirely original, simple, and expeditious.' A work of much labour, which may be serviceable both to teachers and learners.-Scriptural Revision of the Liturgy. By a MEMBER OF THE MIDDLE TEMPLE. 8vo. London, 1851. A learned and able argument in favour of church reform, extending to nearly two hundred pages, and addressed as a letter to Lord John Russell. We commend the zeal and intelligence of the author, but his prayer relates to a subject on which liberal churchmen have been long wont to pray in vain.-Papal Errors. 12mo. Tract Society. Good for any popular religious library.-Olympus aud its Inhabitants. By AGNES SMITH. 12mo. Simpkin, 1851. A narrative sketch on classical mythology, not sufficient for the scholar, but much more full and satisfactory than the ordinary school books.-Education as a means of preventing Destitution. By WILLIAM ELLIS. Fcap. Smith, Elder & Co. 1851. Education in the relation it should bear to social economics is the subject of this treatise. Our readers interested in such questions should procure the volume, and read it attentively.-The New Casket. 12mo. Tract Society. Stories, instructive and amusing, with some beautiful illustrations; an elegant little present for all seasons.'-The Convict Ship. By C. A. BROWNING, M.D. Fcap. Hamilton, 1851. A work on such a subject that has reached its fifth edition must be no common production. It lays bare one of the most morbid departments of our civilization, and has lessons for the philosopher, the statesman, and the Christian.-The Family Economist. Vol. IV. 1851. A monthly periodical, at one penny per number; its instructions on all kinds of household economy and training are excellent. The benevolent may do much good by aiding its circulation.-A Dictionary of the French and English Languages. By GABRIEL SURRENNE, F.A.S.E. 12mo. Oliver & Boyd. An abridgment of the larger work by the same author, neatly printed, and adapted to the use of schools and for general reference.-The Congregational Year Book for 1851. A work that should be in the hands of every congregationalist, and of all who would know what congregationalists are, and are doing. Nearly 300 pages of denominational information, statistics, and literature for one shilling!-Nineveh and Persepolis. By W. S. W. Vaux, M.A. 8vo. Arthur Hall, 1851. This handsome volume, including an account of the most recent researches in Assyria and Persia, had our good word when first published. The present is the third edition. The wood engravings are excellent.-Lights and Shadows in the Life of Faith. By the Rev. W. K. TWEEDIE. 12mo. Johnstone, 1852. An ingenious and intelligent attempt to distinguish between the morbid and the healthful in the experience of Christians. It abounds with seasonable observations on prevalent errors and neglected truths.-The Progress of Beguilement to Romanism. By ELIZA SMITH. 12mo. Seeleys. Miss Smith is the author of a work entitled 'Five Years a Catholic.' The present narrative is one of many, showing that of those who go to Rome in search of certainty and rest, not a few find it impossible to remain there.-The Jesuits. One of the Monthly Series of the Tract Society, by an author of adequate intelligence and information, and of the right spirit.-Eastern Manners illustrative of New-Testament History. By the REV. R. JAMIESON, D.D. 12mo. Oliphant & Co. Third edition. Abundant material, well distributed, and at small cost.



MAY 1, 1852.

ART. I.—(1.) London Labour and the Poor. By Henry Mayhew. London.


(2.) Low Wages, their Causes, Consequences, and Remedies. By HENRY MAYHEW. London. 1852.

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'THE condition of the working man in this country, what it is ' and has been, whether it is improving or retrograding, is a question to which, from statistics, hitherto no solution can be got. 'Hitherto, after many tables and statements, one is left mainly 'to what he can ascertain by his own eyes, looking at the concrete phenomenon for himself. There is no other method; and 'yet it is a most imperfect method. Each man expands his own hand's-breadth of observation to the general whole; more or less, each man must take what he himself has seen and 'ascertained for a sample of all that is seeable and ascertainable. 'Hence discrepancies, controversies wide-spread, long-continued, which there is at present no means of satisfactorily ending. ... What constitutes the well-being of a man? Many things; of which the wages he gets and the bread he buys with them are but one preliminary item. Grant, however, that the wages were the whole; that once knowing the wages and the 'price of bread we know all, then what are the wages? Statistic inquiry in its present unguided condition cannot tell.' This is the deliberate judgment passed by Mr. Carlyle upon all such inquiries as the one we propose to ourselves in the present article. But although we entirely agree with what the author of Chartism has said regarding the difficulties with which the wages-question is beset, we totally dissent from his conclusion, that statistical inquiry can throw no light upon the matter. After much investigation and careful weighing of evidence

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