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1815.) Improvement of the Labouring Classes, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, apprentice, to the laborious workman, SIR,
may find somewhat to imitate, some A ,
SENSIBLE worthy countryman what to amuse, and somewhat to invigoman or beast, the most inconsiderable whose venerable grey locks, marked degree of pain that could be avoided. countenance, and shrewd remarks, first He said, those that frame laws, and inspired those thoughts, chiefly mainthose that put them in force, in short, tained his family by rearing horses, all in whose hands power may be vested, which were remarkable for vigour and ought to remember, that mercy will be high mettle, yet not less docile than required as a duty, for which they must spirited. He began training his colts at aliswer to their Almighty Judge. He four weeks old, by inuring thein to a light had a large family of sons and daughters, saddle, and easy bridle, for ten or trenty who were remarkable for good temper, minutes, three times in a day. At the sound understanding, integrity, and in. age of three months, be strapped upon dustry; and he ascribed their good qua. the saddle a puppet, to represent a rilities to the gentle means employed by der. This was generally a small sack, him and his wife, in forming their filled with straw, and to each lower babits; and to the pains he took to cul- corner a bundle of rushes, firmly bound tivate their minds. He was an orphan, together, which touched the sides of the reared from childhood in a gentleman's young animals as the legs of a rider. He family, where he learnt to read and likewise accustomed them to draw a write; and, to the latest period of a long very light wheel-carriage; and, by this life, a book was to him a luxurious treat early education, continued to maturity, for his leisure hours; but he olten re- the horses became perfectly tractable gretted, that so few volumes, suitable without using the lash.
N. for bumble readers, were in circulation. His remarks made so deep an impression to the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ou the writer, that an anxious desire for SIR, adding to their number, has been a pre. A Tember, vate Ednam, in Roxburgh vailing sentiment during many years. Thousands resort to ale-houses at first, shire, in commemoration of the birih merely for want of harmless amusement; of the poet Thomson, an ode (given in and perhaps libraries, adapted to the our last Number,) was read to a distin. capacity and porsuit of the lower classes, guished circle of the neighbouring gentlewould prove the most direct means for men. It was written for the occasion augmenting the quantum of national by George Noble, a Scottish labourer, virtue.
near Jedburgh, whose powerful genius, As facts always carry an authority and persevering industry, have successo paramount to arguments, the following fully struggled against all tbe difficulties quotation from Forsyth's “ Beauties of of poverty and ignorance, and whose Scotland,”(vol. 3, page 107,) abundantly modest inerit
, it is my present ohject, corroborates the present writer's opinion through the medium of your valuable Speaking of the miners at Lead-Hills, in miscellany, to bring into notice. Lanarkshire, Mr. Forsyth says, “ Pre- from being vain of his extraordinary lia vious to the existence of the library, the terary attainments, or anxious to obtrude miners were in no degree superior to himself upon public attention, le bas ordinary colliers; but a taste for lite. toiled and lived in contented obscurity; rature speedily produced its beneficent and it was with unfeigned reluctance, concomitants-decency, industry, sobrie and at the request of a gentleman who ety, independance of spirit, and a desire has been mosi truly his friend, that he to give good education to their children. was induced to consent to the publicaSimilar effects have been also produced tion of some of his poetical pieces, in a by a library at the neighbouring mines neighbouring provincial newspaper. It at Wanlock head." Cau any Briton, any will be seen, that they are not the pro Christian, read this, without an ardent duction of a rude uncultivated mind; in wish to extend throughout our isle, and fact, this meritorious young man has, by if possible throughout the globe, blessings h's unaided exertions, acquired consi80 invaluable? These well attested derable proficiency in geography, astrotruths have determined the writer to nonny, chemistry, and various branches publish an humble work, entitled, “Po. of natural philosophy; he has more than pular Models," where the sons and a common knowledge of history and gedaughters of industry, from the articled' neral literacare, and au' extensive aca : MONTHLY Mag. No, 265.
quaintance with the best Britisb poets. kind. I believe, my inclination for And this has been attained by a youth poetry was first awakened by reading who, (until the age of manhood,) was Hervey's Meditations and Barnes's Colonly nine months at any school, and lection, together with some ballads, chat at a common parochial school, where when I was about twelve or thirteen even writing and arithmetic are imper- years old. Soon after I got a loan of fectly taught; without even those com. Thomson's Seasons, which I read with a mon advantages of education which are high degree of pleasure. I next read usually enjoyed by the Scottish peasan- Young's Night Thoughts, and Milton's try--without books-without money- Paradise Lost, neither of which I then without leisure without instruction- understood, but I was charmed with and with the incessant obligation of some of the descriptions in Milton. “ earning his daily bread by daily la. About this time, I had a great desire to bour." At my request, he gave me his read Homer and Virgil, but I could not short and artless history, which, if I mise get them. When I was about fourteen, take not, will prove niore interesting to the Arabian Night's Entertainments fell your readers than any thing I can say of into my hands. These extravagant fichim. The circumstances of its being tions engrossed my whole attention. I written without any view of meeting believed “ each strange sale devoutly any other eye than mine, and of its be true," and resolved at a future period to ing published without his knowledge, visit those places where its scenes are will, I trust, be sufficient to protect his laid; to obtain access to the magic lie sirople narrative from the severity of brary in the cave of Dom. Daniel, and criticism. I have made no change in to search the enchanted caverns for the orthography, &c. nor any other al. Aladdin's wonderful lamp and mystic teration than that of omitting a few ring. Soon afterwards, I read some passages.
novels, Roderic Random, Joseph An“I was born in the parish of Bedrule,* drews, and some others, whose titles I at a house on the farm of Newton, called do not recollect. To the truth of them Old Kerssfield, which is now fallen all I gave implicit credit ; but, as my down: it was a lonely place, nearly a views were enlarged, I was greatly chamile distant from any other house, and it grined to find that they were built upon was occupied by my grandfather, who fiction. was a shepherd and labourer. I lived “When I was between eight and nine there till I was about ten years old. My years old, I was half a year at the pagrandmother had taught me to read at a rochial school of Bedrule, where I read very early age, and the first circumstance in the Bible and learnt to write, or I can recollect, was, reading the Pro. rather to form the letters, for I made no verbs and the new Testament to her. further progress at that time. At ten Being a pious woman, she was very care- years of age I went to service in the ful to instruct me in the principles of the summer, and, excepting the following Christian religion. During this period winter, when I was at school another of my life, I scarcely ever saw any pere quarter, and the winter after that, when son, and was very seldoin in company I was at home doing nothing, I conwith children of my own age; and con. cinued at service, herding cows and sequently, having nothing to occupy my sheep, &c. until I was fifteen; after attention, I read such books as my which I wrought regularly at farm-work, grandfather possessed, which were all of and this I still continue, and all my spare a religious nature, except a copy of time I spend in reading. When I was David Lindesay's Poems, great part of twenty-one, I began to study arithmetic, which I learnt by heart. I likewise pe- and I went for a quarter of a.year to an rused the common Almanacks, of which evening school, where I proceeded as far he had formed a tolerable collection, as the Rule-of-three, and the rest of the buying one every year; and this, I verily science I learnt myself, by the assistance believe, was the first thing which gave of books. The only time I had was at me an inclination for astronomy. My night, the greatest part of which I have curiosity for information at that time often spent in solving questions. About was very ardent, but seldom or never three years ago I
to the sanie gratified; and, from my earliest years to evening school for balf-a-year, wbere I she present moment, I have had the same went through a course of land-surveying, strong desire for knowledge of every plain trigonometry, mensuration, &c. o
which I was very fond; but, not having Near Jedburgh, in Roxburghshire, any occasion to make wsc of them,
11 have almost forgotten them. My de. dence, the moral worth of his character, sire for natural philosophy was first are known. Should any of your readers roused in 1804, when the first battalion sympathize in the regret I feel, that such of volunteers was quartered in Kelso. a mind should be condemned to the I then used to frequent the house of daily drudgery of driving a plough, or Dr. R. who was so kind as to allow me threshing corn; and extend to him those the perusal of some of his books, on means of improvement which fortune bas those subjects. Ever since that time it denied; his success in some useful and has been my favourite pursuit, although honest profession, may prove how well I have made but little proficiency in it. such patronage has been bestowed, en. Last year, Mr. Jorden, esq. of Bour. sure his lasting gratitude, and bring with jadward, had the goodness to allow me it its own reward. the use of his extensive and well-chosen Nov. 18, 1814. library; and it is to the disinterested kindness of this amiable gentleman, that To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. I am indebted for the uninerited share SIR, of public favour with which I have been THE question respecting the prohonourert.
priety of using the words “ is" and "My grandfather and grandmother" are," may be reduced within a very died when I was twelve years old; and my small compass. Whenever a given mother afterwards rented a house, and, number or quantity is spoken of, the being of a weakly constitution, received word "is" appears to be most applicaa mall supply from the parish, which, ble; as, for instance: "Multiply 10 by with what I could afford to give her, 12, what is the product ?"-answer, maintained her until she died, two years “ The product is 120."-"What is the and a-half ago. Since her death, I have sixth part of 72?-answer, “ The sixth kept a house myself, of which you may part is 12."— The number of men emform some idea, if you recollect Gold- ployed in that undertaking is 60,” &c. Smith's description of a poet's dwelling, But, upon all other occasions, where only with this difference, that his was in the number is more than one, the word a garret, and mine on the ground floor." “are" must be used. For instance : His letter contains nothing more of
“ The veterans who compose that army general interest. To those who can are 10,000 in number.”_"Sixty men admire the spectacle of untutored ge- ure employed in that undertaking." nius triumphant over every obstacle of “Forty persons are assembled together." fortune and society; who love to trace In the two following cases the singular the gradual progress of the human mind, and plural numbers are both used to when left to its own unassisted resources; denote the same amount, according to the short and simple annals of this poor the rule before observed:-The number peasant will be highly interesting. They of prisoners who ure taken is about will rejoice, that not even
2000."-Twenty thousand are the num. * Chill penury repress'd his noble rage,
ber of tickets in this lottery."-Number Nor froze the genial current of his soul.” 20,000 is drawn a prize of 10,0001. Unbiassed by prejudice or partiality, therefore quite correct in reading "twice
Your correspondent “Rusticus" is and so completely unconnected with George Noble, that, until September last, iwice 2 is number 4, and 8 times 8 iş
2 is 4,” and “ 8 times 8 is 64;" because I had never even heard of his existence;
E. T, PILGRIM. a sish, that modest merit and indegent genius should not linger unnoticed, has
Woburn, Nov.3, 1814. alone prompted this attempt to make him known. I do not wish to represent
To the Edilor of the Monthly Magazine, him as a heaven-born poet, a second SIR, Buros: bis poems possess great taste
am to shew:and feeling, and are surprising produc.
IV. That consumption and asthma tions for a ploughman; but the bent of are, in this country, much more frequent bis genius seems to inclin more to sci. in winter than in summer, This is a ence than to poesy; and, considering the point which requires but little proof, wonderful acquirements he has made, as the experience of almost every En. and the disadvantages against which he glishman will convince his of the fact. has contended in his ardent pursuit of I shall, therefore, endeavirr sa contract knowledge, they must excite ali admira. this part of the subject a et chas poston, which will be heightened when the sible. Different authors Bonoticed, simplicity, the integrity, the indepen, that not unfrequently you versols of
a phthisical disposition, will have many 1805, the total nomber of patients besymptoms of incipient consumption tween the 30th November, 1804, and during the winter, which, in the sum: the 28th February, 1805, was 460. mer, entirely leave the patients, and in Hæmoptysis and phthisis, 36; chronic the subsequent winter renew their ap• catarrh and dyspnea, 69; together 105, pearance. The disorder will often pro- forming between one-fourth and one-fifth ceed in this manner, for one, two, or of the whole. The total diseases of more years, till the disposition to con- between the 31st of May, and the 31st sumption is increased, or till an acci- of August, 1805, was 507 ; of wlrich dental occurrence produces an aggra- 29 were hæmoptysis and phthisis, and vated attack: and now the disease is no 27 catarrbus chronicus and dyspnea, longer to be arrested by the return of together equal to 56, which is one-ninth summer, but advances to its fatal termic of the total. Hence, according to Dr. nation. Catarrhs likewise, which so Bateman's statement for 1805, consumpfrequently induce consumption, are much tion and asthma are only one-half in more prevalent, and of longer duration, summer what they are in winter. in winter than in summer.
It would be easy to cite various other With respect to asthma, in most authorities besides those which are just instances where this disorder is observed, given. But such citations would merely we find it attack, at its commencement, give a repetition of the same facts; and, merely during the winter. The patient I apprehend, that what has been brought not uncommonly is totally free from forward is quite sufficient to establish the disease while the summer continues. position, that consumption and asthma But, after a longer or shorter space of are, in England, much more frequent in time, his intervals of freedom from winter than in summer. . disorder become shorter; and, finally, Under the two foregoing heads the during summer as well as winter, his following circumstances may be noticed: breathing is difficult, and his cough har- 1. The changes of temperature in this rassing.
country are very great, having amounted I have before noticed that, of the total during this present year to 67o. The number of patients whom I registered in thermometer frequently rises 10° in 24 1811 and 181%, about one-tifth were hours, and occasionally 20°. afflicted with consumption or asthma. 2. The lowest point of the thermoIn January, 1811, the total number of meter, during this year, was 18°, a decases was 161, of whom 56, (S and 53) pression to which it rarely descends. were ranged under consumption and 3. Diseases of the chest, of various 'asthma, equal to one-third of the total. descriptions, are of very frequent occurs In February, the number of cases was rence, forming about one-third of the 183, of whom 47, (3 and 44) were cases cases within medical practice, (including of consumption or asthma, equal to one- consumption and asthma.) fourth of the total. In September the 4. Consumption and asthma are exo number of cases was 219, of whom 23, tremely frequent, forrning about one-fifcha (5 and 18) were afflicted with consump- or one-sixth of the total number of cases tion or asthma,equal to between one-ninth in medical practice, and occasioning and one-tenth of the total. In October about one-fourth or one-fifth of the total there were 250 cases, of whom 40,(7 and number of deaths. 3S) were affected by consumption or asth- 5. These complaints are far more pre ma, equal to about one-sixth of the whole. valent in winter than in summer.
In January and February, 1812, the New Broad.street. I. BUXTON. number of cases was 458, of whom 133 (13 and 120) were consumption or To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, asthma, between one-third and one. SIR,
OCTOR L. October the number of cases was 525, of whom 77 (10 and 67) were con- resided in the Isle of Arran, assured him, sumption or asthma, nearly one-seventh that so far from ever having experienced of the whole. Hence it may be observed, dreaming, he could not believe it posa that in my register the cases in the win. sibie that a person in bed, and almost in ler months just given, are double in a state of insensibility, could fancy he number those of the summer months. was walking, running, riding, sailing,
In the list of diseases, before adverted or in conversation with people in an, to, given by Dr. Bateman, in the Edine other quarter of the globe, perhaps long burgh Medical and Surgical Journal, for since deceased. To assist bis compre,
beusion 1815.] Dreaming.--Ancient Manners. hension, Doctor C. endeavoured to ex- or persons who furnished horses for traplain the analogy between making re. vellers, from Southwark to Rochester, veries and nightly visions; but to those was 12d.; from Rochester to Canterbury, productions of imagination, Mr. F. was 12d.; and from Canterbury to Dover, equally a stranger; and seemed to thiuk 6d. The fares of intermediate distances it inconsistent with sober reason to oc- to be calculated according to the iniles cupy the mind with any object, but the in similar proportion. The horses of business by which they were immediately the hackney-men, in conséquence of engaged. Doctor C. was a gentleman many having been rode au ay with, were of strict veracity and superior calents; ordered to be marked with a cautery, or be also spoke with energetic fluency; iron instrument, at each village where and after again and again renewing the the persons leuting them to hire dwelt. subject, at Mr. F.'s earnest request, be could not impart any adequate percep- Misson, in his “ Memoirs and Obsertion of dreams, or any other fabric of vations in his Travels over England," the imagination.
Th. N. R. translated by Mr. Ozell, 8vo. Londo
1719, p. 39, says: Ancient manners.
“ These houses, which are very nume. No. IV.
rous in London, are extremely conveni. XVI. TOBACCO.
You have all manner of new
titled “The Honestie of this Age," may sit by as long as you please; you 410. Lond. 1614, p. 26, speaking of to have a dish of coffee; you meet your bacco, says, “I have heard it tolde that, friends for the transaction of business, now very lately, there hath bin a cathaa and all for a penny, if you don't care to Jogue taken of all those new-erected spend more.' houses that have set uppe that trade of XXI. MILITARY ENSIGNS DURING THE selling tobacco in London and neare about London; and, if a man may beleeve Among Sir Hans Sloane's manuscripts, what is confidently reported, there are
in the British Museum, (M.S. Donat. found to be upward of 7000 houses that 5247,) is one containing a.collection of doth live by that trade."
drawings of military ensigns, in the peu XVII. FRANKLIN.
riod of the civil wars : beginning witte “We were wont to interpose this dif. those of the Earl of Essex and the Earl ference betweene Yeoman and Franklin of Bedford. Lord Essex's is yellow, or Farmer, that the yeoman was a landed with this motto on it:-“Virtutis. Comcs man, either freeholder or copyholder; Invidia.”. the farmer onely hired another man's Sir William Courtney's flag is, red, land, paying a fine or rent, and so, bearing a man in full armour, with a growing rich, had the denomination of sword in his right hand. Above is the the other, and did not in times past motto,"Dum spiro spero." inurmure, though you called him good. Captain Sandberd of Deron's Aag, husband, or expert plow-man.”—Gains. has a figure in armour, thrusting a sword ford's Glory of England, 460, 1619, into the body of a bishop, on a "red p. 308.
ground. A label, from the mouth of the XVIII. TINNED-VESSELS.
armed person has," Visne Episcopare." Aubrey, in an unpublished work, en- Another label proceeding from the 'bititled “Remains of Gentilisme and Ju. shop's mouth has,
Nolo. daisme," preserved among the Lans. Nolo." downe Manuscripts, says,
* I never saw
Captain West, a chandler in Cain tinned potts, scil. brasse-potts tinned, bridge, bore on a red flag a skull surtill since the year 1660. 'Tis not every rounded with laurel: motto,"Mors och brazier that hath obtained that mystery
Victoria." yet, [1691,1 but Madam Ball doeth as- The Lord Brook's ensign was a laurel sure me, that her father had some wreath, with this motto, on a yellow brasse potts tinned thus, that were her ground:-“Qui non est hodie cras minus grand-father's, Sir George Bond, Jord- aptus erit.” mayor of London, above an hundred The Lord Fairfax's banner consisted yeares since."
of a sword pierced through a mitre, with: XIX. DACKNEY-MEN.
the crown wresting on its point, on a According to the pateot 19. Ric. II. white ground. The motto, Vida el P. 2, m. 8, the fare of the hackney-men, Rey y muerra il mal Gouderno."