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1816.) Mr. Sparshall on the Luminosity of the Sea. 109 first mistook for air-bubbles; but, finding nerally found with its tail sticking to thern stick very thick round the sides of some part of the opaque spot, and the vessel containing the water, I took moving its bead backward and forward, some out, and, applying them to the mi- and in all directions, sometimes with croscope, found them to be roandish drawing itself quite into its case; the globules, very transparent, and encom worin itself is much smaller than the passed with a thin skin, baving a small smallest eels found in vinegar, and far indenture on one side, and an opacous more transparent. What these are, or spot in the middle, from whence pro- may ome, when arrived at maturity, ceeded a number of fine rays. I at first I cannet so much as conjecture. I bave conjectured, from the transparency of examined numbers of these globules at these globules, that they might be the different times, and scarcely found one spawn or ova of the Urtica marina or sea in ten without the worm, nettle ; but, on a second and more accu “ The worm and bladder are seen as rerale examination, I found the opaque presented in the annesed drawings, and spots in the globules to be the residence as they appeared by the second inagnifier of a very minute worm, which is gene. of the double microscope:


"If a glass of water be taken up from “ Remarks on the Phosphoric Phenome. the harbour of a night when this pheno non in the Sea ;" from vol. i. p. 48, of menon appears, and set in a dark place, the Translation of Labillardiere's Acno sparkling can be seen; but, on pucting count of a Voyage in search of La Pen a stick or the feather-end of a quill rouse, in the Years 1791, 2, and 3. therein, and shaking it about pretty “ I had preserved a few bottles of sea briskly, a very great sparkling is seen on water, taken up the evening before, du. the surface of the water; and, on with. ring its phosphorescence, to examine the drawing the stick or feather, several of little luminous bodies which are the cause these minute luminous bodies are found of this phenomenon. This water, pouradhering thereto, and afford a fainted into a glass, was set in motion in the glimmering light, which quickly disappears dark; I immediately saw soine luminous on these bodies becoming dry on their globules, which differed in no respect surfaces.

from those which are commonly remark"I shall not pretend to say in what ed when the sea is agitated. It appeared manner these bodies afford this sparkling to me quite an easy matter to try to seappearance; but may it not be caused by parate these bodies, in order to shew the gentle agitation of the water striking whether the water would still preserve them against each other? having noticed its phosphoric quality. I strained it this appearance is most frequent after through a piece of white-brown paper ; gales of wind, when the sea comes to some molecules, very gelatinous and subside; but sometimes there are few or transparent, the size of which was almost none of these globules to be found in the a third of a millimeter, remained in the water, at which time there will be no strainer, and from that time this sea wa. sparkling; but, when they are found in the ter lost all its phosphorescence, which I water, it will always sparkle, and more restored to it at pleasure by throwing or less in proportion to the quantity there therein the little molecules. It was nem is of them. 'Yet I can hardly think it cessary not to leave these diminutive can be these animalculæ which cause animais long exposed to the air, for they the sea to appear as if all on fire by the soon lost all their phosphoric properties. violent agitation of the water in a storm, I have several times repeated the same 30 often seen by seamen." J. S, experiment in seas very distant from each






110 Colour of the Sea.-Decimal Arithmetic. [March 1, other, and I have constantly found the 285714 of a yard cost 3,8l. what will same animalcules, which I consider as the most ordinary cause of the phospho- ,63 of a yard cost ?". Or, if any of your sescence of sea water. However, they mathematical contributors can work it alone have not the property of rendering decimally, and produce the answer cor. the sea luminous severalspecies of crabs, rectly. The end I have in view is to some very large molecules, * &c. often a certain whether any such method is quit the bottom of the waters to come

known or published, having myself, after and illumine their surface. I have fre several years of study, accomplished it; quently seen these phosphoric molecules and, being about to publish a Treatise on of the size of a double decimeter, but I Arithmetic, in which this will be inhave always found at the same tiine the cluded, I should very unwillingly introlilile luniinous bodies which I have men.

duce it as a novelty if already published,

though I can safely say I tioned.”

never received

assistance from any publication whatTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

de House, Pimlico;


December 20, 1814. YAN

me a satisłactory reason why the water of the sea is of a dull green colour

For the Monthly Magazine. near the shore, and decidedly of a bright JOURNAL of a tour in italy in 1812 blue colour in the main ocean? I do not

and 1813; by M. MILLIN, Member of advert to the reflected colour from the

the French Institute, &c. surface, which of course varies with the

T requires another forced march to changeable hues of the sky, I mean the colour of the water when looked down chief town of Calabria Ultra; and, alinto, or when cut by the keel of a ship or there were nevertheless no balting places

though we kept along the high road, boat. Even in the water taken up in the ship's buckets al open sea, I have ob

or refreshments. This place was served this blue tinge; and in crossing tirely destroyed by the earthquake of the Atlantic, however gloomy or dark 1783. The houses are called Larracks, was the sky, the water, when looked because they are of wood. There are down into froin the ship's side, was a

two magnificent palaces built of this bright blue colour. This fact must be material, but this is known by all the well known to every scaman of coinmon

world. I spent three days at Monte. observation; and every one who has ever

leone: I found some monuments and been in a boat near the shore must have

sonie inscriptions not yet generally remarked the peculiar green colour of

known. the water. To some of vour readers this

I pursued the direct road from the question may seem puerile; others may

ancient Vibona (Monteleone,) to Reg. know that the most important conclu. gio; I made, during my residence, es. sions in science have often been drawn cursions to the Pizzo, and on the shores from the most trifling phenomena.

of the beautiful gulph of Santa EupheOct. 29, 1814.


mia, where I copied two curious Latin

inscriptions: after this I retrograded to. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. frightful traces of the earthquake of 1783.

wards Tropæa. Mileto exhibited most SIR, I

I have several drawings of the town in SHOULD he glad to know if any its present state, and of the magnificent

of your numerous correspondents could point out to me any publication sarcophagus, in which was deposited the that would ewable me to work, decimally, body of Roger, King of Sicily: near this questions of the following kind:

-r spot, I caused workmen to dig, and found

that of his wift, Adelasia. The monasBesides these crabs, &c. mentioned of irs archives remains.

tery has been destroyed, and not a leaf by Labillardiere, the Sepra or Cuttle-listi, tlie Medusa or Blubber, and some of the 1 afterwards visited in succession, are

Tropæa, Parelia, and Nicotera, which genus Scolopendra or Antipes, and perhaps delightfully situated, and their Greek some other species or even genus, as men. tioned by Linneus, sparkle or shine during names add to the interest which they the night in the water; and Berkenhout, in inspire. Tropæa possesses some monuhis Outlines, p. 193, says, 6. the Nereis ments of the middle ages: before ar. noctiluca, thongli scarce višible to the naked riving at it, we see the islands of Lipari eye, shumes by night in the sea, so as to make and Nicotera, as if rising from the sea, the water seem on tire." -E, S.

and a part of the coast of Sicily. s

I turned

once enter

1815.] Journal of a Tour in Italy, by M. Millin. 111

I turned aside to Seminara, where the I was able to follow all the sinuosities most astonishing phenomena which ac. of the Straits. When we companied the earthquake are to be the small bay of Scylla, the shore is so seen. The same evening I reached guarded, that there is no more danger Palmi; next day, Bagnara; and, finally, than from Scylla to Bagnara; but, in Scylla; from which the Pharos of Messina spite of prudent remonstrances, I went is sisible. All these towns have been in this way from Bagnara to Palmi, and destroyed by earthquakes. I made the I soon repented of my obstinacy. The tour of the rock of Scylla several times; shore is so abrupt and rugged, that the its perpendicular elevation, and the enemy's barks can easily conceal themrocks with which it is begirt, have well sclves under the cliffs, and the route is assisted the imaginations of the poets, w bo so tortuous, that flight is impossible. I base assigned' to it a half human forn: arrived at Palmi, however, without here we may see a female figure, sur. ineering any disaster; the commandant rounded by dogs, barking, as visibly as of this place assured me, that he would we sometimes see giants in the clouds. on no account run a similar risk.

I spent a whole day at Scylla. I wit Next day I set out at day-break from nessed all the operations attending the Palmi, to traverse this point of Calabria, fishing for the spada; they are similar and to proceed to Gerace, on the shores to those described by Sirabn, but it is of the Ionian sea ; I slept at Casalnuovo; not true that the fishermen use Greek I passed next day, with a good escort, terms. I have a list, but none of them through the Passo de i Mercanti, and I are Hellenisms.

arrived at Gerace by a route where we I can scarcely describe the pleasure I saw vegetation in all its luxuriance-fo. received in viewing the grand straits rests of longe trees, and the greatest which wind between Sicily and Calabria pomp, mixed with the most picturesque with so much grace and majesty. It is horrors of nature. sufficient to know that I spent eleven Gerace is situated on the point of a days at Reggio, all the environs of which rock, here I found soine interesting moI visited, and where I made several ob. numents; I visited the plain of Locres, Servations. Here I found some bricks, where we still see the walls of the place, with the name of the place in Greek composed of square stones. Here I characters, and several small monuments; copied soine Greck and Roman inscripevery thing else has been destroyed by tions; some very productive excavations earthquakes. I visited more than once have been inade here. I have a draw. the Camp de Piale and Sun Gioonne, ing of a fine bronze helmet, adorned from which the cocks in Sicily may be with a Greek inscription, in very anheard to crow. Flere I also saw a paó cient characters, and a frayment of a tade of the English truops, and beard painted vase, of admirable beauty. I their music distioctly, while Sicilian also procured drawings of some monu. women were seen going to inass. ments of the iniddle age.

I wished to return by the shores of the I resumed my roule along this coast: Ionian Sea, but the route by Bova is no isolated habitations are to be found difficult, and void of interest, over a between the towns, which are situated barren sand; I therefore resolved to re

inaccessible heights. On trace my steps to Palmi, and, as I had the right ha is the sea, and we tread come on horseback, I preferred the sea. over a sandy clay, intersected every mi. side, to enjoy the view of this file coast, nute by sinall torrents, or rivulets of and to pass between Charybdis and brackish water; on the left are the grayScylla. The two shores are so near, isb and barren rocks of the chain of the that cannon-balls reach across; but the Appennines. If we look at the map, French have no establishment on this we may easily perceive that all the towns coast, and, when their battery of Peutie marked on it are on the sea-coast. But mele fires, the sand is seen to fly up from Reggio, we may go to Tarento, withio around the bouses in the Pharos, and out entering a single town), unless we there are always some of them destroyed, determine upon climbing up to it by the The facility of doing mischief is the miserable road which leads to it. This cause of both combatants reciprocally road is always the bed of a torrent, for allowing small vessels to creep along the there is no other; and the feet of the store; but, in case of their quitring it, horses are perpetually slipping among the Sicilian batteries fire over them, and, the round stones with which it is strew. when they are French barks, the Pentia ed. This bed is sometimes half a mile nele bariery fires at the Pharos. Thus in breadth; the banks are big!', and they

upon almi


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112 Journal of a Tour in Italy, by M. Millin. [March 1, are hot as a furnace; all the stones are the inhabitants have been much thinned truly scorching. After having travelled by this disease, and are very far from four miles in this way, we arrived at the possessing the strength of Milo; but my foot of the inountain on which the town draftsman shewed the greatest abhor. is built, like the nest of an eagle : three rence against this town, where it is im. or four miles of ascent still reinain, and possible to sleep a night without immiwe must always descend again on foot, nent danger, and indeed it has nothing so difficult is the road. At such an imremarkable in it but its name, Baron inense height, a traveller is astonished to

Riedesel has accurately described the find himself in a town containing from pretended school of Pythagoras, which two to five thousand inhabitants, and is near it. I resolved, therefore, to leave palaces of a magnificent appearance, cut Cotrona, but to visit Taverna, which the masters of which can have but little is in the interior, because it was the coinmunication with their neighbours. birth-place of Maltia Prete, sir-jamed

I have every reason to believe that the Calabrese, and where he has left these dilliculties frightened Mr. Swin. many of his pictures. burne, and that he contented himself In order to reach Taverna, we must with viewing these towns from a dis. alternately ascend some very rugged talice with his glass : he relates mere como steeps, and plunge into immense hole mon places as to their history, and leads lows. I turned aside once more to pass his readers astray the instant he attempts Tiriolo, where there are some remains to describe them. For my part, I have of antiquity. Here I saw some large resided in most, if not all, of them. I earthen conduits, or pipes, with Greek have also visited Roccella, and the initials. The costume of the women of place which was supposed to be Cau. Tiriolo is charining. We then passed Jonia. I have also been at Isca, and at Genigliano; all these small towns seemn Stelo, where I took drawings of a very to have been but yesterday a prey to singular Greek church, and a coluinn the flames. They were occupied by the with a Greek inscription: at the foot of revolted Calabrese, and were the chethe mountain, the whole sea-coast is atre of events which make humanity visible from Zephyrium to Cotrona. shudder to think of. At length we are

I have also visited Santa Catarina rived near the funnel, at the bottom of Siallati, froin which travellers descend which, Taverna seemed to be situated. as into a gulph, to reach the point on There is no road traced out to it, and which Squillace is situated; ihe road we must buld by the bushes, lest we here is so bad, that it is passable only should descend faster than we came up. upon foot: the mules were every instant This is the district of Calabria, which in danger of being precipitated, and my became by rich, which was loaded with muleteers lost all temper at having em. so many honours, and which was the barked on the expedition: luckily, the scene of so many singular adventures. escort succeeded in imposing silence. There is nothing curious ac Taverna, Those who travel in the Calabrias must but its pictures; I made a copy of a always have an escort, nut only for pro. striking likeness of the painter Prele, tection against robbers, but to overawe which he gives in one of his pictures. the muleteers, and force the peasants to Frum Taverna to San Giovane di serve as guides. No respect is paid to Fiore, the distance is fifty-four miles, any travellers who are unarmed with and yet I met only with a shepherd, a muskels, or who have not men with capuchin, and a man fisbing in a marsh. them who are.

We traversed Sila, that ancient forest I arrived next day at Catanzaro, which which Virgil describes so poetically; it is one of the largest and best civilized of is now desolated. Calabria Ultra. I found at Squillace San Giovane di Fiore contains nosoine niteresting monuments. I have thing curious : next day I took a journey the plan of a magnificent edifice, which of nearly the saine extent, to visit Rosa seems to have been a church built about sano, a town like the rest in this coun. the period when Christians were first try, placed on a very high ridge, five perinitted to celebrate their worship in miles from the banks of the river. 'I arpublic. Catanzaro presents little of in. rived here drenched with rain, there ierest, but I was forced to remain tlmree having been a dreadful thunder-storm, days there to administer the bark to my and I preferred experiencing it in the draftsnian, and one of my servants, who open air to taking shelter under the had caught the fever of ibe country. I trees. wished to have gone to Cotrona, where ressed three days at Rossano; one


1815.) Abuses of a Commission of Lunacy.

113 day was taken up in visiting the ancient dinner, than to an occasion 90 melan. movastery of the Basilidians, called La choly and pitiable as tbat on which we Madona del Patire. This very inter- were assembled. It was impossible not esting munastery, which contains some to associate with the mummery of these ancient sculptures, Greek manuscripts, toasts, the recollection of the Scottish and diplomas, has been so pillaged and compact, “You scratch me, I scratch sacked, that there is scarcely a stone you:” for the commissioners, (who bad which does not bear the marks of the received their commissions from the mischievous spirit of mankind. I have chancellor, and three guineas each for taken a drawing of the church, which is their attendance,) first proposed the of a very remarkable Norman architec. health of the Lord Chancellor, and then ture, and of the Mosaic pavement, in the healths of the two lawyers; the law. the Arabic style; besides an iminense yers proposed the healths of the coinmarble vase, with a modern Greek in. missioners; the mad-doctor, (who had scription. Rossano furnished some cu. also received his fee, and whose wellrious monuments besides.

coloured nose indicated at once his · I proceeded to Corigliano, where we fondness for these entertainments and took a drawing of a noble aqueduct. I their lamentable frequency,) proposed next day visited the plain on which Sy- the healths of the jury; and the jury baris stood, not a stone of its walls re. (who had been paid a guinea a-piece mains; and this plain, formerly so fertile for their attendance,) proposed the in roses, is now covered with thistles, so health of the inad-doctor. A variety of strong and thick, that a regiment of dra- other toasts were then drank.

As to goons might pass through it more se my poor friend and his calamity, they curely than in a wood, without being seemed to be utterly forgotten. AC discovered. I was next day at Cassano. last, however, one of the commissioners

recollected him, and (the

having stept out of the room,) he proTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. posed' that we should drink" Better SIR,

health to the unfortunate lunatic."

I had the curiosity to count the numfriend of inine has recently been ber of persons who sat down to dinner, afflicted, has been the means of intro- there were no less than thirty-three; ducing me to an abuse, perhaps the most they consisted of the three commissioners, scandalous of any that disgrace the ad. the lawyer for the commission and his ministration of the laws. The unhappy clerk, the adverse lawyer (for the com. man had become deranged; and, lo pre- mission was opposed,) and his clerk, and vent the waste of his property which sixteen jurymen and ten witnesses; and bis incapacity to take care of it was likely I am confident the entertainment could to occasion, a commission of lunacy was not have cost less than from fifty to sixty applied for by his distressed family. A pounds. part of the proceedings on this occasion Struck with the total want of feeling consisted of an inspection of the lunatic, displayed towards my unfortunate friend, and the exainination of witnesses, by and the brutal festivity with wbich these cuminissioners appointed by the Lord cannibals were feasting upon his dread. Chancellor, assisted by a jury; and I ful calamity; and astonished at the sin. happened to be one of the witnesses by gular protection the laws thus gave to whose testimony the insanity of my un- his property, I enquired of the person fortunate friend was established. When who sat next to me, whether the property the investigation was over, and the jury of lunatics was invariably preyed upon had pronounced him to be a lunatic, the in this shameful manner. This gentleabuse to which I allude occurred. The man happened to be the clerk to one of investigation took place at a tavern, and the lawyers, and, though I found bima the moment it was over, the commissie very reserved at first, yet, after a few oners and the jurymen, the lawyers and toasts had been drank, he began to ex. the witnesses, all repaired to an adjoining pand, and, as the toasts increased, he room, and there sat down to a most ele- grew more and more communicative. gant and expensive dinner, at which From him I learned that these festivities were an abundance of delicacies, and a invariably attend commissions of ju. profusion of costly wines; and, after nacy; and that these occasions, the most dinner, a multitude of toasts were drank melancholy of any that call for the la. io bumpers, with av bilarity better suited bours of a jury, are the only ones in to the triumphant rejoicing of an election which the judges, jury, lawyers, and wite MONTHLY MAG, No. 266,



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