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SENTINENTS.

194
Abstract of Craniology.

[April 1, considered as indicative of an increase of which he purposes to shew that each of power or energy in that function, and these then possesses the same degree of light enlargemençs in particular skulls may al- and beat which our earth does." ways be determined by a comparison of Amidst the doubts and ignoratica two or three skulls.

which still prevail respecting the nature PROPENSITIES.

of light, and the new investigations and 1. Physical Love, or Animal Passion. experiments which have lately been made II. Parental Affection.

by philosopbers on this subject, it would, JII. Love of Country.

perhaps, be too presumptuous to assert, IV. Fidelity:

that it is impossible to prove the position V. Spirit of Personal Contention. which Mr. Douglas proposes to support: VI. Love of Cruelty or Destruction. Without at all pre-judging the result of VII. Arrangement or Creation. this gentleman's disquisitions, it may, VIII. Covelousness or Stealing. however, in the mean time, be allowed IX. Concealment or Cunning.

to suggest an objection to one of the

arguments brought forward in support of X. Self Lode.

the opinion, that the pleqets possess XI. Lode of Popularity.

the same degree of light which our earth XII. Caution.

does." In the notice referred to, it is XIII. Benevolence or Gentleness. stated (doubtless as a presumptive arguXIV. Superstition or Bigotry.

ment in favour of his hypothesis) that, XV. Ardent Expectatior.

“ when the planets appear together, XVI. Imagination.

Jupiter is but little inferior in brightness XVII, Lode of Justice.

to Venus or Mercury, and Venus noc XVIII. Firmmess.

inferior to Mercury; the same may be INTELLECTUAL POWERS.

said of Saturn and Mars, which, when XIX. Discrimination of Objects. each of them is nearest to the earth, XX. Discrimination of Forms, are equally bright." On this circuma XXI. Discrimination of Bulks. stance, considered as an argument, pers XXII. Discrimination of Weights. init me to offer the following remarks: XXIII. Discrimination of Colours. In the first place, when the heavenly. XXIV. Discrimination of Localities. bodies are viewed in the night time, in XXV. Discrimination of Method. the absence of the moon, by the naked XXVI. Discrimination of Time. eye, though a slight diversity of colour XXVII. Power of Calculation. and brilliancy appears among them, the XXVIII. Discrimination of Sounds. difference of their brightness, when at a XXIX. Power of acquiring Languages, considerable elevation above the horizon, REFLECTIVE POWERS.

is not very great, except in so far as de XXX. Reasoning or comparing. pends on their apparent magnitudes. XXXI. Investigation.

The difference, however, in point of XXXII. Wit.

brilliancy, between Venus and Satum, XXXIII. Power of Imitation. and even between Venug and Jupiter,

For many curious details, Dr. Spurze is quite obvious and striking. Bui it is beim's Lectures, or his published volume, presumed that no certain conclusions merit attendance or perusal. The dise can be deduced in regard to the degree tinctions bere enomerated are evidently of light on the surfaces of the respective too numerous. Nature at most desig- planets, from their appearance, during nates only the GENBRA of natural powers, night, to the naked eye; for they appeac. and not the species of social affections. almost like shining points, and present It is, however, due to Drs. Gall and no well-defined surface or disk, to the SPURZHEIM to admit that they have unassisted sight. A mure just and accue greatly improved our knowledge of the rate conclusion may be drawn from their anatomy of the brain; and the credit they appearance through telescopes of consi. have acquired in that particular, entitles derable magnifying power, when a large their inferences in other respects to the surface is exhibited to the eye. When attention of the learned and scientific. Jupiter is viewed with a good telescope

of considerable power, bis surface and To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. margin appear well-defined, and with a GIR,

mild degree of lustre; whereas Venus; I

N your Magazine for January, I pera at certain times, particularly about the ready for the press, "A Treatise upon viewed with a similar telescope, exhibits the Light and Pleat of the Planes, ia such a brisk glaring appearance, that her

1815.) Mr. Dick on the Light and Heat of the Planets. 195 disk presents an undefined aspect, and double that of Venus. In this observa. her margin, and the boundary between tion la magnifying power of 60 times ber dark and enlightened hemisphere, was used. In his approach towards the cannot be accurately distinguished. sun, about the end of July, I could not Hence it is frequently found necessary perceive him when he was within 250 or to contract the aperture of tlie object. 26° of his conjunction with that lumi. glass of the telescope, in order to diminary: These circumstances furnish nish the intensity of her light; and, for sensible and popular proof, independent ibe same reason, some astronomers, when of astronomical calculations, that Jupiter viewing this planet, have used a smoked is removed at a inuch greater distance klass next the eye; which precautions from the sun than Venus, since his light are never found necessary in viewing is so faint as to be scarcely perceptibla Mars, Jupiter, or Saturu. This circum. when more than 200 from the sun, whila stance, of itself, seems to form a pre- that of Venus is distinctly' seen amidst sumptive proof that the degree of light the full splendour of the solar rays.' on Venus is greater than that on the The observation above referred to was surface of Jupiter.

made in the presence of several persons, But what 'I consideras still more some of whom were not much accusconclusive, and as forming the principal tomed to look through telescopes; they objection to the opinion now under con. all perceived Venus distinctly, as soon sideration, is, the different degrees of as they applied their eye to the telebrilliancy exhibited by the planets, when scope; but it was with some difficulty, viewed in the day-time, which is pecu- and not till after several trials, that they liarly striking. On this point I beg could distinguish Jupiter. I have had leave to quote a passage from a cominu. several opportunities of making similar nication I some tine ago transmitted to observations since that time, and they Nicholson's PhilosophicalJournal, entitled have uniformly produced similar results, “Observations on the celestial bodies, Some weeks after Jupiter's last conjuncmade in the day-time, particularly on the tion with the sun, which happened on planet Venus, with some new deductions September 14, 1814, I endeavoured to in relation to that planet," inserted in ascertain how near that luminary he ibe Journal for October 1813. "Though might be seen; but I could not perceive Jupiter, when ac, and near, his opposi- him in the day-time, when he was near tion to the sun, appears to the naked the meridian, till October 22, when he eye with a brilliancy nearly equal to that was somewhat more than 290 in lon. of Venus, yet there is a very striking gitude discant from the sun; and, even difference between these two planets, in then, he appeared extremely faint, respect of lustre, when viewed in day, though, at the time of observation, lig light, Jupiter, when viewed with a was more than 25° in alticude. On higb magnifying power, in the day-time, December 5, I perceived Venus, when always exbibits a very dull cloudy ap near the meridian,about 40 past 11, A.M. pearance; whereas Venus appears with a when her elevation above the horizon moderate degree of splendour. About was only about 120; and also, on the the end of June, 1813, between five and same day, betwixt 9 and 10 o'clock, A.M. sis ja the evening, the sun being nearly when her altitude was little niore than three hours above the horizon, having 50; in both cases she appeared more viewed the planet Venus,then within 200 vivid and distinct than Jupiter, on Octue of the sun, aud winch appeared with a ber 22. She was then only about 50 moderate degree of lustre, I directed distant from the sun ; and, had not the the telescope to Jupiter, at that time state of the weather prevented further more than 320 froin the sun, when the observations, she would probably have contrast between the two planets was been seen, when much nearer the sun, very, striking, Jupiter appearing so faint potwithstanding her law altitude. Io as to be but just discernible, though his these observations there was no opako apparent magnitude was more than

body interposed to intercept the direct
solar
rays.

When we consider the diffiDr. Hooke has observedi, “that the same glass will bear a greater or less culty of perceiving the heavenly bodies, apertare, according to the less or greater when at low altitudes, through the gross light of the object. If, for instance, he vapours near the horizon, the circumwas viewing the Sun or Venus, he used analler apertures; but, if he wanted to

In the paper from which this extract view the moon by day-light, or Saturn, is taken, an observation is stated, in which Jupiter, or Mars, by night, be used a larger Venns was distiuctly seen when only 2 perture,"

froin the sun's eastern limba
3 C2

stances

196 Mr. Dick on the Light and Heat of the Planets. [April 1, stances in wþich Venus was seen, in the same time I may add, that they do not observations now stated, were evident: depend on my testimony alone, but ly very unfavourable; yet neither her some of them could be attested, if reproximity to the sun, nor the dense quisite, by several respectable characters. atmosphere through which her says had That they are not repugnant to the deto penetrate, could prevent her light ductions of Mr. Short, who seems to from being distinguished. In the month have been among the first who made of October last, when Saturn was more similar observations, appears from the than 909 from the sun, he could not be following extract from his description of perceived till within half an hour or the Equatorial Telescope" By this twenty minutes of sun-set, and even then instrument most of the stars of the first be exhibited a very faint cloudy appeare and second magnitude, have been seen ance, though his apparent diaineler was even at mid-day, and the sun shining as great, and his altitude, at the time of bright; as also Mercury, Venus, and observation; as high, as those of Venus Jupiter. Saturn and Mars are not so in the above-stared observations. Į easy to be seen on account of the fainthave never been able to distinguish this ness of their light, except when the sun planet, in the day-time, even at the time is but a few bours above the horizon.'' of its opposition to the sun, except a Methren, near Perth; T. Dicke very short tiine before sun-selling. His Feb. 2, 1815. great southeru declination, at present, and his consequent low elevation above To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine: the horizon, it must be acknowledged, SIR, are unfavourable for such observations; but the same circumstances were equali

, Imout Magazine for March, under the

term “ Aphorisms," it is maintained unfavourable in the case of Venus, as that the landed property is mortgaged noted above.

to the public creditor to the extent of the As the above-stated facts are not so. capital of our debt.- This I deny. There litary instances, but specimens of many is no law, nor was there any bargain at similar observations which I have fre. the different periods when our debt was quently made, they seem to furnish a incurred, from which such an inference can presumptive proof, that the quantity of be deduced, I know well that it is the light on Venus is considerably greater firm belief of the monied interest that all than that on Jupiter and Saturn; and lands and property are securities for the consequently that the probability lies principal of the public debt. But the against the hypothesis which supposes, really implied security is not on the printhat "they possess the same degree of cipal of all property, nur on land in par. light as the earth does,"

." Otherwise,why ticular, nor even on the incoine derived should Jupiter always exhibit such a dull from land and other property, but merely and claudy appearance, in the day-time, and burely on the taxes levied from the inwhen compared with Venus? Why come of the nation. I say, this is the imshould the light of this planet be undise plied security of the public creditor, and tinguishable by day-light when more 'ihat only for his interest, and not for the than 20° distant from the sun, while that principal. For, consider the progress of of Venus is distinctly seen when she is a loan. The minister borrows from cer. within 5.9, and even when within 30 taiu monied persons, at a fixed rate of of the body of that luminary? And interest, in perpetuity, but under no obliwhy should Saturn be so difficult to be gation to repay the principal. The exdistinguished, even in the most favour. ceptions to this prove my position; for I able positions, if the light of the super recollect that ihe public creditor (for rior planets be not inferior in degree to some part of the four or five per cents.) the ligh¢ of Mercury and Venus? If is bound to accept his principal if the this is not the conclusion to be deduced, stocks rise to a certain height. Now to it remains with those who adopt a differ- meet the interest, which the minister enent opinion to account for the pheno. gages to pay for the loan of the principal inena now described, in another way, sum, "Ways and Means" are proposed Should Mr. Douglas be disposed to by different taxes. In all this there is question the accuracy of the observa. pot the slightest allusion to an engage. tions here'stated, I can only recommend ment, or yportgage, for even the interest hiip to repeat the observations himself, pver the land and property of the country. in company with any of his friends,whose Whenever therefore the taxes canminds are not warped by an attachment not be brought to meet the interest of ta a favourite hypothesis ; and, at the the public debt, the public creditor must

subruit

197

1815.) Security of Public Debt.-Boring Matches. pubmit to a diminution of his interest. well rid of the Property Tax, if even at And bis situation is merely that of a per- the expence of something as bad or petual anouitant, whose annuity depends worse. I know not whether we are not upon the produce of the taxes.

in the wrong of being rid of it on such A. B, C. terms. But, although we often uodesign

edly change bad for worse, no one wishes To the Edilor of the Monthly Magazine. such an exchange. It should have been BIR,

printed, “ if not at the expence." IT is offensive to all persons of delicacy I helieve it capable, by reducing to pa

to see whole columns of our newspa- litical proportions instead of were arith.. pers occupied with the disgusting details metical 10 per cent., wherever it falls, to and low slang of boxing.matches; froin have received modifications, which may which foreigners must conclude it to be a have made it preferable to most other subject of the utmost interest and impor- means, perhaps to any, of raising a vast tance to the British public. Boxing annual sum. ought never to be connived at or per But then Life. Annuities, and, still mitted, unless it can be proved to have more, incomes from professions, and some useful tendency, (instead of exciting trade or manufactures, ought to have a brutal and quarrelsome disposition ;) in been taxed much more lightly than abso which case it ought to be more generally luce fixed property, whether real or perencouraged, and not confined to a few sonal; and small property than great. Seeindividuals of the lowest description. ing no prospect of such modificatiuns, I

Those who attend boxing-matcbes do saw no probability of much substantial not reason on the subject, but merely go as relief. 'I think few will say that I was to a horse-race for the purpose of betting much deceived, or that we are any way money ; perhaps worse specimens of huc near a politic, just, and tolerably.cqual man nature could not be found than of system of finance. those who attend such exhibitions. Cock

Solar Spots. fighting is a most contemptible and cruel These are now become conspicuous amusement; but how much more so is it on each side of tlie Sun, as it presents to hire two human beings, coolly stand. itself alternately in about 18 days . ing by, and barbarously encouraging Apparent Meusure of a Degrec. them to beat and bruise each other, till My sight ineasures the apparent mean the “human face divine" is converted in- diumeter of the Sun and Moon at about to a hideous piece of deformity, at which 6 inches; which I find the Chinese ustrohumanity shudders! The man who was nomy well corresponds with more than just before standing erect, in all the pride 2000 years back ; 100 feet, or lchang, beof his strength, like the “ mighty warrior ing =1000. This may assist, in a gross of the race of Fingal,” brought by long estimate, what old Chronicles mean when training to the utmost state of bodily pero speaking of Truins of Come!s 20 feer op fection, is in one half hour laid prostrate, yards long.–Vide Pingré Cometographe fainting with agony, carried away to lan- 7. 1, p. 351, und pp. 572-9. guish for monihs ou a sick. bed, possibly Troston;

CAPEL LOFFT. to rise from it no more!

March 2, 1815. Yet this brutal practice has its advocates; for there is nothing too absurd To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. bot to have advocates, particularly if sanc

SIR, tioned by long custom and antiquity. It has even been asserted that bulbaiting. ecline year 18:16

. there will be four is of use to preserve the British charac- The first is of the o on the 27th of ler from degenerating and becoming effe- May, but invisible in these parts. The minate; but experience has shewn that second is a total and visible one of those people who kuow nothing of box- the D on the 9th and 10h of June, ing or bull-baiting are quite as brave in The third is a large and visible one of the field of batile as those who have the O, which I purpose giving a descrip been accustomed to practices that are tion of in this paper. The fourth is a worse than useless, and a national dis. partial and visible one of the ) on the grace.

VERITAS. 4th of December.

The solar eclipse of November 19th To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. will be the largest visible one at London SIR,

since that of 1764. It will be central I that I could nut say, “I wish we were Asia, the p'a apparent diameter, at its

- grealey,

many, &c.

198

Great Salar Eclipse in November 1810. (April 1, greatest altitude on the central tract 40', long. 58° 27', lat. 90° 58', long, exceeds that of the about 46"; cau- 62° 11', and lat. 31° 43', long. 664); sing an umbrageous tract of one hundred quitting Persia ai 29 after eleven, in miles, more or lese in breadth, according will enter the northern part of Hindoso to the position of the ) with respect to tan, passing over lat. 33° 6', long. 73 the horison.

31', and at about 26. after eleven will This eclipse will begin on the O's up. reach the extensive empire of China per limb at his rising, in lat. 47° 55' Entering the great desert of Cobi, the By N. long. 10° 51' 11" W., and in a central eclipse leaves the earth witb the few minutes will be visible over a great setting in lat. 35° 54' 59'' N. 101. extent of country. Before the centre of 83° 9' 57" E, at 27' 49" after eleven, the ) enters the earth's disc, the eclipse A.M. Hence the line joining the ceno will be seen at the Azores, Maderias, tres of the 0 and will describe the British isles, in Franco, Spain, Ger- curve on the carth's surface not less The commencement of the central

than 4650 geographical miles in 1 52 tract will be at 9 34 53, in lat. 66°56. But, owing to the globular form of 18' N. long. 0° 5' F. passing over some

the earth, and its diurnal motion on its parts of Norway, and along the coast of axis, combined with the motion of the ) Sweden near the Cattegat, it crosses the in her relative orbit, she increments of Baltic and the island of Bornholm, and,

the curve will be very unequal, making after leaving lat. 54° 32', long. 15° 23', and in the middle of nearly 190 geogra

a difference between chose at the ingress it will enter Pomerania about 40' after pine, à little to the N. E. of Colberg,

phical uniles in a minute. continuing its course to lat. 51° 14', in lat. 13° 19'43" N. long. 73° 26' 26"

· The eclipse will finally leave the earth long. 19° 38' in Prussian Poland; at 46 m. after nine it will be very near the town E., which happens in the Arabian Sea, of Cracow ; entering Hungary, the cene visible to all Europe, the N.E. part of

Dear the coast of Malabar. It will be tral tract will pass over lat. 48° 3', long. 23° 21', to lat. 45° 57', long. 260 38, Africa, as far as the line, and the north where it will leave that country, and western parts of Asia. The doration enter European Turkey, about 55' after will be 4 31 12, beginning at 8 13 nine, cross the Danube near Silistria, and at ten o'clock it will have reached 45 and ending at 12 46 57. the coast of the Black Sea in lat. 43° 51",

As this eclipse will not only be total long. 29° 10'. The will be centrally along the central tract, but for several eclipsed at noon in lat. 43° 23' 431, miles on each side of it, and the umbra long. 29° 42' 30", which happens in the will pass over some places of note, both Black Sea,

about one hundred and fifty in Europe and Asia, it is to be hoped miles N. N. E. of Constantinople; the curiosity, will induce some persons to tract passes over lat. 41° 58', long. 310 communicate their observations on spel 25', and egters Asiatic Turkey about 6"

an interesting phenomenon. It bas geafter ten; and, in crossing that country, nerally happened, that the great solar its position will be lat. 40° 8', long. 33° eclipses at London have been annulas 10ʻ, lat. 38° 40', long. 35° 1', lat.

70 ones, which was the case in 1748, 1764, 22", long. 37° 1', lat. 36° 13', long. 38° 1793, 1804, and will be again in 1820 56', lat. 35° 7', long. 400 47', lat. 340

so that it very rarely happens that the 6', long. 42° 39', and lat. 33° 22', long. umbra passes over Europe, which makes 44° 19': leaving Turkey close to the it more desirable in the present instance, eity of Bagdad, it enters Persia, at 40m.

when an opportunity offers in this quarafter ten, near the borders of Arabia.

ter of the globe, to bave a correct ac. In crossing Persia, the curvature of the

count of the circumstances attending the central tract will be very considerable. apparenc extinction of the great light of It will pass over lat. 32° 38', long. 46°

Heaven. 13', lat. 32° 5', lung. 48° 18', lat, 31°

I shall now give the elements for con. 23', long. 5032', lat. 31° 6', long. 520 structing this eclipse, from which many 16', lat. 30° 50', long. 55° 28', lat, 300 curious deductions may be obtained :

The Elements for Constructing the great Solar Eclipse of 1816. Semi-diameter of the Earth's disc = (60' 16".5–8“.9). 1° 0 75.6 O's declination (south)

19° SO 43 D's trne latitude, north, decreasing

50' 46":& The angle which the relative orbit makes with the ecliptie 5° 55' 34".9 Apparent time of the true o of the O and ), Nov. 19, at 10, 32 33 A.M.

Horary

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