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Meteorological Report at Carlisle, for 1814.

[Feb. 1,

For the Monthly Magazine.
METEOROLOGICAL ABSTRACT for the last TWELVE MONTHS at CARLISLE.

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Annual Mean 45.32 Ann. Mean 29.8763 27.56 156 179 186

Total. Tot.I'Tot. Tot.! General Remarks on the Weather, &c. during the remainder of the month we

observed at Curlisle during the year had some heavy rains, particularly on 1811.

the 28th, which was wet throughout. January was remarkable for the in. May was extremely cold and droughtense frost and great falls of snow, which ty, with strong parching easterly winds ; prevailed in every part of the United the average temperature being 10 lower Kingdom. For a particular account of than that of the preceding month: white the temperature, and other phenomena frosts were very prevalent, and we freof the weather experienced here, see quently saw strong ice; scarcely any Monthly Magazine for March, p, 121. rain fell, the 51 parts of an inch in the

February. During this month we table was chiefly sleet, which fell on the had some mild and pleasant days, but 23d, and on the following morning all the nights were generally frosty. On the mountains visible from this place the morning of the 6th, about eight were capped with snow. inches depth of snow fell, which, on the June, excepting the 14th and 15th, 9th, was nearly all dissolved in this which were very sultry, was a continuneighbourhood; and the rivers here also ation of most unseasonable cold weather; cleared of the ice. The weather was in the former part of the month, the very dry, and the latter half of the month nights were frosty, when ice was often was fair throughout.

observed in the mornings; it was also March. From the beginning till the very droughty, and the brisk parching 21st, was an uninterrupted succession easterly winds which prevailed were exof severe frost: the average temperature tremely injurious to vegetation. from the 28th of last December, to this July continued droughty and very time, (three months,) is no higher than cold for the season, till the 23d, when 32°, the freezing point, which is an ex. we experienced a sudden change to sultrenie of cold for the same period, pro- try and oppressive heat, which prevailed bably unprecedented in this climate : the during the remainder of the month: in last ten days of this month were uni. the night of the 25th we had some vivid formly mild and pleasant.

lighening, and on the 28th and 29th an April.--The weather continued mild excessive quantity of rain, when nearly and genial, and exceedinly favourable the whole 3,61 inches in the table fell for i he season, till the 23d, when a fall on these two days. of rain commenced, which, without August. The first six and the last ceasing, continued for fuity-eight hours: eight days of this month were very.sul

try;

1815.) Observations on the Grecian Tragic Drama.

25 try; the rest was uncommonly cold for for many years. The destructive hure the season; the weather was showery ricanes which occurred on the 16th, and rather unfavourable for the harvest. 17th, and 18th, and which prevailed all

September was a succession of exceed. Over the kingdomn, were felt here with ingly fine weather; ewenty-three days great severity; chimnies were blown were brilliant and serene, and the sky down, and the roofs of a great many generally cloudless; the crifing quantity buildings considerably damaged, but of rain (,96) fell in light showers between fortunately nothing very serious hapthe 20th and 28th. On the evening of pened. On the 20th, a frost commenced, the 11th we were visited by a singularly with a strong parching east wind, which beautiful and interesting aurora borealis; continued till the 29th; the two last soon after twilight, two luminous arches days of the year were mild and showery. appeared in the northern hemisphere; In the beginning of the month we had the altitude of the centre of the smaller some heavy falls of snow, which soou one, from the horizon, about 12°; the dissolved, and the surrounding, moun. other, which was very brilliant, extended tains were frequently observed to be across the heavens from the south-west perfectly white.

W. Pitt, to the north-east, its centre at first about Carlisle; Jan. 2, 1815. 5° north of the zenith; this rain-bow like arch was about 40 in breadth, it To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, moved slowly over the zenith to the

SIR, southward, and in 'three-quarters of an

I

BEG to trouble you with one line as bour disappeared ; during the receding to pokers. I have for several years of this arch to the southward, the smaller had all mine pierced below the bright one increased in altitude by « uniform part, and a round pin put through, exmotion, keeping concentric to it till it tending about an inch on each side. became invisible; immediately after the When the poker is inserted in the grate the disappearance of the arch, active stream least turn of the wrist leaves it so secure ers darted from the north, and in a short that it cannot fall out; or a cross piece time nearly the whole hemisphere was might answer still better. H. T. B. most beautifully illuminated ; this phenomenon continued with uncomnion For the Monthly Magazine. splendour till unidnight, when it gradu. OBSERVATIONS on the GRECIAN TRAGIG ally disappeared. The luminous arches

to have angles. The last aurora borealis, preyiously observed here, was in Feb. 1807. these only seven remain. If the number

October. --The first ten days were fair ascribed io him excites surprize, the imand brilliant; the remainder was chiefly probability will be much diminished by wet, with intervals of serene and plea considering that among them might be sant weather; the temperature of this many short and occasional interludes. month was remarkably variable: we fre- 1. The first in order is the “ Promequently experienced a change of up- theus Chained." Extravagant as the wards of twenty degrees within the space fable of this drama must now appear, it of twelve hours. On the 16th we had displays great force and sublimity of some lightning and a peal of thunder, it genius, blended with a wild and terrible being the only time thunder was heard magnificence. The poet composed three in this city during this year : some smart tragedies on the Story of Prometheus, frosty nights occurred, and on the 25th of which, this alone, has survived the snow was observed on the neighbouring wreck of time. The first exhibited the mountains.

crime of Prometheus, which seems to November. The greater part of this have been his endeavour to civilize the month was very wet and gloomy. The human race, and render them happy. 20th, 21st, and 22d, were intense frost: The second, or that which is now extant, on the 21st, the thermoineter was as low makes a tremendous display of the

puas 18°: the mountains were generally nishment of this great delinquent, who capped with snow.

was doomed by Jupiter to be chained to December. During the former half of a wild and desolate rock, frowning over this month, we had some most unsea. the sea; exposed to a ravening eagle, or, sonable mild weather, accompanied with as other authorities equally authentic etcessively beavy rains, which made the state, a vulture, by which his liver, daily sivers here overfl'w their banks to a growing, was destined to be daily congreater extent than we have witnessed sumed. MONTULY Mad. No. 265.

lg

DRAMA.

crossed the magnetic
meridian, right Æ written seventy tragedies

. of

26 Observations on the Grecian Tragic Drama. (Feb. 1,

In these circumstances, be refuses and denounces the curses of the Theban with scorn to make the submission re. state against Polynices. quired of him; prescient that fate to

« In death, the vengeance of his country's which Jupiter bimself was subject, or- gods dained his delirerance; which was at Pursues bim; for he scorn'd thict, and Jength, according to the eternal and im. presun'd mutable decree, equally binding upon To lead a foreign host and storm the town: gods and inen, effected by the hand of Be this theor his reward, to be expos'al Ilercules. This constitused the subject To ravenous birds --- unhonourd of the of the third Promethean drama,

rites 2. The second tragedy is styled, « The That grace the dead.”—“So say the

Theban rulers," Şapplicants." These Supplicants were the firty daughters of Davaus, who soughie This language awakens the heroic spirit refuge on ihe coast of Argos, where of his sister, Antigoné, who replies: Pelasgus then reigned, from the perse- « And to these Theban rulers 1 declare, bution of their uncle Egyptus, whose If none besides dare bury him, myself wicked purpose it was to marry them to Will do that office; heedless of the danger; his fifty sons. This trngedy is not witti. And think no shame to disobey the state, out its beauties, and the character of Paying the last sad duties to a brother." Pelasgus is that of a monarch, just, This forms the subject of a drama, ren. wise, and beneficent; but compared dered interesting by the genius of Sowith the fornies, the supplicants is a phocles. feeble dráma, and the subject too nearly 4. " Agamemnou." This is a noble approaclics to burlesque.

tragedy; the chef d'auvre of Eschylus: 3. "The Seven Chiefs against Thebes." the subject is grand, and the execution This is a stately and dignified perform- in all respects equal to it. The play ánce: and the story, so celebrated in opens with the long-expected appearance antiquiry, 'had its origin doubtless in of that joyful sigual, which had been pretraditionary Yacts. Such were the nicht viously tixed upon to denote the fall of ideas entertained of the virtue of patri. Troy :prism, that Eteocles, though the original si The tire that from the top of Ida sent aggressor, was venerated as the defender It's streaining light, blazed jocund to the of Thebes; and Polynices, the injured

steep party,, who brought a foreign army of Lemnos--Athos' sacred head received nyainst the city whicli gave him birth, The mighty splendor - It mondts the svas lield accursed. And, after the death sunumit of the two brothers, it was decreed ty Of Arachné, which, with towering pride the rulers of the Theban slate, that the

looks down former should be interied with honour,

On Argos." and the corpse of Polynices

After an interval of gratulation and tri. « Cast out unburied to the days a prey."

umph, Agamemnon appears in person, In this play, there is much inore of and the speech by which he announce's description than of action. It is remarks him-elf, is worthy of the great and magable, that locasta, equally wretched as

nanimous leader of the Grecian host. gueen, aş mother, and as wite, is not in- " The King of King's beloved of Jove." troduced, named, or even alluded to in “ To Argos first, and to my country fods it. The most animated scene is that in I bow with reverence, by whose boly which the Seven Chiefs, their persons,

guidance, characters, and devices on their shields, On Troy's prond walls I pour'd their riglo are successively delineatcd, But des

teous vengeance, scription soon becomes tedious, and it And now revisit sate my native soil," &c. is dificult not to acquiesce in the cri- Clytemnestra, the remorseless and aban. ticism of Pere Brumoy, who says, "Cette doned Clytemnestra, receives her Jord Scene est fort longue et n'a pu être inter, with all the fascinating arts and wiles of ressante que pour les ai theniens qui con

female perhdy :-noissent Theles et les Chefs dont on va

At thy return, parler.” We are at length informed, The gushing fountains of my tears are that

ciried; “ The city is preserved, the brother kings

Welcome as land, which the tosked mariner Are fallen, cacla slangliter'd by the otiier's Beyond his hope descries. Welcome as hand."

day,

After a night of storms, with fairer beams This is followed, and the play concluded, Returning; welcome as lhe liquid lapse by a scene, in which a herald appears, Of fountain to the thirsty traveller."

Againemnon

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Orestes

1819.) Obserrations on the Grecian Tragic Drama. Agamemnon is accompanied by Cas. grown up to man's estate, he secretly, sandra, daughter of Priain, the royal and in disguise, returned to Aryos, with prophetess, whose fate it was ever 20 the full purpose of vengeance on the predict the truth, and never to be be. muiderers. But, in the first place, res liered. This high-boro virgin he recom. pairing to the tomb of his father, and mends to the care of Clytemnestra, when according to the custom of ancient times, affects to receive the illustrious captive inaking thereon the offering of his hair, with every mark of kindness. · Agamem, as indicatory of his grief and affection, non and Clytemnestra having withdrawn be sees a train of females advancing from themselves, Cassandra, wlio had hitherto the palace, and bringing libations to the feinained silent, wholly uamoved by the comt; whence the tragedy derives its soft words of Clytemnestra; being left name : and it closes with the terrific and alone with the chorus, is suddenly seized bloody sacrifice, not ouly of Egisthus, with the prophetic furor, and frantically but of his mother, Clytemnesıra, by the exclaims Wo! wo! O Earth! Apolló, enraged and pitiless Orestes : an act of O Apollo!" Upon the subsequent de- yery doubtful moral rectitude. In this mand of explanation from the chorus, a play, the murder of Ægisthus precedes scene exsues which must be classed ibat of Clytemnestra. among the chief efforts of tragedy; and 6. “The Furies.” This is the ter.

the fate of Agamemnon, with the pre. mination of the same story. çeding and succeeding calamities of the had shed the blood of his mother by the house of Atreus, is depictured and de express command of the oracle of Apollo; plored in all the dark, but magnificent yet he is haunted by the furies and imagery of poetic enthusiasm. At the driven to distraction. His sufferings conclusion of this terrific scene, the voice were regarded by the generality, as the of Agamemnoo is heard within, exclaim. just punishment of parricide: for no ing, that he has received a deadly authority, it was supposed, could sancwound: and a second time, that he is tion so direful an aci. At length an ap. basely murdered: iminediately after peal being made to Minerva, that god. whicis, Clytemnestra appears, and avows, dess referred the cause to the court of with pride and exultation, the horrid Areopagus. The trial took place, and deed :

on couiting the shells, they were found " Entangled in the gorgeous robe that equal; Minerva, hersell

, giving her vote sbone

in favour of Orestes, who is consequently Fatally rich; I struck him twice, and twice acquitted of moral guilt, and the Furies He groan'd, ten died.”

declare themselves appeased. Thus we The character of Clytemnestra is ad- though the act of Orestes might be viu,

are ingeniously given to understand, that mirabis supported in the following dicated, on the ground of strict and ri. scenes; and Egisthus, her paramour and accomplice in the murder, and the gorous justice, it was too borrid in its

nature lo deserve the meed of sworn enemy of Agamemnon, also boasts virtuous applause. in the spirit of a Zanga:

7. “ The Persians." This fine drama "All this plan of ruin was mine, reckless represents the confusion and consterOf what ensues; e'en death were glorious nation of the court of Susa, on the intel. Now that he prostrate lies, cauglit in ligence of the battle of Salamis. Dis. My vengeance.”

tracted by opposing counsels, the ghost The sequel of this horrid story, Occupies of Darius, invoked by the assembled the two next tragedies of this great poet; chiefs and satraps of the empire, arises, and they contain likewise very great, and with theatric dignity, not inferior to though, from ibe nature of the fable, not any other ghost, waris them not to con: equal beauties or equal interest with the tinye the war against Greece, as perše. first part.

verance will produce only a succession 5. "The Choephoræ, on Bearers of of disasters. 'A more refined piece of Libations to the Tomb." The scene of Nattery, no poet ever offered on the ibis tragedy, as of the former, is at Ar. altar of national vanity; and no people, gos, before the royal palace. Orestes, perhaps, were ever more gratified by the only son of the slaughtered monarch, such incense, than the Athenians; nobly and as yet a child at the period of bis conscious of their own personal, puli. assassination, was, in consequence of that tical, and intellectual superiority. event, conveyed to the court of Stro. On a general review of the existing pbius, King of Phocis, his uncle; and, dramas of this great poet, it is impossible alter the lapse of some years, being to sum up bis character Belter, tin

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28 Mr. Philipps on Dr. Spencer's Free Gospel. [Teb. 1, the words of Quintilian :--Tragedius As the tutors and elders are to receive primus in lucem Æschylus protulit, sub- no emolument for their instructions, so limis, et gravis, et grundiloquus sæpe none are to be encouraged to become usque ad vitium ; sed rudis in plerisque, et pupils, tutors, or elders, who liave not the incompositus.-Quint. L. X. C. 1. probable means of supporting themselves

aud families by their fortunes, professions, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

or trades.

The time the papils are to devote to SIR, ou will much oblige a constant years. During the first three years they

their studies, is two hours each day for six reader of your useful publication, are to be taught their own language gramif you would enquire, among your nu. matically, the Hebrew of the old Testamerous correspondents, for a specific ment, thie Greek of the Septuagint translafor the cure of sheep that are seized tion, and of the New Testament. And, with a sort of vertigo, called hy us " turn during the remaining three years, the giddy.” They are inostly subject to the pupils are, for their greater improvement, disease avhen one year old; and, by a

for one hour every day, to teach pupils constant inclination to turn round, it English, Hebrew, and Greek. And for causes them to waste in their flesh, and further necessary to enable them to read

one hour they are to be taught what is carries off great numbers in about two weeks after they are attacked with the well, and explain clearly, the New Testadisorder.

ment in public: namely, the geography

and natural history of the countries where A HEREFORDSHIRE FARMER.

the Scriptures were written—the history

of the four great empires with which the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Jews were connected—the customs of the SIR,

Jews and other Eastern nations-Christian I

HEREWITH send you a copy of ecclesiastical history—the elements of na

Dr. Spencer's plans for “A FREE tural philosophy, of logic, and of rhetoric. Gospel."' I am desired to observe on The pupils having, at the end of six years, the words “and an elder of a Christian completed their course of studies, are, Society," that this is not insisted upon

for three years more, to teach their pupils as a condition of learning, but you are

what they themselves shall have learnt to understand that the ubject is to qua.

daring the last three years of their own

educatiou. lify persons to become elders of Christian Societies. And again, with respect to

The following calculatiou sliews, that if

one teacher complete the education of the time mentioned, Mr. S. says, he four pupils in six years, and the four pupils finds that his pupils may begin to teach shall each of them have begin the educa. at the end of the first year; and that, tion of four other pupils at the end of consequently, their education may be three years, the education of those papils coinpleted in less than half the tiine be will be finished at the end of pine years; at first-thought would be necessary.

and they will bave had in train sixty-four Bristol. Thos. PHILIPPS.

pnpils, whose education will be completed

at the end of twelve years, and so on, till A FREE GOSPEL.

all the world might soon be instructed in To the Lovers of Divine Revelation, who the kuowledge of the Sacred Scriptures

are desirous of promoting the Knowledge in the langnages in which they were oriof the Holy Seriptures throughout the ginally written. whole World, the following Outline of a

Teacher....1 Plan for forming Christian Tutors, and

Pupils......4 ........ Years 6 Teaching Elders of Christian Societies,

16.

............. is respectfully submitted.

64.......

12 Every pupil is to be gratuitously taught

256..

...15 to become a tutor of other pupils, and

1,094....

18 an elder of a Christiau society. No pupil

4,096......

-21 or tutor is to be withdrawn from his sea

16,384... cular occupation for more than two hours

65,536....

27 each day. Every pupil is to engage to in.

262,144....... SO struct, when he shall be able, four other

1,048,576......... pupils, if they cau be procured, upon the

4,194,304,

.. 36 same free terms on which he is to receive

16,777,216.

.39 instruction himself. No tutor or elder is

67,108,864

. 42 to receive any emolument for his instruc, 268,435,456 tions. No person is to become a Christian 1,073,741,824.

48 elder of a congregation before he is abont The anthor of the above plan is aware thirty years of age, and, therefore, not to thạt it cannot be carried into execution in become a pupil til he is about twenty. its fullest extent with respect to number;

but

24

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