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1813.) ddmeasurement of Hilly Ground.

29 bat that it may in a sufficient degree, he Though many of your intelligent and is so fully persuaded, that he is ready to professional readers may smile at these put it to the test, if a sufficient wamber of questions, ic is hoped they will receive proper pupils shall offer.

such a reply as will render it unnecessary Bristol, Feb. 7, 1814. B. SPENCER, M.D.

to repeat them; it being obvious, that To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. science from error, and to correct inno

something is to be done lo emancipate SIR,

vation. HAVE just been the calm observer

Chapel-en-le. Frith, VIATOR.

Dec. 26, 1814. acrimony, about the actual acreal mea. sure of an estate, which has lately To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine changed bands; which dispute originated from the following circumstances :

SIR, The recent purchaser, with a view of satisfying himself that the purchase I HAVE read with great pleasure, in

your Magazine for December, Mr. really included the number of acres ine W. Deacon's letter respecting cutfee, dicated io the deed, caused the whole to and I take the liberty to point out to be re surveyed by a gentleman, whom he him, and to your readers, what I take to considered eminently qualified. The re- be an error, taken (if I understarw right. sult of whose survey varied so materially ly) fro Le Spectacle de la Nature, and from that of the person who had pre this respects the introduction of the ceded him, as to occasion a very consi- coffee-trees from Java into Martinica, derable difference in the estimated pur. In the eighth volume of Labat's Voyage chase-money. When the period arrived aux Antilles, is a certificate from the for the payment of the final instalment, captain of the quarter, and soine other the purchaser claimed an allowance to public functionaries, with respect to the the amount of this difference. To supe state of the coffee tree, then just introport this claim he produced bis own sur, duced into Martinico from the Jardin du veyor's map; to which was opposed the Roi, at Paris. I

quote
from

memory, not map of the surveyor on the other side. having this or any books, on this side of Map thus opposed to map, and both the Atlantic. This, I think, was dated being executed with neatness almost ini. about the year 1720 or 1721. Laliat milable, left the parties so little to say, hopes, that the introduction of the that, each relying on the accuracy of his coffee-tree may, in time, compensate for own, and the ability and integrity of his the loss of the cocoa-trees, which, from own surveyor, it was mutually deter. some unknown cause, had then recently mined to leave the final decisiou to the perished. I have no ineaus of getting surveyors themselves. The surveyors at Labat here, but the book is not, I met; and it was soon wade to appear believe, very scarce; and a copy of this that all this difference had arisen from certificate might inierest such of your one þaving given what he called the readers as have any curiosity on this horizontal, and the other the hypothe question, nusal, or superficial, measure. li is al- It would be desirable to learn from foost unnecessary to reinark, that each what part of the world the tree was defended bis own as the true method, procured tbat was presented by the and condemned that of his opponent as magistrates of Amsterdam to Louis tile altogether erroneous it was e converso, XIVth, in 17 14;-it is probable from the right and wrong, and an adjustment in Levant. this way became impossible.

A very respectable proprietor, at The confession of my own incompe- Demerary, is interesting himself in tency, must be my apology for present. procuring for that colony, the Mocha ing you with this detail. If deemed eli- coffee-tree, thinking that it will greatly gible, its insertion in your invaluable improve the quality of coffee there. i Hlagazine is earnestly requested, as well am of opinion, bowever, that the differ. as the following queries :

ence arises more from diversity of soil, 1. Whether is the horizontal, or the and, perhaps, difference of cultivation hypothenusel, the right or saleable mea. and curing, tban from any difference in sure of lands?

the seed; for I conceive it very likely 2. Are there any circumstances under that the origin of all our trees is from which one anode of mensuration is to be that quarter of the East. A few ripe preferred to the other; and, if there are, berries of the coffee, laken out there, What are they

would, I have no doubt, tasily germinate,

and

and determine the question of superiority. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, Twenty-five years ago, or thereabout, Siti, I remember the Society of Arts adver

PERCEIVE in the last number of your tized a gold medal for bringing home a Magazine, the notice of a new edition certain quantity of coffee in the Cherry. of Dr. Lettsom's Naturalist's and Travel I never heard if it was attempted. ler's Companion. I am not aware from

1 observe that your correspondent whai source your information has been states, on the authority of the House of derived, or from whom it has been obAssensbly of Jamaica, chat, in 1808, tbe tained: I beg leave, however, as the quantity of coffee there had increased subject has been brouglit before your io 28,000,000 lbs. I had been taught readers, to state, that I have in preparar to believe it was much more. By the tion an edition of that valuable work, in return for taxes of the United Colony of which it is proposed to add an account Demerary and Essequibo, it appears of the recent discoveries in the several that the quantity of coffee, in the year branches of science therein treated of, 1810, was 21,139,920 Durch lbs. to and this will be executed under the aus which adding 9 per cent. for difference thor's inspection. The publisher of any of weight, it will make 25,000,000 lhs. pirated copy will be immediately proses and, if to this Berbicé be added, for cuted.

T. J. PETTIGREW, which I have no data, I apprehend the Bolt.court, Fleet-st. Dec. 22, 1814. quantity stated, as produced by Jamaica, will be exceeded.' It is true that this To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. was a very productive year; it must, sint, it is also true that it was a most relince I was peresing the Latin classics, there

are no synonyms which puzzle me year to the planter-heavy exrence was more than the two verbs Invenire and incurred to get in and prepare a large Reperire. I have consulted the best crop, and taxes were paid on a conimo. authorities on the subject, I have exadiry which, when it canne to market, mined Stephans, Faber, Facciolati, Ges. was wholly unsaleable. The long dete ner, and other lexicographers, but with riorated state of the coffee market, and out success. Their distinctions are either the annihilation of the African trade, vague, or proved by indisputable evidence having put a stop to the cultivation of to be false. I have also consulted Dusnew lands in this colony, many coffee menil, Hill, and Crombie, of wbom the estates have, of late, been converted to first professedly treat of synonyms; into sugar ones; aid, it is probable, that but I have noe received from themi ang the quantity of coffee produced in it clear and certain information on the will be considerably diminished. The sutijeci. The last of these writers, in torrent of prejudice that has been deed, in his excellent work the Symbola sivelled, by every art in Europe, against Critica, has shown, that the explanation the colonists on the subject of the slave of these words, given by preceding aus trade, has borne down all before it, and thors, is erroneous; notwithstanding, it is vain for us to attempt in oppose it. however, his extersive acquaintance with Too many inducements yet exist in that the Latin classics, and his acknowledged eheap humanity--that economical phi. metaphysical acumen, he seems to me to lanthropy, which, exercised wholly at have himself failed; for, though he has the expence of the forcaves and lives of detected the errors of preceding writers, others, brings home soch ample aird and evinced the probability that Invenire liberal returns of self-applause, and of is the generic term, the specific difference mutual gratulation to its authors, for my besween it and Reperire, he has not, in feeble pen to oppose it; but the time is my judgment, clearly explained. If such coning when it will be found that, in Philologists have failed in investigating spite of all abstract reasoning, in the the real distinction between these two exact proportion to the facility or diffi. verbs, it will naturally be inferred, that culty of procurig 'negro labourers, the their l'ailure is owing, not to a deficieney colonies of all nations will fourish or in critical talent, but to the difficulty of decline; and neither kidnapping Chinese, the subject. If any of your classical or any other Eutopian substitute that readers can furnish a satisfactory solution has fallen within the scope of my obsere of this difficulty, by doing so, he will vation, will supply their place.

cenfer a favour on AGRICOLA OCCIDENTALIS,

PIILOLOGOS, Bath, Décember 19, 1814.

Il'inchester, Dec. 24, 1814.

T.

1815.) Alr. Murray on the Detonating Balls.

81 To tke Editor of the Monthly Magazine. iron, and exposed it to heat. The detaSIR,

nation of the ball was certainly accoinTHE question respecting the Decub panied with an inflammation of the gun

nating Balls, as far as they relate to powder. I next, on a thin deal board the ignition of gunpowder, has not been put about half a grain of fulminating satisfactorily answered. Mr. Banks'mis. silver and gunpowder together; the time hap at Queen-square fias been misrepre. elapsed prior to the fulinination was consented, and made the ground-work of an siderable, from the wood being a slow attack against his good name.

conductor of heat; but, when this did There can be but one opininn as to occur, as in the former instance, tie the motive which induced Mr. Banks to gunpowder was ignited. I have consicome forward in ile disinterested inanner dered it but justice to mention these he did, as it does honour to his feelings : particulars ; but it dves not follow froin it was the defence “of an ingenious hence that without the aid of heat such foreigner, then absent from the country." effects would take place; all I contend

This speaks “ trumpet-tongued” in his for is this, thac neither a detonating hall favour. As in the mishap itself, one nor fulminating silver will, by there comcannot but regret it. Quem si non te pression, ignite gunpowder. nuit, magnis lumen excidit uusis ;" yet, With regard to the definition of Fire, the destructive canister held only three technically called the “igreous element, ounces !

it is the product, according to the theory The sarcasm contained in the paper of Chrichton, of the union of calorie to which I allude, is aimed against a and light, therefore not an element. tender point; it might have been spared. The electrical spark, whether produced Is this ibe return alas ! that “a gene- by friction, or that modification of ex. rous action should sneet a base reward.” citement the voltaic circle, is capable The character of this respectable indivi. of exciting heat and Aame, but it is dual, as a tradesman, has nothing to fear questionable whether this element re. from the puny, assaults of a feeble mind. sides in the agent acting on, or the maPor myself, I can only say, that a finer terial acted upon by it. Combustion is electrical plate machine than that I not the result of the union of substances have fiom Mr. Bauks, cannot be desired, with oxygen (aecording to the Lavoi. Its intensity and uniformity of action sierian theory), for many bodies obine have been admired by numbers; nay, with it, not exhibiting this effect. It is more, many have, on my suggestion, the consequent of the rapid union of purchased electrical machines from Mr. bodies in opposite states of electricity; B, who have uniformly expressed to me and when their relations are changed, they their approbation of, ani satisfaction become either supporters of combustion with them, tendering their acknowledge or inflammable bodies, as the relation ments for my recommendation.

may be. The two agents must be posiFrom this digression, I pass to assert tive and negative with respect to each that the experiments detailed in that other: thus when sulphur combines with author's paper are any thing but conclu. some of the metals, and potassiuin witla sise, and that he was not warranted to arsenic; and chlorine, Huorine, and io. form the deduction he has done; we dine, are entitled to the appellation of may collect even from his own account, supporters of combustion," as well as that the results were equivocal, and oxygen. being subject to variation, are incomplete From the tepor of Mr. Banks' obserand unsatisfactory; besides, the spark vations on that day, it is evident, that he elicited from the collision of steel and embraced a philosophical detinition of glass, would alone be sufficient to in- the term “ fire," and did not regard the kame gunpowder ; therefore the whole subject tbrough the perverted medium of becomes nugatory. I have placed the vulgar prejudice or popular error. detonating ball in contact with gunpowa I would not be mistaken I applaud der, between two smooth boards: the the Interdict which the magistrates of gospowder was uniforinly dispersed, the metropolis have passed on the sale Dever ignited ; merely crushing the ball of the deconating balls to incautious inwill not inflame gunpowder; the collision dividuals. A child e. g. might put ove obtaining between the glass ball and of them into its mouih, the consequence

would be dieadrul; if swallowed, the My experiments with fulminating sil- issue would be fatal. The force of these Ter hare not been many. I put one of remarks will be readily admitted by Mr. the balls with gunpowder on a place of Banks; all that he contended for, (as I

presume)

iron may.

presume) was merely, that these did not duty of persons in public offices to resist coine within the meaning of the vague by every means, the introduction of that term “ firework," to save the imposition evil, which is for the present fortunately of penalty.

removed. So far P. P. is correct, but I Bishop's Stortford, J. MURRAY. am surprised that a writer in a public Dec. 17, 1814.

print should suffer himself to assert as

a fact, without inquiry, or any foundaTo the Editor of the Monthly Mfugazine, tion, a circumstance totally false, as SIR,

thal“When you take the good old 'N

translated from the Swedish, entitled for weight in the last new coinage, so " The Child of Sorrow;" may I request that you do not get above seven new you to peruse it with atiention, and then hall-pence for nine old;" the contrary is to say, whether there is no resemblance the fact. between that and the Poem of Parnell's I can assert from my own knowledge, " An Allegory on Mfan.” In my bumble and I appeal to the principal brewers of opinion there is. I would wish to be un. London, for a confirination thereof, that derstood that it is not any intention in when persons, possessing old Tower liello insinuate that the learned translator has pence, carry them to the Mine; and after been guilty of plagiarism, as I am con- examination they are found free from fident, from the original productions I counterfeits, the proprie ors receive the have seen froin his pen, that he stands full value in drafts on the Bank of Eng. in no need of borrowing from others. land.

J. C. Would Mr. H. inforın me the author's Dec. 2, 1814. paine? I beg also to observe, Mr. Editor, that To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR, appears no common siinilarity, between the following lines of Aaron A 1.K. in his remarks on the higts

of Hill's, and a stanza from a hymn in use of the Romish church.

price and restrictions on the importation “When Christ, at Cana's feast, by pow'r

of grain, inserted in your last number, divine,

page 496, alluding to a small pamphlet Inspird cold water with the warmth of I published about two months since, on wine,

the Effects of Lowering the Rent of See, cried they, while in redning tide it Land, and on the Corn Laws, says, gush'd,

" that I have endeavoured to prove that The bashful stream hath seen its God lowering the rent of land would very

and blush’d.” Vide Aaron Hill. little affect the price of grain: and that, Compare the above with the following.

if the rent were lowered ten shillings " And since the barden'd Jews mistook

per acre, calculating the average proBoib Betl'lem's star, and Jordan's brook; per acre, it would not be inore than five

duce of wheat at twenty-five bushels The waters, to reproach their sin, At Cana blusli, and turn to wine."

pence per bushel." This I. K. grants, The title of the above hymu is “Cru. the tenant to grow wheat five-pence

but adds, “ if the land-owner enables delis Herodes Deum ;" it is to be found per busbel lower, and the labourer, the in a book called "A Manuel of Prayers wheelwright, the blacksmith, and every and Devotions," printed 1705 ; one of other artificer and tradesmall

, works for which, bearing the autograph of Lord the farmer so much lower than he now Langdale, is in my possession.

can do, (by paying so high for provie Cambridgeshire.

H. G. R.

sions,) as equals five-pence per buskel

for each of them, how many five-pences To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. per bushel may the farmer afford to sell SIR,

his grain (wheat) lower !"
Now, from the manner in which the

of your

readers last publication, on the subject of copper will naturally conclude that a reduction coinage, to pass uncorrected. I agree of ten shillings an acre in the rent with him, chat, unless the present oppo- would enable the farmer to sell bis sition to receiving counterfeit copper mo- wheat a considerable number of fire. ney and tokens, is well followed up, base pençes per bushel lower, and the public imitations of good copper money will be in general will be confirmed in their forced into circulation; and that it is the prejudices and erroneous opinions on the

subjec 6

I OF PT Pe Newington, Preçour question is a3ked, many

1815.] Mr. Booth on the High Price of Corn.

39 subject, and discontent excited, particu- and tear of his implements employed in Jarly among the lower orders; and, as its culture, including fifteen per cent. per the author has not stopped to give an annum on the value of the labour in the answer himself to the question, I shall first cost of them, be equal to 80l. per not scruple to do it, by answering- annum, and the expence of labourers. that, instead of the farmer being enabled employed in the said culture, exclusive to sell his wheat at a considerable num. of the labour of all his domestic ser. ber of five-pences per bushel lower, in vants, be 701, making 1501. an ample, consequence of the lower rate of wages allowance. Suppose then, the raw maat which the labourer, wheelwright, terial, and the duty on it, be equal in blacksmith, &c. could afford to work for value to the labour of the mechanism in him, owing to such reduction in the forming the implements: then the half rent of land, he will not be enabled to of 80l. added to 701. makes 1101. which sell it at more than one-tenth part of is the value of the labour. Now, supo one five-pence per bushel less; the truth pose the wages of a labourer, mechanie, of which will be shewn below.

&c. be equal, on an arerage, to 156, It is demonstrated, in the pamphlet per week ;-it has been proved that the mentioned above, that lowering the rent savings per day to the labourer, &c. of land ten shilings per acre, would by procuring wheat five-pence per bushel only produce a saving of two farthings cheaper, owing to the rent of land per day to the labourer, manufacturer, being lowered, is only one half-penny, mechanic, artificer, &c. It is there or zbth part of bis wages; therefore, fore evident, that it would not produce 1101. divided by 30, gives 3l. 13s. 4d. any reduction in the rate of wages, or the savings of the fariner, equal to nine. in the price of the implements with pence per acre, or one-third part of a which they supply the farmer ; and, penny per bushel, not one-ienth part of were he to inform them that he expect. one five-pence, as stated above. Besides, ed they should lower their wages, and the farmer, as well as every other per charge him a less price for his carts, son, would have additional taxes to pay, ploughs, &c. on account of their savings to make good a considerable deficiency of two farthings per day, owing to the in the public revenue, which would inelowering the rent of land, it would only vitably be produced by lowering the rent excite a laugh amongst them, and they of land. would think him scarcely in his senses,

Those who are acquainted with agri. that be should expect them to lower culture know, with certainty, that, if a their wages on account of these con. fariner were to pay no rent, his other temptible savings. With respect to all expenses being the same, he could not his domestic servants, male and female, grow corn at the present prices. it has likewise been demonstrated, that The real and sole cause of the high the savings to them would be only about price of provisions, and of all other Que shilling per annum to each servant. articles, are the destructive wars that In fact, the farmer would not be bene. have been waged within these last forty fitted at all by his work people, &c. years, and which have involved the obtaining wheat at five-pence per bushel country in an overwhelming debt, and cheaper in consequence of the rent of a load of taxes scarcely supportable. Jand being lowered.

Though nations will never profit by ex. To ascertain, however, how much per perience, individuals will. The next bushel lower the farmer could afford to war will most assuredly teach stock. soll bis wheat, (but which, surely, must holders, or those who lend money 10 be an idle task, after what has been carry on wars, the folly of such a prace shewn above,) supposing wages to lower tice. The invention of the funding in proportion to the savings to the la• system is one of the greatest curses that bsurer, &c. owing to the rent of land ever afflicted mankind. Its evils are being lowered; and these palery savings incessant and eternal, while others are not in be divided between the workmen of a transitory nature. Raise the supe and the farmer, but all to go into the plies within the year, and wars will be latter's pocket, though, in reason, they legs frequent and shorter; while the ought to be disided, if a workman would funding system renders thein more freaccept of a moiety so perfectly insigni- quent and of longer continuance. ficant.

To expect the prices of corn and Suppose then a farmer grows 100 Other commodities to be low, while the cres of wheat annually, and she wear country is struggling under a load of LONTALY Mag. No. 265.

F

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