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ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.
the year 1001, succeeded in imitating The Bakerian Lecture: on
the effects by means of the electrical Electro-chemical Phenomena; by I'm. machine, and thus experimentally demone Thomas Brande, Esq.
strated the identity of common and Vole T has been ascertained by Sir II. Davy taic electricity.
that, when compound bodies, capable More recent investigations, and espe, of transmitting electrity are submitted cially the admirable researches of Sir II. to the operation of the Voltaic pile, their Davy, have fully established the correctproximate and ultimate elements are se ness of these views, and have shewn that parated with uniform phenomena; that the different action of the Voltaic pile acids are attracted towards the positively and the electrical machine, depends electrified surface, and that ulkoline and chiefly upon the quantity of electricity in infiummable substances take an opposite the former being great, while its intensity direction and collect at the negative is inconsiderable, and vice versa. pole.
When the fame of a candle is placed Of the ultimate chemical elements of between two surfaces in opposite electri. bodies, the greater number exhibit the cal states, the negative surface becomes last mentioned character, and a few only most heated ; this circumstance was conappear to be attracted towards the posic sidered by Mr.Cuthbertson as indicating tive extremity of the Voltaic instrument; the passage of electric Huid from the poand as bodies possessed of dissimilar sitive to the negative surface. electrical powers attract each other, it Mr. Erman has shewn that certain sula has been concluded that the inherent stances are unipolar in'regard to the elecelectrical state of the former is positive, tricity of the Voltaic pile ; that is, that that of the latter negative.
they are only susceptible of transmitting These chemnical effects were at first re one kind of electricity. The insulated garded as peculiar to the Voltaic pile, filames of wax, of oil, of spirit of wine, and were considered to depend upon the and of hydrogen gas, only conduct posia operation of a new agent, termed the tive electricity; dry soap, on the contrary, Galvanic fluid, until Dr. Wollastum in and the face of phosphorous, under the
51 fame circumstances, only transmit nega- and in rapid combustion, and benzoic tire electricity.
acid, furnish the most striking instances; · Sir H. Dary considers the result of and of the latter the combustion of poMr. Cuthbertson's experiment to depend tassium and of camphor are excellent upon the unipolarity of the flame, which examples. would render it positive, and cause it to be attracted towards the negative pole. On perusing these statements it occura
Some Experiments on the Combustion of
the Diamond and other Curbonaceous ted to me that they admitted of another explanation, and that the appearances
Substances; by Sir Humphry Davy. might be connected with the chemical na. Since it has been shown by various ac. care of the substances employed. I repeat
curate experiments, ihat the diamond en Cuthbertson's experiment, and found and common carbonaceous substances that, when the electrical machine was in consume nearly the same quantity of oxy. weak action, the negative surface not on.
gen in combustion, and produce a gas ly became hot sooner than the positive, having the same obvious qualities, a num. but that the smoke and flame of the can ber of conjectures have been formed to die were visibly attracted towards it. I explain the remarkable differences in the now removed the candle, and substituted sensible qualities of these bodies, by supthe flame of phosphorus, when the ap- posing some minute difference in their pearances were exactly reversed; the po.
chemical composition: these conjectures šitive surface now became considerably have been often discussed, it will not warmer than the negative, and the flame be necessary therefore to dwell upon and smoke of the phosphorus were powe
them. erfully directed upon it. I conceived, During a stay that I made at Florence therefore, that the flame of the candle in the end of March, and beginning of was attracted by the negative pole, in April, I made several experi inents on consequence of the carbon and hydrogen the combustion of the diamond, and of in which it abounds, and that the rapid plumbago, by means of the great lens in formation of acid malter during the com
the Cabinet of Natural History; the bustion of the phosphorus, was the cause
same instrument as that employed in of its attraction towards the positive pole: the first trials on the action of ihe solar in short, that the appearances were con
heat on the diamond, instituted by sistent with the known laws of electro- Cosmo III. Grand Duke of Tuscany; chemical attraction.
and I have since made a series of re. To ascertain the correctness of this searches on the combustion of differ. idea, it becaine necessary to examine the ent kinds of charcoal at Rome, in the phenomena with greater precision, and to laboratory of the Academia Lyncei. institute the more excended series of ex In the very first trials on the combus. periments.
tion of the diamond, I ascertained a cirRegarding these experiments, as con
cumstance that I believe has not been nected with electro-chemical theory, they noticed before ; namely, that the dia. appear to furnish a more evident proof oond, when strongly ignited by the lens than has hitherto been offered, of the in- in a thin capsule of platinumn, perforated herent electrical states of inaiter, which with many orifices, so as to adinit a free are decidedly exhibited by the attractions circulation of air, continues to burn in and repulsions between the opposite oxygen gas, after being withdrawn from pales; and when connected with Dr. the focus. The light it aifords is steady, Wollaston's researches, to which I have and of so brilliant a red, as to be visible elsewhere alluded, they amply demon in the brightest sunshine; and the heat strate the identity in chemical powers of produced is so great, that in one expe. common and Voltaic electricity.
riment, in which three fragments of dia The altraction of acids by the positive. ainovus weighing 184 grain only were ly electrified surface, and of alkalies and burnt, a fine wire of platinum used for inflammables by that which is negatively attaching thein to the tray was fused, electrified, is thus easily exbibited; and and that some time after the diamonds the theory which regards their mutual ai were removed out of the focus, tractive energies, as dependent upon
From the results of different experi! their opposite electrical states, confirmed ments, it appears evident, that the dia by experiments, not less decisive, than mond affords no other substance by iis those in which the Voltaic instrument combustion, than pure carbonic acid was ernployed.
gas; and that the process is merely a so'Or ihe former class phosphorus in slow lution of diamond in oxygen, without
Proceedings of Public Societies. (Feb. I, any change in the volume of the gas; for it belongs in the highest degree to ve. the slighe absorption in the second ex. getable and animal charcoal, and it does periment is scarcely more than a com not exist in plumbayn, coke, or anthrapensation for the volume occupied by colite. the diamonds consumed.
The nature of the chemical difference It is likewise evident, that in the com between the diamond and other carbobustion of the different kinds of char. naceous substances, may be demone coal ; water is produced, and from the strated by another process, na
namely, diminution of the volume of the gas, igniting them in chlorine; when compion there is every reason to believe, that the well-burnt charcoal, or plumbago from water is formed by the combustiou of Cumberland, is intensely ignited in chlohydrogen existing in the charcoal. rine, while fumes are iinniediately per
The general tenor of the results of ceived in consequence of the production these experiments is opposed to the opic of muriatic acid gas by the bydrogen, nion, that conmon carbonaceous sube which acid precipitales the aqueous stances differ from the diamond by con. vapour in the chlorine : but the diamond taining oxygen; for in this case they occasions no such effect. A small diaought to increase and not diminish the mond, weighing .45 of a grain, was kept volume of oxygen: nor, on the other in a state of intense ignition by the great hand, is it favourable to the supposition lens of the Florentine Museum, for more that the diamond contains oxygen, for than half an hour; but the gas suffered the difference in the quantity of carbonic no change, and the diamond had under. acid produced in the different experi gone no dimmution of weight, and was ments, is no more than may be reason not altered in appearance. Charcoal, ably ascribed to the generation of water, after being intensely ignited in chlorine, in the combustion of the common car is not altered in its conducting power or bonaceous substances; and the results colour; and this circumstance is in fa
of the experiments, to which I have re vour of the opinion, that the minute | ferred in the beginning of this paper, on quantity of hydrogen is not the cause of
the action of potassium on the diamond, the great difference between the physical may be easily accounted for from other properties of the diamond and charcoal. circumstances.
The only chemical difference percep On Wednesday, the 30th of Novemtible between diamond and the purest ber, being St. Andrew's day, the Copcharcoal, is, that the last contains a mi. leyan gold inedal was presented, with an nute portion of hydrogen ; but can a appropriate speech from the president, to quantity of an element, less in some James Ivory, esq. A.M. for his various cases than goder part of the weight of mathematical coinmunications published the substance, occasion so great a diso in their Transactions.-Sir Isaac Newton's ference in physical and chemical cha. principles begun hy assunsing the earth racters? This is possible, yet it is con to be a homogeneous Aud; but the theory trary to analogy; and I ain more in. did not correspond with actual expericlined to adopt the opinion of Mr, Ten
Maclaurin was the first wbo de. nant, that the difference depends upon monstrated that a homogeneous fluid in crystallization, Transparent solid bo. rotatory motion would always reinain dies are in general non-conductors of globular, and the question is now finally electricity, and it is probable that the established by Mr. Ivory. same corpuscular arrangeinents which The society then elected, as a council give to matter the power of transmitting and officers for the year ensuing-the and polarizing light, are likewise con- Right Hou. Sir Joseph Banks, bart. prenected with its relations to electricity; ident; Samuel Lysons, esq. treasurer ; and water, the hydrates of the alkalies, and Wm. Ilyde Wollaston, M.D. and - and a number of other bodies which are Taylor Combe, esq. secretaries. After conductors of electricity when fluid, be the election the members dined together come non-conductors in their crystallized at the Crown and Anchor Tavern in the form.
Strand, The power possessed by certain car. The number of ordinary members of bonaceous substances of absorbing gases, the Royal Suciety amounts, at this time, and separating colouring matters from to 580, and that of foreign members to 43, Huids, is probably mechanical and de. making a total of 923 members. peudent upon their porous nature ; for
( 53 )
Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.
R. CARPUE is preparing for the operation; but, in warm weather,
speedy publication, an account Mr. C. is of opinion that the restoration of a most interesting and fortunate Ope- would be completed in two months. Tation, by which he has restored a Nose His proposed work will inform the fato a military gentleman who had acci
culty of every particular which it is de dentally lost his original one on foreign sirahle should be known to those who service. Mr. C. had mentioned, in some have occasion to perform the same opeof his lectures, the practice of Gaspar ration, and will be illustrated with seTaliacocius, the Bolognese professor, a ho, veral plates. The facts we have stated in the sixteenth century, published a prove, that, although Mr.Carpue has not book on the restoration of noses, lips, the happiness to be the original disco. and ears; and also the operations of verer of the principle which he bas the Hindoo cast of brickmakers, by practised, yet he has singular merit in which they, for an unknown time, have conducting the operation so successfully, rest-red the noses of the victims of and is entitled to his country's gratitude despotic barbarism; and had stated his for introducing, with so much intelligence, opinion, that the practice was rational, a practice that will restore to society and not fabulous, as many persons had thousands who have been driven from it been led to suppose. This doctrine of by their unsightly appearance.
For our so etninent a surgeon, coming to the part, we view, in the principle of reproknowledge of the gentleman above al. duction, which this experiment so comluded to, he determined to submit to pletely developes, new views of the the operation, and placed himself under animal econoniy leading to improveMr. Carpue's care. Ours is not a me ments in the practice both of surgery dical work, we shall therefore state, in a and medicine; and it justifies a sentipopular way, that a plaster-model is ment which we have often pressed on made of a well sbapod nose, which is the notice of the public, that there profilted on the ruin of the former nose. bably still exist, in the hands of the vul. The surface is then measured, by means gar, meriting the attention of the most of paper, and the paper-shape is carried enlightened, very numerous discoveries to the forehead, a piece of which is as important as that of the cow-pox. marked of the very shape. This piece The tooksellers of London, at a pube is then cut round by an incision, and lic meeting, have resolved to apply to stripped off in the manner of a scalp, Parliament for a revisioni of the obnox. except in the narrow slip, or isthmus, ious and unreasonable clauses of the which joins it to the nose, through late act relative to Copy-right, the partiwhich isthmus the circulation of the culars of which were shortly stated in encire system is to be kept up in the our Magazine published December 1, scalp, and the piece thereby kept alive. and detailed at length in the pamphlet The scalp is turned at the isthmus, so of Mr. Britton, in which that gentleman that the cuticle of the scalp may be- bas ably advocated the rights of authors come the cuticle of the nose. Incisions as well as publishers. are then made in the cheek on each During the past month Mr. Bacon, side the nose, and upper lip, into which the sculptor, has indulged the lovers of the edges of the scalp are inserted, and art with a gratuitous exhibition of the in which it grows, hardens, and assumes great public monuinents on which he a perfect shape. The nostrils are made has for sonic time been engaged. The afterwards, and the forehead heals while chief of these are a monument of Sir the nose is forming. Such has been the John Moore, for St. Pauls; of the ingenious procedure of Mr. Carpue, and MARQUIS CORNWALLIS, which we recomplete success has attended him. In presented in a late number; and two of the instance before us the patient has the MARQUIS WELLESLEY, one for not bad occasion to take a single dose of Bombay, and the other for Calcutta. medicine, and has experienced no in. Nothing could be more creditable to the convenience from pain. The cuticle of state of sculpture in England than this the forehead is now quite restored, and exhibition, and it is gratifying to see it the nose itself is already so well formed so liberally'encuuraged by the merit of as scarcely to he distinguished from a na• the dead; and the vanity of the living. taral one. It is now three months since Tliree of the monatnents destined for