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IN CASES OF

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them, transferred to the phænomena of

the human body. Hence the errors of EFFECTS

philosophy were engrafted upon pbysi

ology. PECULIAR REGIMEN, Hippocrates is said to have separated

medicine from philosophy. This can Cancer, Scrofula, Consumption, Asthma, of the philosophers

, who considered memean no more than that he was the first

dicine to be a distinct branch of science. Chronic Diseases.

But the principles whicb he adopted, to By WILLIAM LAMBE, M.D. explain the causes and symptoms of disFellow of the Royal College of Physicians. eases, were such as he had been taught, Octavo, 15s.

and found to be prevalent in the schools

of philosophy in his time. [If this had been a mere professional work, These principles were purely hypo

we should not have obtruded it on the thetical, being, mostly, gratujious ase notice of our readers. But, besides the sumptions with regard to the constituent soundness of its medical doctrines, it principles of the animal frame. The lays claim to general attention as a body was thought to be composed of four moral and philosophical disquisition on humours—blood, phlegm, yellow bile, topics intimately connected with the and black bile; health was supposed to happiness and improvement of the hu- depend upon the perfect mixture of these man race. It aims at the bigla object of humours, each possessed of its proper extinguishing that numerous class of evils which iorment man more than all qualities; disease took place when the other animals in the shape of diseases, due proportions were disturbed, or when by means that are indicated by nature, either of the elementary humours was and that accord with our best moral separated, or not perfectly mixed with feelings. We shall not, however, affect the common inass. to anticipate the doctrines which are so From this first rude notion of the anaeloquently enforced in the subsequent lysis of the fluids have sprung the divi. extracts; at the same time it is due to sion of temperaments into the sanguine the learned anthor to state, that the ous, phlegmatic, choleric, and melanspace which we are able to allot to these chotic, which is received at this day; in specimens, enables us to render very

each of which that humour was thought imperfect justice to the system which he unfolds. Half the volume is occu

to be predominant, from which it receives pied with details of cases, in which the

its denomination. vegetable regimen has succeeded in It cannot be supposed, that opinions, alleviating or curing chronic diseases, which have no real foundation in nature; hitherto considered beyond the reach of were at any time admitted without con. human skill. Dr. Lambe shews, how. troversy. We find, even in the writings ever, that such diseases are consequences which are called Hippocratic, some variaof eating flesh, and drinking ferinented tions from this fundamental hypothesis; liquors; and that, on returning to the and other theories, which are wholly disregimen indicated by Nature, the dis. tinct from it. Many succeeding teacheases disappear. Of the sufficiency of ers rejected it entirely, and proposed a vegetable diet, the Editor of the other systems. Asclepiades embraced Monthly Magazine can quote himself as the atomic philosophy, derived from the a corroborative proof of longer standing than the experience of Dr. Lambe, doctrines of Democritus and Epicurus : liaving abstained from flesb-diet, owing he ascribed the production of diseases to to a sentiment of disgust when in his the stopping up or relaxation of the pores. twelfth year, and having enjoyed vigo. The Methudists thought, that diseases rous health and spirits without the in- were not produced by morbid alterations terruption of a day's severe illness, of the fluids of the body, but considered during the subsequent period of thirty- them as affections of the solids. They four years.]

divided diseases therefore into three orders; some they considered as caused

by laxity; others, as the consequence of HILOSOPHY was, in its origin, tension; others, again, as complicated,

PROGRESS OF MEDICAL SCIENCE.

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upon observation and experiment. And, 10 each of the other orders. Another as the first reasoners in medicine were the sect denied, that diseases were connected philosophers, the principles that were with the sensible qualities of the body. thought to regulate the universe, were, by They asserted that there was a subtle

matter,

THE HUMAN CHARACTER.

Dr. Lambe on Peculiar Regimen in Cancer, Scrofula, &c. 655 matter, an æther, attached to and per. or their feelings, we shall find hardly an vading the system; and that diseases individual, who will not acknowledge were affections of this matter.

This sect

some defect, some secret uneasiness, was that of the Pneumatists,

something that diminishes his present Opinions so discordant, as it shewed comfort, and which excites apprehension the evidence in behalf of each to be un. for the future. In some, the solids dessatisfactory, must have excited, in the tined to the support of the body are minds of many, hesitation and discon- unequal to their object, and the bones tent. Accordingly, there has ever been yield to the incumbent weight: in others, a sect, which has maintained, that, in the moving powers have a siinilar defect, medicine, evident causes were the only the muscles hardly overcoming the resisproper objects of enquiry; that the tance opposed to thein. The senses are, changes, which take place within the in many, dull and imperfect; in many, body, are mostly incomprehensible, and they are preternaturally acute. The vital the study of them must be therefore functions are often performed laboriously; superfluous; and that, could they even the circulation is either sluggish or too be discovered, they would throw no light rapid; the respiration straightened or on the methods of treatment. The ques. hurried; the digestion is ill performed ; tion, they said, is not, what makes a dis- the stomach oppressed with crudities; ease, but what will cure it. How diges. the secretions irregular; even the ele. tion is performed, is of no moment; but ment, in which we are placed, appears what matter is most easily digestible, is ill suited to the organs to which it is of the greatest : it matters not how we destined to be applied; some cannot breathe; but to determine the purest air is bear the coldness of the atmosphere; to of the first consequence. In things of this others its heat is equally intolerable; and nature, we are instructed, not by abstruse so strangely constituied are individual speculations and nietaphysical subtleties, constitutions, that an air loaded with but by evident experience only. This is the mephitic vapours appears better suited proper guide in medicine, distinguishing to them, than one that is pure and the useful from the noxious, and applying uncontaminated. them accordingly to practice. Such is the general reasoning of the sect of Man prides himself upon possessing an empirical physicians ; a sect, the tenets intelleci superior to that of all other aniof which, though disclaimed in the mals; and on taking reason for the guide schools, have ever found nunierous ad- of all his actions. But, as far as happie herents among men the most versed in ness, or the mere absence of suffering, is practice; and which, though not openly the end of action, the reason of man apavowed, are, I am persuaded, silently pears to be inferior to the animal instinct. assented to, and effectively acted upon, A brutal ignorance debages and enslaves by the great body of practitioners, even the great mass of mankind. They appear ai this day.

incapable of acquiring knowledge; of

perceiving the connexion of the ideas, When we consider the tendency of na. which are laid before them; or the oba ture to perfection in all her works, and vious relations of cause and effect. that this tendency is in nothing more ap. Thus they are void of all independence parent, than in the structure of animal of thought or principle; a blind adhebodies, it appears indeed a strange rence to custom, or a slavish subosission anomaly, that the human fronie, the to authority, becomes the rule of life; master-piece of the creation, should be and is substituted for self-government, so liable to derangement and disease. and a manly obedience to the voice of If I may say so without irreverence, it ap- truth and the dictates of reason, pears as if the most beautiful of designs The moral traits are as much distorted had failed from error and want of wisdom as the physical. The affections, which in the execution. More than half the should link man to man, and make each sace perish in infancy, and, of the re- human being regard his fellow.creature mainder, a large portion are the victims as his brother, are choked and alınost of pain and suffering. Of those, who extinguished. Envy, hatred, jealousy, bave strength sufficient to arrive at man. and all the malignant passions, predohood, the greater part are doomed to minate in the human bosom. The in. have little more than glimpse of life, fiction of pain upon sensitive beings, and to perish prematurely. Of those instead of exciting compassion, is, with even who appear strongly and healthy, the multitude, a source of pastime and if we examine narrowly into their babits, merriment. To such a degree are the 2

strongest

ORIGIN OF DISEASE.

AVERAGE OF LIFE.

verse.

strongest instincts of our nature perverted, insalubrity of towns appears to be in prothat the first principle of self-preservation portion to their size. is finally desiroyed; the band is raised The proportion of persons, who die against the existence of its possessor; or annually in great towns is found to be the parental arm against the life of the one-nineteenth, or one-twentieth, of the offspring.

whole population. In moderate towns, Such is an outline, too faithful, of the it is from one twenty.third to one twentyhabitual condition, perhaps of the ma. eighth. In the country, the proportion jority, of the human species.

has been found to be from one thirty

fifth or one-forlieth to one-fiftieth or one. From Dr, Price's “ Observations on sixtieth. In London the number of Reversionary Payments, &c." it appears, years, which a child at birth has been that in every particular place there is an found, upon an average, to reach, is rainvariable law, which governs the waste ther less than twenty. In Norwich of human life. In single years, owing to half die under live years: in Northampton, the seasons, to the absence or the preva. under ten. In the parish of Holy Cross, lence of epidemics, or other accidental near Salop, the expectation of a child at circumstances, the quantity of disea:e birth is thirty-three years: one-half the may vary, and the number of deaths be inhabitants live in thirty years of age. less or greater:

But, taking the average At Ackworth, in Yorkshire, half the in. of a series of years together, the same habitants live to the age of forty-six. In total numbers have been found to die in the town of Manchester, ne lwentythe same situations, in equal successive eightha part of the inhabitants die annu. periods of time. These facts are esia- ally: in the country, in its immediate blished by observations taken from the vicinity, the number is not more than one bills of London, of Northamplon, of Noro fifty-sixth part. wich, in England, and of many other Large cities are as unfavourable to places in various parts of Europe. In longevity, as they are destructive of infant situations moderately healthy, as in life, and unfriendly to health at every moderate sized towns, the rates of de- period. In country places it is the recrease have been found to coincide very At Holy Cross one-half of the nearly with the hypothesis of Mr. de whole population die at upwards of 80 Moivre; who, assuming 86 years to be years of age. At Ackworth, one-four. the utmost extent of life, supposed an

ieenth of the inhabitants reach the same equal decrement of life through all its age. Ac Northampton, the proportion stages, till it was finally extinguished. is one twenty.second part: at Norwich, For axample, of 56 persons alive at 30 one twenty-seventh. But in London years of age, one will die every year, till, only one in foriy arrive at this age; in 56 years, they will be all dead. The whereas, if other things were equal, the same will happen to 46 persons at 40, in proportion in London ought to be greater 46 years, and so

on for all other ages. than in other places, since at least one. At most ages between 30 and 70 or 75 fourth of its inhabitants are persons who the results of this hypothesis are very come into London from the country, in nearly conformable to actual observations, the most robust period of life, at which But, both in the earlier and in the later the probability of living to old age is the stages of life, the law of decrease is very greatest. Ofihe natives of London not ditferent. In London also, and in large more than one in sixty attains the age of cities, in general the current of life flows fourscore. with greater rapidity. In the country,

CAUSE OF DISEASES. on the other hand, communities are more With regard to the generation of con. healthy, and, in consequence life is ex. stitutional diseases, we may, I think, pended more slowly.

safely confine ourselves to four principal From these documents, the havoc made agents. These are, 1-t, Impure Air; in human life, by collecting multitudes 21, Inpure Water; 3.1, limproper Aliof men cogether in great cities, is fully inent; and, 4th, Ferivented Liquors. demonstrated. There is no stage of life. These are the things which appear in wbich this pernicious influence is not really and effectively to produce the great evident, but it is most remarkable in the bulk of the reigning diseases; or at least earliest stages. In London, according to form the morbid constitution, out of to the most moderate computation, half which these diseases spring. I always the number born die under three years of except those which are produced from age: in Vienna, and Stockholm, under contagions. Each of these agents is of two. And, other things being equal, the itself, perhaps, under certain circums

stances,

ANIMAL FOOD,

serve

to

Dr. Lambe on Peculiar Regimen in Cancer, Serofula, &c. 657 stances, powerful enough to produce with made dishes, and their breaths smell disease, and even death; and very com- of wine and strong liquors. Nay, 10 monly men are exposed to them simuls such an excess are these abominations taneously.

carried, that, when their stomachs revolt

against these unnatural compounds with The use of animal food is one of these instinctive horror, and the importunities habitual irritations, to which most pere of nature cannot be wholly resisteri, a sons, who have it in their power, volun- little fruit is held out to them as a sort tarily subject themselves. Nothing need of premium, and as a reward for forcing be said to show, that this stom pro. down the nauseous farrago, which they duces a great change in the system in loathi. its ordinary state of health. This is a

WOOD, THE MILLER. change, which, as long as health conei. Need I cite the well knowo bistory of pues, is commonly thought to be for the Mr. Wood, the miller of Billericay? better. But, omiiting wholly that consi. This' man, from a long course of glutderation, it seems certain, that it predise tony, eating voraciously animal food poses to discase, and even of those kinds, three times a day, with large quantities the immediate origin of which may be of butter and cheese, and drinking strong traced to other causes.

ale, became very fat in his fortieth year; There are facts enough to induce a and, in three or four more years, his suspicion, that our diseases are much health failed; he had a constant thirst, exasperated by our manner of living, and great lowness of spirits, violent rheuma. the full diet of animal food, to which we ism, and frequent attacks of gout. He are habituated. They may

bad iwo fits, which were called epileptic; shew to what may be ascribed in some

and had often a sense of suffocation, pardegree the great difference between the ticularly after his meals. By altering his mortality wliich prevails in great towns regimen, and pursuing a strict course and in the country. In all situations the of abstemniousness he re-established his mass of this mortality must be composed health, and continued to enjoy good of the labouring classes. These classes are health for many years. Ile left off ani. allured to the cities by the temptation of mal food, avd fermented liquors. His high wages, which are expended partly. solid food was either sea biscuit, or flour in direct riot auri excess; but, even by the made into a pudding, being mixed either most sober minded, in procuring for their with skimmed inilk, or with water, and families a more luxurious mode of life, boiled. He abstained from all fluids, than could be afforded by the customary excepe what entered into the composition rate of wages in the country. A daily of his pudding. Under this course of meal of meat becomes to be thought abstinence, he lost his corpulence, and necessary by persons, who, in the coun. became a middle-sized man, healthy and try, must have been contented with a active; and his strength increased, inscanty portion once a-week. To be able stead of diminishing. This man died in to procure this becomes a distinction in his sixty-fourth year. No one, that society, which the people are taught to reads his history, can doubt that he look up to as the reward of industry; prolonged his life many years; and, prowhilst to be confined to what is called a bably, had his diet been regulated upon poor diet, that is to say, to the diet of still inore correct principles, he would the poor, is reckoned low and disgraceful. have lived several years longer. One would be apt to imagine, from the

EFFECTS OF ANIMAL FOOD. common practice of most of our physi- A further consequence is, that life is, cians, and still more of our medico. in all its stages, hurried on with an una chirurgeons, that excess and intempere natural and unhealthy rapidity. We ance were the regular methods of curing arrive at puberty too soon; the passions diseases. They have been labouring, are developed too early: in the male during almost the whole of my medical they acquire an impetuosity approaching lise, to prove to the public, that the to madness: the females breed too quick: doctrines of abstemiousness, inculcated processes which ought to be distinct and by several of our predecessors, are a successive are blended together, and conmere prejudice and error. In almost all founded : women, who ought to be nurses, chronic diseases, to forbid the use of become pregnant, even with the child vegetables is a part of the established at the breast: finally, the s

e system becomes routine. If there be a little heart-burn prematurely exhausted and destroyed : or flatulence, all vegetables are instantly we become diseased and old, when we proscribed. Infants, eveli, are loaded ought to be in the middle of life.

There

There can be no doubt too, that ani- shall not be forced to eat it more than mal food is unfavourable to the intellece once or twice a week. But it is for the tual powers. In some measure this most part with us scarce and dear; effece is instantaneous, it being hardly hence it is a favourite with the rich, who possible to apply to any thing requiring like whatever is of high price. But, even thought after a full meal of meat; so that with them, it is the cookery which gives it has been not improperly said of the it its principal relish. vegetable feeders, that with them it is These are not random and unfounded morning all day long. But its effect is remarks, but are conformable to many not confined to the immediate imprese authentic observations. Fish does not sion. As well as the senses, the memory, inpart the strength of animal food; but the understanding, and the imagination, it is as oppressive to the stomach as flesh; have been observed to improve by a and it is more putrescent, as may be convegetable diel.

cluded from the nauseous and bepatic It has been said, that the great fondo eructations of the stomach, after it has ness that men have for animal food, is been eaten. proof enough that Nature intended them Our knowledge of the average length to eat it; as if men were not fond of wine of life, to which the fish-eating tribes of ardent spirits, and other things, which mankind arrive, is necessarily scanty, cut short their days; as if the Russians such tribes not being numerous, and of were not fond of tallow; the Esquimaux a very low degree of civilization. But of train-oil; and savages, (I might say as far as our information reacbes, it perhaps some of our own vulgar) of blood tends to shew that this period is very entrails, and all sorts of garbage, the short. thoughts of which sicken a civilized

MILK. man. The raw and almost putrid flesh Of all the other substances, which of the seal is the delight of the Pesserais enter largely into human diet, the milk of the Tierra del Fuego; and of this the of herbivorous animals is, probably, that rank fat is to their caste the most delicious which approaches most nearly in salobrity part.

to pure vegetable matter. Being secreted But those who think, that a simple almost immediately after taking in food, declaration of their liking a thing is a (as nurses constantly experience) it par. sufficient apology for the use of it, I takes the most of the properties of the would beg to consider whether it is not food. Accordingly, we find, that milk an argument, that proves a great deal too is impregnated with a saccharine sube much. A savage has been seen to gnaw stance, and that it is susceptible of the a bone of a human body with just as vinous and acetous fermentations. Hence much relish, as we suck a bone of mutton. milk is in part vegetable food; and as

Man's flesh then is as good as the flesh such is used by all pastoral nations, and of the ox or the hog. Sume animals serves in a measure as a substitute for it. devour their own offspring: and if we do Milk, besides its saccharine and fernot the same, it is not because their mentible principles, contains a coagulable flesh would be disgustful to the palate. matter, the curd, or cheese, which is more

My reason for objecting to every spe perfectly animalized ; and which is very cies of matter to be used as food, except nearly allied to the albuminous matter of the direct produce of the earth, is found animal bodies. Hence the operation of ed on the broad ground, that no other milk upon the system is in part the same matter is suited to the organs of man, as as that of animal food, though it is less indicated by his structure. This applies powerful in degree. It at first fattens then with the same force to eggs, milk, and heightens the colour. It therefore cheese, and fish, as to flesh meat. possesses a degree of the stimulating

power of animal food; and most eventu As far as I can form a judgment from ally have simular results. But milk, a few facts picked up in the course of moreover, in many babits excites bead. desultory reading, fish is the sort of food, ach, thirst, weight and oppression at the which, if made the principal article of stomach; and, in those who have uried sustenance is the most unfavourable to to make it the principal part of their health and longevity.

süstenance, the attempt has commonly Fish is a kind of diet, which the bulk caused an almost insuperable disguste of the people, who have been accustomed This, I have little doubt, is the true to other food, never use voluntarily, as a reason why such an experiment is now so chief article of sustenance. Servants, rarely made. It affords sufficient ground where fish is cheap, bargain that they for thinking, that milk ought to be exclu.

FISII.

ded

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