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JAPAN:

Initiative of the United States to secure cooperation among interested

governments on measures to limit and control production and to

suppress illicit traffic in opium in areas of the Far East to be

liberated from Japanese control

919

Japanese treatment of American prisoners of war and civilian

internees

919

Efforts by the United States to send financial and other assistance to

American nationals held by Japan ...

1015

Efforts by the United States to arrange a third exchange of American

and Japanese nationals

1081

Representations by Japan regarding the treatment of Japanese

nationals by the United States.

1099

Protests by Japan against attacks by the United States on hospital

ships ..

1147

Protests by Japan against bombing of allegedly non-military

objectives.

.. 1167

Assurance by the Japanese Government that it would not use poison

gas provided the United States also did not use it

. 1169

Protest by Japan against treatment accorded the Japanese envoy to

the Vatican by American armed forces; protest by the United

States against the conduct of Japanese armed forces toward the

American Legation in Thailand

.. 1171

Protests by the United States against attacks by Japanese naval forces

on survivors of torpedoed American merchant vessels . . 1175

Violation by Japanese authorities of American diplomatic and con-

sular property, including archives, in occupied China.

1178

Decision of the United States and British Governments not to reply to

Japanese peace feeler received through Sweden ...

. 1183

Postwar policy planning in regard to Japan and areas under Japanese

control

1186

KOREA :

Interest of the United States in the future status of Korea and the

question of recognition of a Provisional Korean Government . . 1290

PHILIPPINES :

Consideration of problems relating to the Commonwealth of the

Philippines

1299

.

THE NEAR EAST, SOUTH ASIA, AND AFRICA

LETTER FROM PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT TO JAMES M. LANDIS, AMERICAN DIRECTOR OF ECONOMIC OPERATIONS IN THE MIDDLE EAST, CONCERNING THE VITAL INTEREST OF THE UNITED STATES IN THE MIDDLE EAST

800.24/1541 President Roosevelt to the American Director of Economic Operations

in the Middle East (Landis)'

[WASHINGTON, March 6, 1944.] MY DEAR MR. LANDIS: The Middle East is an area in which the United States has a vital interest. The maintenance of peace in that area, which has so frequently seen disturbances in the past, is of significance to the world as a whole. A means of insurance against unrest of that character is to encourage the governments of the territories that comprise the Middle East to push ahead with the vigor that they may possess to stabilize and improve their economic systems in terms of the production and distribution of wealth.

Though the United States, following traditional policy, should not seek to interfere in the internal affairs of these territories, it is interested in seeing that itself and other nations should not be discriminated against in dealing openly and fairly with these territories in the exchange of goods and resources. In the Middle East, as elsewhere, the objective of the United States is to make certain that all nations are accorded equality of opportunity. Special privileges, in so far as they do not rest upon acknowledged possession or trusteeship, should not be afforded to any country or its nationals for such privileges have little place in the type of world for which this war is being fought.

The American point of view, naturally, has regard to the desires of the territories of the Middle East to seek, in the manner deemed best by their own governments, objectives consistent with the faiths for

Copy transmitted by the Secretary of State under his instruction of March 20 to the diplomatic missions in Ethiopia, Iran, Egypt, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia, the missions near the Greek and Yugoslav Governments in Exile, and the Consulate General at Jerusalem. James M. Landis, American Director of Economic Operations in the Middle East, with the personal rank of Minister, was concurrently principal American civilian representative at the Middle East Supply Center, Cairo, an organization set up initially by the British in 1941 to control the supply and distribution of essential goods to the civilian populations of the Near and Middle East; for correspondence regarding the decision of the United States in 1942 to participate in the Middle East Supply Center, see Foreign Relations, 1942, vol. IV, pp. 1 ff.

1

which this war is being waged. The realization of such aims will, naturally, further the broad interests of the United States in that it will assure equality of treatment being afforded to this country.

As American Director of Economic Operations in the Middle East, the daily pattern of your work in wartime economic affairs will have reference to, and your activities should be carried out in a manner consistent with, policies such as these. Your work, under the directives you have received from the Department of State and the Foreign Economic Administration, is primarily concerned with the conduct of economic activities relating to the war. In that work you will, of course, put first the strengthening in every way of the warm and cooperative relations with our Allies, upon which our success in the war, and thereafter, so largely depend. On occasion you may require the assistance of other branches of the United States Government, now active in the Middle East, to make your endeavors in the economic field effective. Within this area of operations you are authorized to show this letter to such officials of the United States in order that the aid that they may reasonably give you may be forthcoming within the limits of their staffs and in so far as is consistent with political and military policies. Very sincerely yours,

[FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT]

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