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of Philippine ancestry. Likewise there has been no objection to the action of Quincy Flavius Cook, a person of American ancestry who claims Japanese nationality. If other individuals of Korean, Philippine, American or other non-Japanese ancestry should wish to assert a claim to Japanese nationality and to be extended corresponding treatment, the United States Government would not interpose objection on grounds of their ancestry. The United States Government expects that the Japanese Government will be reciprocally guided in such matters. It is noted that in the first exchange the Japanese Government appeared to recognize this principle and that it permitted the repatriation of certain American citizens of Japanese ancestry.48




711.94115 Exchange/69 : Telegram The Minister in Switzerland (Harrison) to the Secretary of State

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BERN, January 11, 1944–6 p. m.

[Received 6:42 p. m.] 246. American Interests—Japan. Legation's 8210, December 30.50 Swiss Foreign [Office ?] official informally advised Legation receipt telegram from Swiss Minister, Tokyo,51 reporting further conversation with official [in] Japanese Foreign Office regarding possibility third exchange. Swiss Foreign Office official while stating unable transmit contents telegram by note informed Legation orally that Japanese official stated questions of third exchange and transportation to Japan of Red Cross supplies now Vladivostok (Department's 2908, November 24 52) should be held in abeyance until Japanese receive satisfactory reply their protests against attacks on 17 hospital ships 53 which apparently transmitted through Spanish Embassy, Washington.




For correspondence on the exchange agreement between the United States and Japan in 1942, see Foreign Relations, 1942, vol. I, pp. 377 ff.

19 For previous correspondence, see ibid., 1943, vol. III, pp. 867 ff.
50 Ibid., p. 951.
51 Camille Gorgé.
Foreign Relations, 1943, vol. III, p. 824.
For correspondence on this subject, see pp. 1147 ff.




711.94115 Exchange/115: Telegram The Minister in Switzerland (Harrison) to the Secretary of State

BERN, January 26, 1944.

[Received January 26–5:32 p. m.] 531. American Interests-Far East-Repatriation. Swiss note January 24 states Gorgé informed [of] Department's 3121, December 15.55 He informed Foreign Office that before determining general lines plan third exchange [he] wishes submit following observations.

1. Accommodations Teia Maru 56 being inadequate large number sick, seriously wounded, Gorgé proposes limit subject approval Japanese Government number sick to 100 including doctors, POWS, nurses. Failing [establishment of] neutral medical commission, Japanese War Ministry would select wounded, sick.

2. Presumes POW repatriation this category will all be Americans, Canadians.

3. Of 1400 places available following accommodation sick, wounded, Gorgé proposes fix quota 180 for Canada, 70 Latin America. These calculated approximately basis number repatriation requests presented.

4. Proposes give Hong Kong principal consideration allocation 1150 places reserved Americans. This connection reports cases certain number Americans whose families [are) alien. Under criteria established these repatriable only final exchange. They nevertheless request evacuation third exchange. As their situation becoming very distressing, Gorgé desires know whether some exception criteria may be authorized Hong Kong. Desires particularly receive directives inclusion third exchange Americans Chinese race.

5. For China should be about 1,000.

6. As evacuation Americans remaining Philippines excluded in principle, Gorgé proposes fix quota 100 in which he hopes include sick, women and children. Should Japanese Government during course negotiations agree evacuation Philippines on larger scale, this quota could be raised to 500 and quota foreseen China reduced proportionally.

7. Quota Japan and Manchuckuo limited to special cases.

8. Some places might be reserved Americans Indochina who applied too late for evacuation. However, Gorgé foresees possibility complete omission quota Indochina.

9. No Americans for repatriation remain Thailand.


Foreign Relations, 1943, vol. III, p. 948.
Vessel used by Japan in implementing second exchange agreement.

Swiss note adds Gorgé will study complete repatriation plan immediately upon receipt Department's views foregoing. Will examine with Japanese Foreign Office arrangements third exchange basis this plan.


711.94115 Exchange/115: Telegram The Acting Secretary of State to the Minister in Switzerland


WASHINGTON, March 7, 1944. 767. American Interests-Far East. Your 531, January 26. Department gratified to receive this report which again shows Gorge's tireless interest in further exchanges of nationals with Japan. Department offers following comments for Gorgé's guidance and would be pleased to receive his further suggestions after he has had ample time to study these comments and explore their possibilities.

1. Geographical distribution. The Department hopes that discrimination on purely geographical grounds preventing the repatriation of some of the Americans detained by the Japanese may be terminated in all future exchanges and that all Americans, regardless where captured, may be treated on an equal basis. If this hope can be attained it would naturally be the Department's desire in the next exchange to restore equilibrium by having the geographical quota for the Philippines and for those captured at Guam and Wake made as large as possible and that consideration be given to repatriation of Americans in Malaya, Singapore, Borneo, Netherlands Indies and Burma, (concerning whose safety the United States Government has not received any reassuring information), all within the scope of the priorities prescribed in the following paragraph.

2. Priorities. It is the desire of the United States Government that in future exchanges absolute first priority be given to unaccompanied women and children who are interned or constructively interned as that term was defined in Department's 1311 and 1322 [1333] (May or June), 1943; 57 after such women and children are accommodated it is the Department's desire that remaining space be devoted to the accommodation of the seriously sick and seriously wounded, whether civilians or prisoners of war. In the opinion of the Department the determination of the sick or wounded individuals so to be accommodated should in the absence of finding by a Mixed Medical Commission rest with the committees in the various camps in consultation with competent medical opinion. It is hoped that the Japanese authorities will permit the committees to take appropriate action in this matter and will concur in their findings. It is suggested that the determination of numerical quotas for the various camps be established in consultation between Gorgé and Japanese authorities only after nominations from the various camp committees have been received.

57 For telegrams 1311, June 2, 1943, and 1333, June 4, 1943, see Foreign Relations, 1943, vol. III, pp. 878 and 879, respectively.

3. After due provisions for persons entitled to priority on humanitarian grounds under paragraph 2 above, it is the desire of the Department that any remaining spaces be made available to those individuals who in the judgment of the camp committees or responsible medical authorities appear least likely to be able to withstand the rigors of continued internment.

4. Gorgé will undoubtedly perceive from the foregoing that it is the Department's desire to emphasize the humanitarian basis for forthcoming exchanges. To cover exceptional cases which may arise, Gorgé is hereby requested to include in the second category above any individuals who are so closely confined under perilous conditions as to warrant the assumption that their health is or may soon be impaired, and to refer to the Department for consideration the case of any family group containing an individual qualifying on grounds of ill health the repatriation of which group would otherwise be deferred.

5. It is of course understood that sick and wounded prisoners of war who are permitted to avail themselves of the transportation facilities of the exchange will be members of the armed forces of the United States or Canada, regardless of individual national status.

6. Department assumes that allocation of 1150 places for Hongkong in paragraph 4 of your 531 is error for 150. Department recommends that Gorgé avoid fixing geographical quotas for various ports of call until completion of exploration of broader aspects of the repatriation program.

7. Department is again requesting Spanish Embassy 58 in charge of Japanese interests to ascertain wishes of Japanese Government with respect to preferences to be accorded Japanese nationals in next exchange so that appropriate facilities may be extended to Embassy in complying therewith.


111.94115 Exchange/277 : Telegram

The Minister in Switzerland (Harrison) to the Secretary of State

BERN, March 29, 1944.

[Received March 29—10:30 p. m.] 1897. American Interests-Far East. Department's 767, March 7th. Foreign Office note March 25 states Gorgé has reported he will

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examine all questions with view Department's desires and adds that Japanese Foreign Office has not yet received from Spanish Embassy, Washington, communication regarding priorities choosing Japanese repatriates.59

Gorgé already proposed to Foreign Office begin discussions regarding evacuation Americans as settlement several problems probably involve considerable time because principles adopted previous exchanges will have to be modified as, for example, concerning repatriation sick and wounded. By such actions, hopes make all preliminary arrangements so that evacuation can begin soon after Japanese definitely agree further American-Japanese exchange. Gorgé feels further exchange might interest Japan especially regarding repatriation personnel Buenos Aires Embassy but Japanese have made no statement [regarding?] question.

Above-mentioned Foreign Office note handed to Tait 60 by Bisang who is of opinion only method of arranging exchange is on the basis of repatriation Japanese from Argentina.



711.94115 Exchange/298a : Telegram The Secretary of State to the Minister in Switzerland (Harrison)

WASIIINGTON, March 30, 1944. 1072. Please transmit a communication in the sense of the following to the Swiss Government for transmission to the Japanese Government:

“In a memorandum from the Spanish Embassy dated at Washington, May 4, 1943 62 the Japanese Government made alternative proposals in regard to further exchanges of nationals; namely, that exchanges be effected either at a Soviet Pacific port or at Mormugão, Portuguese Goa. The latter exchange point was agreed upon for the second exchange effected late in 1943. Since then the Government of the United States has had under consideration the possibility of giving effect to the Japanese Government's proposal for exchanges via Soviet territory. One of the major difficulties which have had to be overcome in considering this proposal concerns port facilities.


The communication referred to was Spanish Embassy Memorandum No. 360, Ex. 115.00 B, December 29, 1943, which transmitted a priority list of 387 Japanese nationals and two lists of 535 internees at Santa Fé who had requested, for themselves and the 738 members of their families, that the Japanese Government accord them the highest priority for inclusion in the next exchange. In telegram 1308, April 17, the Department informed the Minister in Switzerland that the priority list was received by the Japanese Legation in Spain on February 2, that the Japanese Foreign Office was so informed by telegraph on February 11, and that the complete text of the list was transmitted to the Japanese Foreign Office on February 12. (711.94115 Exchange/29, 277)

60 George Tait, First Secretary of Legation in Switzerland. 61 Emil Bisang of the Division of Foreign Interests of the Swiss Foreign Office.

Foreign Relations, 1943, vol. III, p. 872.


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