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IRAN

ELEVATION OF THE AMERICAN LEGATION IN TEHRAN AND THE IRANIAN LEGATION IN WASHINGTON TO THE STATUS OF EMBASSIES

124.91/104

Memorandum by the Secretary of State to President Roosevelt

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WASHINGTON, December 22, 1943. In his report to you of May 13, 1943, General Hurley ? recommended that our Legation at Tehran be raised to the status of an Embassy. He also recommended that we assure Iran that the principles of the Atlantic Charter apply to that country, and that Iran be permitted to join the United Nations in a declaration of war against the Axis.

Since that time Iran, of her own volition, has declared war against Germany and Japan, and adhered to the United Nations Declaration. The recent Three-Power Declaration at Tehran - definitely assures Iran's future in accordance with Atlantic Charter principles.

The elevation of our Legation at Tehran to an Embassy, at this time, would constitute recognition of these facts, and of the difficulties and suffering which Iran has experienced in making available her transport system, by means of which huge quantities of military supplies have been and are being moved to Russia.

A certain precedent for the action suggested lies in the fact that about a year ago, the Shah - appointed a distinguished elder statesman to Washington and asked that he be received with the rank of Ambassador. This request was referred to you and received your approval. Unfortunately Mr. Foroughi, the statesman in question, died before he could leave Iran.

p. 363.

Brig. Gen. Patrick J. Hurley, Personal Representative of President Roosevelt in the Near East. In March 1943, General Hurley had been designated to undertake a mission to the Near East in this capacity to report on general conditions in that area. For his report of May 13, 1943, see Foreign Relations, 1943, vol. IV,

* Joint statement by President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill, August 14, 1941, ibid., 1941, vol. I, p. 367.

* Declaration signed January 1, 1942, ibid., 1942, vol. I, p. 25; for correspondence regarding the entry of Iran into the war and adherence to the United Nations Declaration, see ibid., 1943, vol. IV, pp. 428 ff.

* Declaration Regarding Iran, signed December 1, 1943, by President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Churchill, and Soviet Premier Stalin, Foreign Relations, The Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, 1943, p. 646. 5 Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.

303

A further precedent exists in the fact that General Hurley recently received a temporary appointment to Tehran with the rank of Ambassador.6

As you know, Soviet Russia already has an Embassy in Iran. If it is decided to raise our Legation to the status of an Embassy it would seem desirable to inform the British of our plan in order that they may consider taking similar action at approximately the same time.

I should be glad to know whether, in view of the considerations above-mentioned, you concur in the suggestion of raising our Legation at Tehran to the rank of Embassy.?

C[ORDELL] H[ULL]

124.91/101a : Telegram

The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Iran (Ford)

WASHINGTON, January 13, 1944–11 p. m. 23. The Department proposes to raise the Legation in Tehran to the rank of Embassy. Please inform the Iranian Government and inquire whether this step meets with its approval and whether it agrees similarly to raise the status of the Iranian Legation in Washington.

For your information only: The British have been advised informally of the Department's intended action.

HULL

124.91/102: Telegram

The Chargé in Iran (Ford) to the Secretary of State

TEHRAN, January 15, 1944–6 p. m.

[Received January 16–3:22 a. m.] 18 [28?]. Today I interviewed Foreign Minister 8 regarding Department's telegram No. 23 dated January 13, 11 p. m. and he assured me his Government is "flattered by, appreciative of and thoroughly agreeable to” proposal to raise our respective Legations to Embassies. He stated he was immediately telegraphing this favorable attitude to his Minister at Washington.

FORD

This occurred in October 1943; see Foreign Relations, 1943, vol. IV, pp. 392 ff., passim.

Notation on the original reads: "CH OK FDR.” 8 Mohammed Saed.

124.91/106: Telegram

The Chargé in Iran (Ford) to the Secretary of State

TEHRAN, January 20, 1944–10 a. m.

[Received January 21—7:54 a. m.] 37. Legation's telegram No. 28, January 15. British Minister' has requested that I inform him when decision is made to present formal notification to Iranian Government that Legation is being raised to status of Embassy in order that our respective Governments may act simultaneously vis-à-vis the Iranian Government in this respect. He states his Foreign Office is communicating with Washington in this sense. While I perceive no objection to such joint action I should appreciate Department's specific directive on this point.

Would it not also be advisable to avoid appearance of secret concerted action by British and ourselves to inform Soviet Ambassador here 10 of action we propose.

FORD

124.91/106 : Telegram

The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Iran (Ford)

WASHINGTON, January 27, 1944—9 p. m. 43. Your 37, January 20. British Embassy in Washington has requested Department to time announcement of raising Legation at Tehran to status of Embassy to coincide with similar British announcement. Department agrees to this procedure and you may so inform your British colleague. You may also notify your Soviet colleague of the intended action. It should be emphasized to both your British and Soviet colleagues and to the Iranian authorities that care should be taken to avoid any premature publicity.

HULL

124.91/106b : Telegram

The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Iran (Ford)

WASHINGTON, February 2, 1944–5 p. m. 54. Please inform the Foreign Office that this Government proposes February 10 as the date on which announcements will be made in Washington, London, and Tehran regarding the elevation of the Iranian, British and American diplomatic establishments in those cities from Legations to Embassies. If this date is agreeable to the British and Iranian Governments, the American Government con

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templates making an announcement on February 10 in the following

sense:

“The Government of the United States has decided to elevate the status of its diplomatic mission at Tehran from that of a Legation to an Embassy. The Iranian Government has notified the Department of State of its intention to take corresponding action with regard to the status of its diplomatic mission in Washington. This action has been agreed upon in recognition of the greatly increased relationships between the two countries which have recently developed, and is in accordance with the status of Iran as a full member of the United Nations."

Please report whether the Iranian Government concurs in this proposal.

HULL

124.91/107 : Telegram

The Chargé in Iran (Ford) to the Secretary of State

TEHRAN, February 5, 1944-4 p. m.

[Received 8:01 p. m.] 67. Department's telegram No. 54 dated February 2. Foreign Minister assures me his Government concurs fully with proposed action and will make announcement locally on February 10 similar to that quoted in Department's telegram under reference. British Minister likewise has informed me informally that February 10 has been agreed upon by our respective Governments for formal announcement.11 I have orally advised Soviet Ambassador of proposed action.

FORD

POLICY OF ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE BY THE UNITED STATES TO

IRAN; EFFORTS TO IMPLEMENT THE TRIPARTITE DECLARATION REGARDING IRAN OF DECEMBER 1, 1943 12 891.24/605 The Secretary of State to Major General Lucius D. Clay of the War

Department General Staff

WASHINGTON, December 1, 1943. MY DEAR GENERAL CLAY: For some time the Department has felt that it would be helpful if the War Department would broaden the

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For announcement by the Department of State released to the press February 10, 1944, see Department of State Bulletin, February 12, 1944, p. 181. The change in status became effective August 21, 1944 (see ibid., August 27, 1944, p. 208).

* For previous correspondence concerning these subjects, see Foreign Relations, 1943, vol. IV, pp. 561 ff. and pp. 319 ff., respectively; for text of Declaration issued at the Tehran Conference by President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Churchill, and Soviet Premier Stalin, see Foreign Relations, The Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, 1943, p. 646.

directive of the Commanding General of the Persian Gulf Service Command 13 to enable him to give such assistance to the American and Iranian civil authorities as may be possible without interfering with the transportation of supplies to the Soviet Union.

James M. Landis 14 telegraphed from Cairo that you are familiar with the situation and suggested that it be emphasized to you with particular reference to the grain collection and transport situation in Iran, which is briefly as follows:

Crops in Iran this season were large enough to feed the entire country.15 The minimum amount needed to feed the cities is 310,000 tons. This must be transported quickly since many roads become impassable in December. Collection and transport of grain are functions of the grain and transport sections of the American Financial Mission to Iran.16 These divisions have neither enough personnel nor trucks to do the job. If the job is not done, the Allied Governments will have to ship thousands of tons from overseas to prevent starvation in Iranian cities.

In these circumstances the Mission asked the British, Soviet and American forces in Iran for help. The British provided 500 trucks and promised 150 more. They have offered to lend 25 British officers and non-commissioned officers to assist in transport control and operation, and 14 British officers to assist in cereal collection outside the Soviet zone. These men will be under direction of the American Financial Mission.

The Soviet authorities have promised delivery to Tehran of 40,000 to 50,000 tons of grain if trucks are made available from the Iranian civil fleet.

General Connolly was asked to lend a few trucking experts and declined on the ground that he has none to spare and that responsibility for conditions in Iran rests primarily with the British and not at all on the American forces.

Mr. Landis telegraphed the following views on the matter: The cereal and transport situation in Iran is so serious that unless the difficulties are overcome it will react on our aid to Russia. A gesture of help from the American forces in Iran will do much to enhance American prestige and promote cooperative concern for Iran on the

13 Maj. Gen. Donald H. Connolly.

14 Director of American Economic Operations in the Middle East, with the personal rank of Minister, and Principal American Representative at the Middle East Supply Center (MEŚC), Cairo, an organization established in 1941 by the British to handle the supply of civilian goods to the countries of the Near East; for correspondence regarding American decision in 1942 to participate in the Middle East Supply Center, see Foreign Relations, 1942, vol. iv, pp. 1 ff.

15 For correspondence concerning interest of the United States in the food situation in Iran, see ibid., 1943, vol. iv, pp. 600 ff. 16 For correspondence regarding the

Financial Mission, headed by Arthur C. Millspaugh, Administrator General of Finances in the Iranian Government, see pp. 390 ff.

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