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very well become a great center of global airlines and it is unlikely that they will miss the opportunity to profit by such a development although anything is possible when their national pride is offended and it is conceivable that Iran might cut itself off from the rest of the world merely to assert its sovereignty. The last paragraph of the enclosed note, however, is probably nothing more than a reservation of rights and a notice that new negotiations will be required before any foreign air lines may operate in and out of Iran. As far as internal lines are concerned, the note appears quite clear and I believe we may take it for a fact that no foreign airlines may operate solely within the internal limits of the country if the Iranians have anything to say about it, which, of course, they may not. Respectfully yours,
For the Ambassador:
RICHARD FORD First Secretary of Embassy
[Enclosure Translation] The Iranian Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Embassy
TEHRAN, November 15, 1944. The Iranian Government finds it necessary to bring the following, in connection with airmail transport and passenger service in Iran, to the attention of the Government of the United States of America:
The Iranian Government will not permit the use of its internal airlines to any Government and the present situation which is the result of the presence of the allied forces in Iran should not establish a precedent.
The Iranian Government will renew its internal mail and passenger airlines as soon as the ordered planes arrive in Iran from London and America.
The airlines between Iran and abroad such as Tehran-Moscow, Tehran-Baghdad and Cairo are provisional and based upon the present war requirements.
The Ambassador in Iran (Morris) to the Secretary of State
TEHRAN, November 21, 194410 a. m.
[Received 4 p. m.] 861. Embassy is informing Foreign Office of Department's general attitude toward American airport rights, as set forth in Department's airgram A-94, October 27. I should appreciate advice of any further developments in this regard which may have resulted from Aviation Conference at Chicago.
Although Department's approach to British should be helpful in resolving larger problems, it does not furnish much guidance for Embassy in dealing with immediate question of AIOC request for more land at Abadan. I should appreciate specific instructions (as requested my telegram 723, September 30) either to interpose definite objection or to allow Iranian Government to decide matter in normal course without intervention on our part. Present situation with American official of Iranian Government blocking action merely because of Embassy's informal oral expression of interest seems to me improper and likely to produce doubts regarding impartiality of advisors and our own good faith.
891.796/12–2744 The American Embassy in Iran to the Iranian Ministry for Foreign
The Embassy of the United States of America presents its compliments to the Imperial Ministry of Foreign Affairs and has the honor to set forth hereunder, on instructions from the Department of State, a statement of the views of the American Government with regard to the airports in foreign countries which it has been instrumental in constructing or improving during the present war.
The American Government, in connection with the prosecution of the war and the delivery of supplies and Lend-Lease materials to the other United Nations, has constructed or improved, in whole or in part, a large number of airports in various countries.
The American Government considers that these airports which it has helped to construct or improve should be available for the use of United States commercial aircraft on international services or civil aircraft conducting private flights as may be authorized by the countries in whose jurisdiction the airports lie. No infringement of sovereignty is involved; nor does the Government of the United States seek ownership, control or exclusive rights.
It is the intention of this Government, therefore, at a suitable time to seek agreement with the countries in whose territory these airports are located on matters relating to general landing rights and the use of airports.
"See footnote 6, p. 490.
10 Copy transmitted to the Department in despatch 129, November 27, from Tehran; received December 16.
The Embassy avails itself of this opportunity to renew to the Imperial Ministry of Foreign Affairs the assurance of its highest consideration.
TEHRAN, November 27, 1944.
891.248/11-2144 : Telegram The Acting Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Iran (Morris)
WASHINGTON, November 29, 1944—8 p. m. 698. Urtels 861, November 21, 10 a. m. and 723, September 30,5 p. m. Please inform the Iranian and British authorities and the AIOC that the American Government's only interest in the question of the ownership of the land on which the Abadan airfield is located is to assure that American aircraft are accorded no less favorable treatment than that which may be accorded any other foreign planes, including British, as regards postwar use of the field. If these assurances are given by the Iranian and British authorities and by the oil company, the American Government will have no further interest in the question of the proposed sale of the land.
The foregoing is naturally without prejudice to the eventual settlement of questions related to the American funds and effort which have gone into the development of the field, or to existing arrangements for the continued use of the field by the American military authorities.
891.248/12–1144 The American Embassy in Iran to the Iranian Ministry for Foreign
Affairs 11 No. 111
TEHRAN, December 11, 1944. The Embassy of the United States of America presents its compliments to the Imperial Ministry of Foreign Affairs and has the honor to state that the Embassy understands the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company has made application, under the terms of its concession, for the grant of certain additional land on Abadan Island. The Embassy is informed that this land adjoins on the north the territory already occupied by the Company on Abadan Island and that it includes areas now occupied by a portion of the American military installations on the island.
Because it has expended large sums of money in the erection of these installations, including fundamental improvements to the airfield,
11 Copy transmitted to the Department in despatch 146, December 11, from Tehran; received January 5, 1945.
the Government of the United States is, naturally, interested in any possible change in the ownership of the land in question. As the Embassy stated in its note No. 92 of November 27, 1944, the United States plans to seek agreements with the governments concerned whereby American civil aircraft may enjoy landing rights after the war at airports which the United States has constructed or improved during the course of the war.
It is felt that the substantial contribution made by the American Government in the development of the Abadan airfield entitles it to equality of treatment with any other foreign government, foreign agency, or foreign private company in so far as the post-war use of the field is concerned. Accordingly, the Department of State has instructed the Embassy to request assurances that American aircraft will receive no less favorable treatment after the war, with regard to utilization of the airport in question, than that which may be accorded any other foreign airplanes, including those operated by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company or any other British company or agency.
If such assurances are given, the United States Government will have no objection to the proposed transfer of land on Abadan Island to the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.
It will be understood, of course, that this acquiescence would not affect the existing arrangements for war-time use of the field by the American military authorities nor the settlement of questions relating to compensation for the funds and effort expended by the American Government in the development of the airport and other installations on Abadan Island.
It would be appreciated if the Imperial Ministry of Foreign Affairs would consult the appropriate section of the Ministry of Finance with respect to this question and advise the Embassy as soon as possible whether the Iranian Government is able to give the desired assurances.
The Embassy avails itself of this opportunity to renew to the Imperial Ministry the assurance of its highest consideration.
[In a conversation between the Deputy Director of the Office of Near Eastern and African Affairs (Alling) and the Counselor of the British Embassy (Wright) on January 5, 1945, agreement was reached that the United States would modify the statement of assurances desired from the British to the extent that no objection would be raised to the postwar operation of the Abadan Airfield by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company for the sole use of the Company's own planes in accordance with the terms of its concession; in case the field were opened to public use, American aircraft would be accorded equal treatment. In telegram 18, January 13, 1945, 9 p. m., the Ambassador in Iran was instructed so to inform the Iranian Government with a request for agreement thereto and "assurance that American planes would be permitted to use Abadan airfield in emergencies caused by weather or mechanical needs.” (891.248/1-545) This was done by the Ambassador in note 151 of January 18 (891.248/1-1845) but no reply was received to this and other inquiries on the subject.
The Air Transport Command continued to operate the airport during and after the war. In telegram 648, November 24, 1945, noon, the Department made known to the Ambassador the desire of the War Department to turn over operation of the airport to Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc. (TWA) for a limited period, in connection with the program to withdraw American troops from Iran by January 1, 1946 (891.7962/11-2445). The oral agreement of the Iranian Foreign Office to operation of the airport by TWA for three periods of two months each was conveyed to the Department in telegram 1114, December 12, 1945, 6 p. m. (891.248/12-1245).]
IRANIAN REPRESENTATIONS WITH RESPECT TO INCREASING TRANS-
in Iran 12
[Translation] No. 24167/3000
[TEHRAN,] December 15, 1943.
NOTE VERBALE The Imperial Ministry of Foreign Affairs presents its compliments to the Legation of the United States of America and has the honor to state that as the Legation is aware the Trade Agreement between Iran and the United States 18 was voted by the National Consultative Assembly and it will be exchanged and put into effect after the remaining formalities have been performed. The Legation will, of course, agree that the common purpose of both Governments in concluding the Agreement to promote trade between the two countries necessitates that appropriate decisions be taken and arrangements made now
12 Copy transmitted to the Department in despatch 786, January 7, from Tehran; received January 26.
13 For text of agreement and accompanying notes signed at Washington, April 8, 1943, see Department of State Executive Agreement Series No. 410, or 58 Stat. (pt. 2) 1322.