Page images

of 2 policemen and 2 other innocent Frenchmen by the mob which attacked Si Mammeri (my 9, January 29, 6 [7] p. m.) had naturally aroused the police and military. Those arrested for participating in the riot at Rabat are being tried today by the pacha’s court.

To Department, repeated to Algiers as No. 10; to Tangier as No. 9. True readings to Casablanca and Tunis.


881.00/2780 : Telegram The Acting American Representative to the French Committee of

National Liberation at Algiers (Chapin) to the Secretary of State

ALGIERS, February 3, 1944–6 p.m.

[Received February 46:55 a. m.] 358. Massigli 48 who, as the Department may be aware, has recently returned from Morocco, informed me last night that the situation in Morocco had eased considerably and that in the light of the assurances given him personally by the Sultan he felt confident that situation was well in hand and that no further serious trouble would occur. He added that there was ample proof that German instigation had played a part in the recent disturbances and that a number of the principal Nationalists were unquestionably in German pay. Unfortunately the French police had lost the trail in Oran of the principal agent (a notorious German) before authorities were ready to spring the trap but they still hoped to pick him up.

Although gravity of situation in Morocco had not been generally known outside of Morocco, through an oversight a Reuters article passed Allied military censorship last night with result that although now the situation has calmed down it has been seized upon by German radio.

It is not clear from Department's telegram No. 6 of January 31, 8 p. m. to Rabat whether Department wishes me to present the views expressed therein to Massigli. While it would probably have a good effect generally upon our relations with the Committee it is not impossible that the French would use even such an oral statement to bolster their position. In this connection I was told by Duff Cooper 49 this morning that Puaux claimed that British Prime Minister 50 had made similar statements to him before his departure. Since French officials have apparently given some surreptitious publicity to this

48 René Massigli, Commissioner for Foreign Affairs of the French Committee of National Liberation.

49 Alfred Duff Cooper, British Representative to the French Committee of National Liberation.

50 Winston S. Churchill. Mr. Churchill had spent several days in Morocco convalescing after an illness following the Tehran and Cairo Conferences; for correspondence concerning these Conferences, see Foreign Relations, The Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, 1943.

alleged statement question was raised by British consular officials in Morocco whether statement should be confirmed or denied. It was decided here that no action should be taken.

If Department wishes me to present views expressed in telegram under reference to Massigli and because of possible French and British reaction I request clarification of penultimate sentence in paragraph 3 which as received here differentiates between our attitude toward Lebanese and Moroccan independence movements only on grounds of United States military expediency. Sent to Department as 358, repeated to Rabat as 1.


881.00/2780: Telegram

The Secretary of State to the Acting American Representative to the

French Committee of National Liberation at Algiers (Chapin)

WASHINGTON, February 8, 1944-midnight. 415. Reference your 358, February 3, 6 p. m. The Department's telegram to Rabat of January 31 was intended solely to serve as a guide in any conversations which our officers might have on the subject of the nationalist movement in Morocco. If you are asked for an expression of this Government's views in the matter, you may reply along the lines described, but no need is perceived for you to take the initiative in presenting our position to Massigli. Repeat to Rabat.



711.52/437 : Telegram
The Chargé at Tangier (Elbrick) to the Secretary of State

TANGIER, May 3, 1944—11 a. m.

[Received 2:45 p. m.] 99. News of settlement at Madrid 51 spread instantly through Tangier following BBC 52 broadcast yesterday and was received with

61 By an agreement between the United States and Spain concluded on May 2, 1944, the latter undertook, inter alia: to close the German Consulate in Tangier and to require its personnel to depart from Spanish or Spanish-controlled territory; to expel all German agents from Spanish or Spanish-controlled territory; to require the Japanese Legation in Spain' to withdraw its Military Attaché from Tangier; and to expel Axis sabotage and espionage agents from Spanishcontrolled territory and Metropolitan Spain. For agreement, see exchange of letters between the Ambassador in Spain and the Spanish Minister for Foreign Affairs, May 1 and 2, vol. IV, first section under Spain.

62 The British Broadcasting Corporation.



general satisfaction by everyone except presumably Germans and certain of their paid henchmen and sympathizers. Allied prestige has increased enormously overnight despite fact morning press was carefully censored by authorities to exclude any reference to expulsion German Consul here and German agents in Spanish North Africa reference being made only to a few already expelled. British paper Tangier Gazette appeared with several blank spaces on front page representing censored parts of Eden's 53 announcement and British Consul General 54 making vigorous protest to High Commission's delegate Tangier this a. m. (Orgaz 55 has been visiting Melilla and eastern part of zone since May 1.) Other points of settlement (release of Italian merchant ships, submission question Italian warships to arbitration, withdrawal Blue Division,56 reduction wolfram exports to Germany and resumption oil shipments to Spain and colonies) adequately treated.

Chief reason for satisfaction over settlement is announced resumption of oil shipments which it is assumed will again permit circulation of private cars.

I have just seen Castillo 57 who informs me that while he has not yet received any official information it is his opinion publicity has not been given to agreement regarding expulsion of Germans in the interest of public order. He admitted that agreement on this point was no secret and that majority of local population had already been apprised of it through Allied broadcasts but asserted that publicity here might give rise to disturbances among partisans of the belligerent powers. I pointed out the paradoxical nature of his assertion but could obtain no more satisfactory explanation from him. He said most important point was agreement regarding expulsion of Germans and that question of publicity is minor issue. I replied that it involved question of prestige and that both the other contracting parties had seen fit to make public all points of settlement. In reply to my question Castillo said he did not know whether publicity had been given to entire settlement in metropolitan Spanish press.

He seemed relieved that a settlement had been reached but said that most difficult phase, namely, actual expulsion of Germans has yet to be undertaken. He said no instructions regarding matter had yet been received by High Command from Madrid. I remarked that it was to Spain's interest as well as ours to see to it that agreement is given effect by expelling Germans at earliest possible date. He agreed and observed they would have to be given 2 weeks or so to arrange


53 Anthony Eden, British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
54 Alvary D. F. Gascoigne.
Gen. Luís Orgaz, High Commissioner of Spain in Morocco.

Spanish Volunteers with the German Army on the Russian Front. 67 Cristóbal del Castillo, Spanish Consul General at Tangier.


their affairs before they leave. Their departure will hinge, of course, on Madrid's instructions to Orgaz and his interpretation of such orders. Repeated to Madrid.


711.52/443 : Telegram

The Chargé at Tangier (Elbrick) to the Secretary of State

TANGIER, May 4, 1944–5 p. m.

[Received May 42:32 p. m.] 49. Legation's 99, May 3, to Department. I have just seen Uriarte 58 who informed me that no instructions have yet been received from Madrid regarding expulsion of Germans. I told him that it is most important to everyone concerned that this phase of agreement be executed at once since any delay will only 'complicate matters and make eventual expulsion more difficult. He agreed but said matter rests with Madrid Government and High Commissioner, who is returning tomorrow from Melilla, will not act without instructions. British Consul General and I feel such instructions should be issued at once. Undue delay could easily dissipate every favorable impression already created here by the announcement of the settlement. Uriarte informed Gascoigne today that publication of Eden's statement in British Tangier Gazette will be permitted as soon as permission is received officially from Madrid. He told Gascoigne yesterday publication of reference to their expulsion would have been discourtesy to Germans. He said he had given orders to local censor to eliminate such references since paper is circulated in Spanish Zone as well as Tangier and since local authorities had not received instructions from Madrid regarding agreement. Repeated to Department and Algiers for Murphy.59 Sent to Madrid.


711.52/449 : Telegram

The Ambassador in Spain (Hayes) to the Secretary of State

MADRID, May 4, 1944–11 p. m.

[Received May 5—7:33 a. m.] 1549. High Foreign Office official stated this morning that Foreign Office had just received a telegram from the Spanish Ambassador in

Gen. D. Jenaro de Uriarte, Spanish Military Governor of Tangier, and Delegate of the High Commissioner at Tangier.

59 Robert D. Murphy, Chief Civil Affairs Officer at Algiers, United States Political Adviser on the Staff of the Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean, and United States member of the Advisory Council, Allied Control Commission for Italy.



Berlin,so who reported that he had been called to the German Foreign Office by the Sub-Secretary 61 (von Ribbentrop 62 is not in Berlin). Sub-Secretary had been pale with rage and had protested in the most violent terms against Spain's agreement with Britain and United States. He seemed to take greatest offense at suppression of German Consulate General in Tangier. Sub-Secretary said that this was especially offensive to Germany inasmuch as British and American diplomatic and consular offices were being allowed to remain.

The Ambassador explained patiently to the Sub-Secretary that Allied offices had a right to remain there while the Germans had been prohibited by international treaty 63 from establishing a Consulate General in Tangier in the first place, and that Spain was merely carrying out an obligation which was especially pressing inasmuch as Spain had occupied Tangier in order to guarantee its neutrality.

The Ambassador reported that when the conversation ended the Sub-Secretary had calmed down considerably.

German Ambassador in Madrid 64 likewise has protested against agreement.


711.52/448 : Telegram

The Chargé at Tangier (Elbrick) to the Secretary of State

TANGIER, May 5, 1944–2 p. m.

[Received 3:25 p. m.] 103. British Consul General was informed by Castillo today that text of Madrid settlement has now been received by the High Commissariat and that question of the removal of German Consulate and Japanese from Tangier had been taken up by Spanish Government in Berlin and Tokyo. Gascoigne expects to see Orgaz today or tomorrow when he will present formal demand for immediate implementation agreement which Castillo said he would be glad to support. List prepared by Allied intelligence service of German consular personnel here and German agents in Spanish North Africa will be presented at the same time. Castillo intimated that Orgaz may refuse to act until definite instructions are received from Madrid. Neither British Consul General nor this Legation has yet received text of settlement.


60 Gen. Ginés Vidal. 61 Andor Hencke.

Joachim von Ribbentrop, German Foreign Minister. 63 The Treaty of Versailles, part IV, section V, articles 141-146; Foreign Relations, The Paris Peace Conference, vol. XIII, pp. 292–295.

64 Hans Dieckhoff.

« PreviousContinue »