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attachment to it serve to indicate in a small way, the measure of Our attachment and the attachment of Our People, to that great Power which has ever stood by Us and Our Nation in the hour of need, and to its esteemed Chief, the President of the United States of America. Your Good Friend


124.841/9–1344 President Roosevelt to the Emperor of Ethiopia (Haile Selassie) *

WASHINGTON, November 27, 1944. GREAT AND GOOD FRIEND: I have received with very great appreciation your generous letter of August 24, 1944, in which Your Majesty has graciously conveyed to the United States of America absolute title and possession of property situated in Addis Ababa, together with all appurtenances, furnishings, and valuables located thereon, and certain additional realty deemed to be necessary and appropriate to the representation of the United States in Ethiopia.

In the name of the United States I accept these gifts in the same cordial spirit of friendship in which they have been offered, and I welcome this added testimonial of the attachment that so happily binds our two peoples together in bonds of permanent understanding and mutual respect. Your Good Friend,




Memorandum by the Secretary of State to President Roosevelt 5

[WASHINGTON,] September 13, 1944. On August 23, 1944, the Munitions Assignment Board approved the assignment to Ethiopia from surplus stocks of 5,000 rifles and a small amount of other military equipment which the Ethiopian Government has for several months been particularly anxious to obtain, in anticipation of the increased responsibility for maintaining internal security in Ethiopia which fell upon that country on August 25, 1944, with the termination of the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement. The Brit

Transmitted in instruction No. 143, December 2, to the Minister in Ethiopia. • Marginal notation : "CH OK FDR."

*For correspondence relating to the interest of the United States in negotiations leading to a new Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement, see pp. 76 ff.


ish members of the Board dissented on "political" grounds to this decision and have indicated their intention to carry the case to the Combined Chiefs of Staff. The British Embassy has taken the matter up with the Department and has indicated that the British objections are based on security" considerations. The War Department and the Department of State are unable to admit the validity of the “security” arguments so far advanced by the British. While this modest request of the Emperor may, if granted, give him the ability to enforce order among his restless people, it is difficult to see how British security in north-eastern Africa could be vitally affected by the Emperor's possession of such a small amount of equipment.

While the political and economic interests of the United States in Ethiopia are not now of major importance, this Government does wish to maintain a position of equality of opportunity in Ethiopia so that any future development of American interests would not be prevented by exclusive or preferential rights obtained by third parties. This Government has a natural interest in the welfare of Ethiopia, one of the two independent countries of Africa, and is sympathetic to the desire of the Emperor to re-establish order and restore the economy of the country which was so badly disrupted during four years of Italian occupation.

There does not appear to be a valid reason for the United States to acquiesce in British desires in this case.

Since it is possible that this question may be raised with you by Mr. Churchill? at Quebec,: it is thought desirable that you should be informed on the matter.

Unless you perceive some objection thereto, or unless more substantial reasons are advanced by the British against the release of the rifles than have so far been advanced, the Department proposes to advise the War Department that the rifles may be sent forward to Ethiopia at its convenience.


884.24/9–2944: Telegram

The Secretary of State to the Minister in Ethiopia (Caldwell)

WASHINGTON, September 29, 1944—8 p. m. 141. Military equipment including 5,000 rifles, 5 armored cars, twelve 37mm. field guns, four 75mm. field guns, fifty 30 cal. Browning machine guns, fifty 45 cal. submachine guns and ammunition has been assigned to Ethiopia and will probably be shipped within a month. Date of shipment will be announced to you as soon as known. Please inform Ethiopian Government.

? Winston S. Churchill, British Prime Minister.

8 No record has been found of any discussion of this question at the Second Quebec Conference; correspondence relating to this Conference is scheduled for publication in a subsequent volume of Foreign Relations.


884.24/11-2744: Telegram

The Minister in Ethiopia (Caldwell) to the Secretary of State

ADDIS ABABA, November 27, 1944—4 p.m.

[Received November 27–1:03p.m.] 246. ReDept's 141, September 29. Emperor asks that shipment of arms be expedited and requests any information available as to status and probable arrival dates.


884.515/11-2944 : Telegram

The Secretary of State to the Minister in Ethiopia (Caldwell)

WASHINGTON, December 30, 1944—5 p.m. 198. Reurtel [246] November 27. The Department has been endeavoring to facilitate shipment of military supplies and now understands from the Army that a part of the shipment will be ready to go forward about January 15, 1945. In view of the security problem involved not only in this shipment but in other imminent shipments of coins and currency, the Department together with FEA 10 is exploring the possibility of sending all of these articles on one ship which would call at Djibouti. The mint states that the silver and the subsidiary coins will be ready for shipment about the end of January and the currency is expected to be ready at about the same time.

It is now hoped that all supplies will leave the United States on the same ship about January 31. You will be advised as soon as definite commitments can be obtained from all agencies concerned.

Reurtel 266 December 22 11 Ethiopian Minister has taken all necessary action regarding coins and is providing full report to his Government.12


* For correspondence relating to the Ethiopian request for lend-lease assistance, see Foreign Relations, 1943, vol. IV, pp. 82 ff.; for text of the Lend-Lease Agreement between the United States and Ethiopia, signed at Washington, August 19, 1943, see Department of State Treaty Series No. 334, or 57 Stat. (pt. 2) 1043.

10 Foreign Economic Administration. 11 Not printed.

The rifles and military equipment were delivered to the Ethiopian Government on April 8, 1945.



741.8411/9–2244: Telegram

The Secretary of State to the Minister in Ethiopia (Caldwell)

WASHINGTON, September 22, 1944—7p.m. 135. The Department considers that before the impending AngloEthiopian negotiations begin it would be advisable to call informally to the attention of the Ethiopian Government the most favored nation clause of the American Ethiopian Treaty of 1914.14

This Government did not invoke the 1914 treaty in connection with rights obtained by the British under the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement and Military Convention of 1942 15 since the agreement was understood to be temporary and was negotiated during a period of great military stress in the Near Eastern area. The war has now moved away from that area and conditions are gradually returning to normal. The Department, viewing its treaty rights in the light of present circumstances, would now be disposed to invoke the terms of the treaty if necessary to obtain for the United States the rights and privileges to which it is entitled under the most favored nation clause. In bringing this matter to the attention of the Ethiopian Government you should be careful to avoid giving any impression that this Government is attempting to bring pressure to bear on Ethiopia or to influence the course of negotiations with the British. It is intended merely to remind the Ethiopian Government of its commitments under the 1914 treaty.


741.8411/10-2444 : Telegram

The Minister in Ethiopia (Caldwell) to the Secretary of State

ADDIS ABABA, October 24, 1944–4 p. m.

[Received October 25—11:30 p. m.] 214. ReLeg's 212, October 20, 210 October 19 and 206 October 12.16 Negotiations for Anglo-Ethiopian agreement now in critical stage as


» For previous correspondence regarding interest of the United States in the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement of 1942, see Foreign Relations, 1942, vol. IV, pp. 116 ff.

Treaty of Commerce signed at Addis Ababa, June 27, 1914, ibid., 1920, vol. II, p. 243; for correspondence relating to the treaty, see ibid., pp. 229 ff.

15 Signed at Addis Ababa, January 31, 1942, British and Foreign State Papers, vol. CXLIV, p. 989.

10 None printed.

British insist on retaining until after war of reserved area 17 and Ogaden 18 on both military and political grounds; Ethiopians consider former very weak and latter (involving possibly Greater Somaliland) real basis for insistence. British first stated their instructions were categorical and allowed of no negotiation regarding this matter but have now agreed to refer it to London. British have offered to lease only reserved area one-eighth of total of reserved area and Ogaden and propose to hold Ogaden, roughly one-third of area of Ethiopia, without recognition of Ethiopian sovereignty afforded by lease, I am informed.

Today Emperor personally instructed Spencer 19 to ask me to inquire: Whether Department could indicate its views concerning British retention of Ethiopian territory; and whether Department could see its way clear to approaching British, not as an intermediary at the request of Ethiopia but as one of United Nations concerned over probable world effect of proposed British treatment of another of United Nations which was first of overrun countries to be liberated and whose territory in opinion of Ethiopians is to be treated by the British in same way as neighboring enemy Italian territory.

As reported in despatch 254, October 17 20 Lord de la Warr 21 in conversation for purpose of informing me of progress of negotiations inquired as to probable opinion of American people in case negotiations fail because of above British demands; I replied that without instructions I could not speak officially as to this, but personally I believe American opinion would be critical of British action which would probably be regarded as unjustifiable; Lord de la Warr said he considered it likely such would be opinion in U.S. and perhaps in England as well. Lord de la Warr said Department can obtain information as to treaty negotiations progress from British Embassy in Washington which is being kept currently informed.


741.8411/11-444: Telegram

The Minister in Ethiopia (Caldwell) to the Secretary of State

ADDIS ABABA, November 4, 1944—noon.

[Received 1:45 p. m.] 224. It is assumed by Ethiopian Government that as no reply has

17 Certain areas of Ethiopia adjacent to the border of French Somaliland which, under the terms of the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement of 1942 were placed under the occupation of the British Army forces in Ethiopia.

18 The easternmost province of Ethiopia, placed under the control of the British Military Administration of Somalia by the 1942 Agreement.

John Spencer, American Adviser to the Ethiopian Foreign Office.
Not printed.

Special representative and leader of the British delegation to negotiate the new agreement.



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