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sertion and abdication of the throne by the provinces with zcal and equity. The taxes former monarch. But the most interest- are uniformly distributed, and each Neaing part, is that on wbich this writer politan, blesses the order and regularity now grounds Murat's preferable claim upon his established by the Government of Joacbim. attention to the happiness and prosperity Let us now compare this statement, the of the Neapolitan people.” Here his title work of a few years, with the result of the rests upon a basis that, I trust, will never | Government of the last dynasty, during the be undermined. It was a similar title that space of seventy years, that it reigned commanded my respect for the Emperor over Naples, and we shall soon perceive Napoleon ; and it is a title without which, the just motives for which the inhabitants ia my estimation, every Chief ought to be of the whole kingdom give so decided a regarded as a tyrant and usurper, and preference to the actual Government.compelled to relinquish sovereign power. Charles III. was certainly known to possess That the reader may judge how far Nurat, a great character for probity, and many King of Naples, merits his present eleva- other distinguished qualities; but he was tion, and is entitled to possess the throne wanting in the knowledge neccessary for be occupies, I bave annexed to this article appreciating the resources offered him by our author's remarks

the kingdom of Naples, and the genius of On the happiness of the Neapolitans, and its inbabitants: he only conceived the pro

on the prosperity of the kingdom. ject of a code of laws ; he undertook the Every acute observer will have remarked, construction of some public edifices in the that so much trouble and agitation in Eu- capital of his estates, in which he left some rope has happened, only because certain traces of magnificence and utility ; but Governments have too much neglected the every branch of administration, and of poprincipal object of their institution-the litical economy, were entirely neglected. public felicity, and the general prosperity. Naples possessed neither a civil, nor a criIf the happiness of a nation is the truest minal code, nor administrative laws. The title of a King; and if that happiness people of the law, exclusively confined to consists in causing a nation to be respected the knowledge of the laws of the Lombards, abroad, and in protecting at home the per- of the municipal, of the Roman and canon sonal safety of all, the liberty, property, law, disposed in an arbitrary manner of and industry of individuals, we find this the fortune and of the liberty of the citiend entirely accomplished at Naples by the zens. To this species of judiciary desbeneficial effects produced by the Govern- potisni and legislative chaos, was joined ment of Joachim, who has inspired a na- the absolute authority of the King, who, tional spirit in a country so long agitated under the name of dispatches, or royal and by violent parties, and rendered amiable ministerial decrees, made a capricious inthe royal authority, which had been for a terpretation of the laws, destroying the long time so persecuting and odions. From effect and dispositions of them. These whence we may conclude, that affection to dispatches had even the force of laws, wards a king, is no more thun an affec- there not being any power that could stop, tion for his Government, and an acknow- or prevent the execution of them. Im ledgment of his justice. -Joachim Murat Naples, with regard to judiciary or admihas succeeded in a very few years in form- nistrative institutions, and the public eduing a navy, as far as is necessary for the cation, there were no traces, except in the defence of the coasts, and for protecting remembrance of what had been done by the the commerce of the kingdom. He has Princes of the Houses of Suabia avd Ar. excited and encouraged industry, manu- ragon. The policy of the last dynasty at factures, and commerce, as much as the ge- Naples, was to annihilate every power that neral state of warfare would permit him. might counterbalance or temper the röval He bas formed an army prone to war, and authority. There were no means of opwell disciplined, and which has recently posing the absolute, or despotic power, but given proofs of courage and order, when by the effect of two institations. The first. it was incumbent on it to protect the Ec- consisted of the strength and opinion of clesiastical States, and the Grand Duke- the feudal lords over their vassals: the sedom of Tuscany, against the calamities cond was in the simulacre of a national which threatened those countries. The representation in the Sedili or Piazze, a jurisprudence has been reformed ; the tri- specjes of corporations chiefly noble, whicla banals administer justice throughout the were permanent in the capital : she des

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stroying of these toro institutions, was the out of all proportion to the revenues of
same as reducing the inhabit..nts of the the States, and, above all, with a State that
fuaest country in the world, to the rank of possessed neither commerce, navigation,
the wretched population of Senegal, or the mor colonies. This great oversight in the
country of the Caffres. This species of Government, produced these disastrous con-
national representation of the Sdili or sequences that might be oxpected.
Pinxxe was abolished, ard the places in This wils all that was done by the Go.
which their sittings were held vere de vernment of the former dynasty, from the
molished : so much did the Prince year 1735, in the beautiful kingilom of
dread even the traces of the edifices. In Viples; while, on the contrary, in the
order the casier to deceive the Neapolitan course of a few years, under the new reign
nobility, on the motives of this destruc- of Joachim, Naples possesses a civil code, a
tory proceeding, the Govern:ne!lt ordered penil codi, an administrative code, and a
all the ancient nobility to be num'ered by commerciel cock. Each province has its
clases, * feigning that these, or rather the own tribunals; people having suits at law
privileged few of the royal anti-chamber, are no longer obliged to ruin themselves,
would perfectly replace, in the adminis- by coming to Naples to solicit a judgment.
trition of the city, those ancient bodies of Frudulism is ablished, as well as all ex-
the Piszci'

, who, joined to some members clusive privileges; the Neapolitans enjoy of the commercial community, for several a perfici cquality in the face of the lari. cunturies past, trad invigilated over the 'The abuses of monastic institutions are

prie administration. Morcover, tļie po- vestroyed, the prelates and ministers of the : licy of Government was such as, 1st, 'To Catholic religion, the only ones protected

oblige the barons and great proprietors to by the lair, enjoy all tåe consideration that ruile at Naples under its jeulous inspec- is due to them, with stipends and funds tin : fin a short time all the provinces proportioned to their decent maintenance. were d.-prived of their greatest landed Property is very much divided. A regular propictors, who, alone, had the power of system of finance, that unfolds every year traddring them rich and linopy. 211, To to the Neapolitan nation the true siate of establish no where but in ilie capital, tri- lier wints, and her resources, presents at Lunes, colleges, universities, 'honours, the same time a table of the establisites esplorineits, arts, manufactures, com taxes, and of the disbursements made iriti merce, and even the printing-offices. It the public revenues,

Antional represtiewas thus that th.. rest of the kingdom 1r9s eatin assembl-s erery year, forming the deprived, through a false an: suspicious councils of the commons, districts, and policy, of every means of civilisation, and provinces; the deputies are chusen by the Joned to ignoranec, misery, :und servi preople. These councils statute a:rd de rueCude. It wils thus that the provinces were rate on the objects of interior melioration, abandoned, and nine parts in ten of the whether it be relative to the administration, population reduced to a stuto almost of or to the use mide of the public money. sauvages, whilst that, the other tenth part, They may propose plans of useful estabwas destined to live amiilst the intrigues of lishments, the king having reserved to himthe Court, and the tumult of the tribunals self the right of approbation. No law is and courts of justice, consuming their published, unless approved of by the Counlives and fortunes in the steril enjoyments cil of State. All the provinces enjoy the of luxury and citeminacy. The Cavern benefit of colleges, Cons, primary and ment of Ferdinand sourut in voin the secondary schools, moi chariable cstublishmeans of inspiring a military and national ments. They have printing offices and maspirit : where there is no example to fol- | az?,fuctures; in short, under the new Goverloiv, and where the concatenated order of meat, all the inhabitants, from Calabria a good administration exists not, there can ultra to the extremity of Abruzzi, have be peith r army por country. The God within their reach all the dillerent instituvernment of Ferdinand was occupied in tions, political, judiciary, administrutire, establishing a powerful navy; but it was and of public education ; and they have the Hiv dector for the creation of a register without being under the necessity of recur

means of making a progress in civilization, A noblearn wh» male ino loire a rrsidence ring to the capital.- 13 to the Neapolitan in the eyes or de forma no condomy braic ; it has proved that the southera ollis estate became suspecied, as a conopirator, irmij, it is numerous, well-looking, and Antrian gu to liis escales without premission.

called tre

Italians have rivalled in courage, and the ) and other foreign officers in our army. thirst of glory, even the Italians of the During this discussion, it was shewn, that worth, ia the fields of battle, in Spain, in it was unlawful to employ such persons in Germany, and in Italy - This army, which, any other corps than in those authorised, led by its king, bas distinguished itself by Act of Parliament, during the present under bis orders, has nothing in common, war; and this Quintin was particularly por that can be compared with the army of named, as a person employed contrary to 1798, nor with that of 1806. It has for law. The fact was not denied by the Mi. its chief, and for its model, a great cap- nisters, and those who justified their contain, who has made his essays in Africa, as duct and the conduct of the military dewell as in Europe. It has imbibed a na-partments ; but, it was asserted, and espetional spirit, because the sovereign who cially by Colonel Palmer, the other Colonel commands it is occupied in promoting ci- of the regiment (the 10th dragoons), that vilization, and causes the rights of the this Quintin was a person of most rare und people to be respected.- I do not here wonderful merit. With these facts in speak merely of the troops of the line, my memory, it was not without feelings of which are equally remarkable for discipline, great indignation, that I read the other and for exactness in their mancuvres. I day, in the Globe newspaper, a paragraph owe the same praises to 70,000 legionaries, stating, that in the Court Martial now caror national guards, armed, euregimented, rying on against Colonel Quintin, Colonel and all chosea from amongst the body of Palmer acts oficially, not by choice ; that the proprietors of the kingilom. These are the charges have been made by the junior the 70,000 legionaries, that, whilst the re- Oficers, and that these charges will revert gular army was employed in Germany and upon themselves, if they should fail in in Spain, have alone defended all the coasts making them good. - It appears to me of the kingdom of Naples with as much zeal to be, that this paragraph must have been as bravery; and I might here invoke the not only to cause the question to be pretestiinony of my compatriots, the officers judged by the public, but to intimidate and sailors of the English navy, wbo are the prosecutors and the evidences. Let it ever ready to do justice to the brave of all be observed, that, at the time this paranátions.---The ry is not girantic, and out graph was published, the Court-Martial of proportion with the state of the revenue was actually assembled ; the trial was acas in the time of Ferdinand. It is compo- tually going on; and, it is clear as daysed of your officers and sailors, and light, that the object of this publication a lapted to its principal destination, which must have been to produce a feeling in the is to defend the coasts, the commerce, and public for the accused, and against the acthe coasting trade, against the pirates, and cusers.--Now, who would dare to take Barbary power's.

upon him to say, in print, that Colonel Such are the various titles of the actual Palmer acted an unwilling part in the Government to the affection of the people, performance of the office of prosecutor ? who iu Joachim Murat have placed all their who, I say, would, without some extraorbopes of a perfect civilization, of reform dinary cause, dare do this ? And thus, in the administration, and of the public not very darkly to give it to be understood, welfare in general.-- After this painting of that the Colonel, at least, looked upon the the prosperity of the kingdom of Naples, is charges as groundless ?-But, be this it possible to raise a doubt whether it will as it may, whence comes the assertion, that, must promote the happiness of the Neapo- if Quintin be acquitted the guilt will fali litan jurople, to continue to live under the upon the junior officers, who, it is said, rei ca of Joachim, author of so much good, have accused him? Whence comes this or to retrograde by returning under the assertion? Whence comes the boldness Government of Ferdinand Bourbon ? to broach such a doctrine? If a man be

acquitted on a charge of sheep-stealing, or COLONEL QUINTIN.--It appears that of murder, does the charge, or its consethis officer is now before a Court Martial quences, fall upon the accusers ? Is the #t Brighton. The reader may, probably, re- man, who accuscs another of forgery, in member, that about two years and a balf case of acquitta), banged in the stead of ago, there was a discussion, in the House the accused? We know that this is not of Commons, on a motion of Lord Folkes-yn; and, we also know, that, if it were sn, tone, relative to the employment of German NO MAN WOULD EVER BE AC.

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CUSED of sheep-stealing, murder, or fin a manner, close at our doors, the latter forgery. This would be the most effectual was deemed too distant, and too insigni• mode that could possibly be devised for ficant for “the most thinking people in the smothering accusations; and, if adopted world,” to tbink any thing at all about it. in the Army, or Navy, it is pretty clear, --Now, however, the case is different.that we shall never again bear of any mis. As we bave got Boney, like Prometheus,

behaviour of any officer of high rank.-It fairly chained to his rock; with, I suppose, must be evident to every one, that the in- the accompaniment of bis vulture too, in ferior officers have much against them in the shape of remorse, or rather of regret,

the making of accusations against their we have leisure to look about us, and to superiors; that they must feel the many consider this nice little bit of a war in all disadvantages under which they labour; its bearings.- John Bull has bawled himthat it never can be a trifling matter to self hoarse, burraing for the peace. He put them in motion against their Com- has burnt oceans of oil, and tons of tallow, manding Oficer, who has so many means besides abundance of royal rockets, and of annoying the first to complain of his squibs, and crackers, in celebrating the

conduct. Therefore, when complaints glorious peace! And after all the noise and * are preferred by junior officers against | friss is over, he stands with a stupid stare their Commanders, they ought, it seems to of amazement, wondering how the dence me; to be heard with attention ; and sup- this peace feels so very unlike what he export ought to be tendered them; and not pected.--He feels almost a3 incredulous threats held forth to intimulate them.- about it, as Lord Peter's brothers did, I know nothing of the nature of the when he wanted “to palm bis damnd charges against this foreigner; I have crusts upon them, as mutton!” He holds - never heard them stated; I have never a dialogue with himself, something like the - heard any particulars relative to the following.--"So, we have got peace, have

conduct or the character of the man;" we?-Aye, so they tell me ; but somehow but, I know well, that it is, during the sit-" or other it does not feel of the right ting of a Court of any sort, upon any case,

“sort.--But what say the Funds ? risiny, monstrously indecent and unjust, to pub-" eh? Sinking, sinking. lish threats, calculated to intimilate prose “ Omnium? Below par. - Property Tax tutors or witnesses; and, that such is the “ taken off? Not a sous.-Other taxes tendency of the paragraph above-mention- lowered ? No, not one.-Ships paid off; ed, no man in his senses can doubt.

troops disbanded? No such thing.

“Humph! this may be peace; but, odso, Cory Bill.--Since my last, I have the “ it feels, somehow or other, devilish like mortification to hear, that the importation war."-Aye, honest John Bull; and of cattle from France is stopped altogether; devilish like war thou wilt find it, let me and that butter, eggs, &c. are to pay a tell thee. The sapient and humane editor beavy duty. I have no doubt, that the of “the Times" talks of " crushing the Corn Bill is to be tried again ; and, there- Americans at once,” just as a giant would fore, I shall, in the course of two or three crush a blind puppy! But good Mr. Times,

Numbers, make all the efforts I am able that is easier said than done. As far as to prevent the adoption of so mischievous vulgar Billingsgate abasc can go, yon, and

a measure ; a measure which would de- sour brother of the Courier, have done your prive us of the only advantage promiscd us best to irritate and inflame the Americans. in peace ; namely, an intercourse with a But, we might as well expect pure water pațion which has freed itself from its from a jakes, as decent language or liberal ancient trammels.

sentiments from two such corrupt sources.

In the Minister's speeches, delivered
AMERICA,

through the Regent, we have been repeatMR. COBBETT, ---Since the close of the edly told of the unprovoked aggression on grand drama, entitled “4 war against the part of the Americans ! If he had con

Bonaparte,” we have had a little more descended to mention the instances of ag? leisure to attend to the lesser drama, en gression, it would have been more satis"3 titled “the American War," which is now factory; for I, for one, must be pardoned;

performing for the anusement and satis- for not believing even his royal word upon Luction of John Bull. While the former, such an occasion. So far from Having with all its accompaniments was going on, I been the aggressors, they bore with our

What says

insolent Orders in Council, much longer anxious for humbling the Yankees; but than we would have borne any thing similar now that they are getting some raps over on their parts; and all they now ask is, the knuckles from these same Yankees, that we shall not stop their ships, and take they make a mest terrible song about it. what of their crews we think proper, with. Instead of petitioning the Regent to read a out proving them to be British subjects! lecture to bis friend Croker, about cena This is, on their part, the sole cause of the voying their sugar and tobacco, they war! Give up this, and they will make would have acted more justly and more peace to-morrow.--But, softly; that would wisely bad they petitioned him at once to not suit our worthy Ministers.

War is put an end to an unjust and unnecessary their harvest, and taxes and loans are war, instead of singing out about tkeir their crops. Now, no man likes to reap a paltry individual losses, which, compared scanty crop, when he may have a full one.

to those of the nation, are as a drop in They have of late been accustomed to the the ocean.- Talleyrand, in the Exposé of sweets of handling upwards of One Hun- bis budget, says, that every individual in DRED AND TWENTY MILLIONS A YEAR, this country pays five times as much in with all the power and patronage conse- taxes, as every individual in France pays. quent upon such an enormous sum; and, Their debt is trifling ; while ours is creepI am afraid, it would require even more ing up almost beyond the power of figure virtue than they are possessed of, to con- to count. The prospect is sufficiently apclude a peace which would deprive them of palling; but, I repeat it, the fingering of one half of their power, besides disobliging the immense sums which the Ministry a vast number of worthy people, who, at have of late been accustomed to, is too present, are ia the best humour possible, precious a privilege to be abandoned-withbut who would grumble sadly, if their sop out compulsion. "Let them then be comwas taken from them.-The American pelled to abandon it ; let the voice of the War is an entertainment of that kind, that people be heard, in a way not to be misthey can and will spin out just as long---as understood; let petitions and remonstrancea John Bull has any money to pay for it.--- from all quarters be poured in, demanding They may burn some sea-port towns, and that an end be pat to an odious and unjust do a deal of mischief to individuals, but, as war; and let them not be misled by a cry to making any serious impression on Ame about our maritime rights, bat calmly asrica, ! question if even the learned Secre- certain whether these rights are not tary to the Admiralty believes it to be pos: wrongs. In short, in judging of these, let sivic. W's tried it once before, when all then apply the universal golden rule of our means were fresh and vigorous; when “

doing as they would be done by."-I' rethe American population was not one third main, Šir, your's, &c.

G. K, of what it is now; when their Government

Strathmore, Sept. 19, 1814. was weak and without credit; and when

ATTACK ON FORT ERIE-BATTLE OF we bad many partisans in their country.--CHIPAWA-DEVASTATION WASHHow our attempt ended, is well known; INGTON, I have inserted below the and how any similar attempt would now

most material parts of the official docum Gad, may be very easily conjectured.--.

ments respecting these important oceira Among all the other evils our infatuated

rences, upon

which I will make some rea Ministry are bringing upon their devoted marks in my next. At present I shall cou..try, they are forcing America to be only observe, that botwithstanding all pur come a great naval power; and although boasting about the taking of Washington, eir present able and active Admiralty may we have not been the gainers by the event ridicale the idea, yet the oldest of them whatever the Americans have lost. Our way ive to see cause to think

very
differ-

troops, in fact, were obliged immediately ently upon the subject. Our merchants

to decamp. They could not remain á noiv begin to take the alarm; these impu-single day: --and thus must they do every dest dogs of Yankees are taking their ships where they land. Only think of the exa at their very doors. They deserve to suffer; ricily deserve it. The bulk of pence of such a war! We conquer nothing; them liave all along been zealous Govern- | action is followed by a retreat:

we capture nothing ; and almost every ment men of the true Pitt breed; strenu- GENERAL Brows's krport of TAS BATTLE ous supporters of the war, so long as they of tue 5th uit. artur FALLS OF NIACARAN' could make a farthing by it, and all most SIR,--Confucd as I was; and have been,

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