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than before, secing that so many of the

NATIONAL DEFENCE. contributors are gone away.--So that the SIR-When all Europe is covered with probibition of French food will, to a certain standing armies, and the liveries of men, extent, only increase the evil, which it is bred for the slaughter, present themselves intended to prevent. Would it not be bet- on every hand, it is not to be wondered at ter to suffer the cheap food to come, and that the raw, uncouth, unfledged, soldiers thus retain the customers for cloths, of America, should excite the derision and houses, goods and fuel, and the payers of contempt of the present unthinking race of taxes ? Men must cat. They like to eat Europeans. During tlx greater part of at bome best, but they will rather go to a the lives of this generation, they have been cook's-shop than starve. Besides, the accustomed to the pomp and parade of French can supply them with chesp drink field-days and revicu's, by which they have as well as cheap food. There is some dif- acquired an idea, that there can be ne ference between a bottle of wine at 5s. and knowledge of mililary tactics where there. a better bottle at ls. There is some dif- is not a red cout, and that the man who frrence between a house at 1001. and a has not a feather in his hat, his legs co

better house at 201. Let all be safely set-vered, even in the heat of summer, with · tled in France, and let the French Go- uniform gaiters, and his neck bound round

vernment (rejecting the advice of our ma- with a leather collar, as if he were in the lignant news-papers), adopt a wise system of stocks, neit?:cr possess the requisites of 2 naturalization, and allow of the possession soldier, nor the courage of a patriota of real property by aliens; and the corn- Even the noble stand made against the kur people will soon see, that all their enemy, in Bantry Bay, at the beginning proliibitions are worse than useless.- of the war, by a inotley crew of lattered There is something so monstrous in the Irisli

, armed with sticks, pitch-forks, and idea of compelling people to purchase their other missel weapons, is incapable of doing food dear, when they can purchase it cheap, a way the established prejudice, that the that human nature revolts at it. If a law dress is the only thing that constitutes the were passed to compel a man to buy his warrior. Absurd as this opinion may aploaf of one baker, who sold it at 2s, while pear, it is nevertheless prevailing, and it the baker in the next street sold his bread is nothing uncommon to hear people, who at 1s. what would be said of such a law ? on other subjects talk very rationally, tell. What would the oppressed man do? Whr, ing their neighbours, with the greatest it would require another law, and a most sc grarily, that it is “all nonsense in the vere one too, to keep him in the country, to Yankces to attempt resistance, as they retain him in existence under such an abo- have never been drilled, nor do they look minable law. Yet, in what respect wonld like sollicis.” Some are even so such a law differ in its nature from the to say, that the American officers are also law now talked of? llere is the French ignorunt, and that, unless some traitors farmer ready to sell as his wheat, landed in from the mother country, or some of Buney's England, at about 78. a bushel; and the cast-off Generals, get in among them, they proposed law is to make us give 10s. to never will be able to fight a battle. Thus, the English farmer. Next year, perhaps, before poor Jonathan has had time to learn the French farmer may be able to supply bis alphabet in the school of military sci. us at 5s. a bushel ; and are we not to ence, he must, according to these wise purchase of him, till ours will not sell it noodles, strike his flag to the superior skill us for more than 10s? I confess, that such and courage of the demi-gods of the ocean! a law would be no more unjust than many I confess I am sometimes at a loss wheather prohibitory laws that I have heard ther to attribute this disposition to run af. I think, that there ought to be no down the soldiers of all other nations, so prohibitions against importations of any prevailing among my countrymen, to wil. sort. I think, that commerce should be ful misapprchension of the truth, or to a quite fizesBut, because there are pro- spirit of unjustifiable detraction. To one hibitions, I am not bound to approve of or other of these it must be owing ; for ne additional prohibitions. Because I cannot man, after reading the late accounts, in romove the iniposts upon French wine, Tour own Gazettes, of the well fought batam not bound to approve of inposts upon tles in Canada, can acquit himself of parErench corn and cattle.

tiality, or of envy, if he does not allow, that the Americans skewed as mach covo,

foolish as

rage, and as much skill in these affairs as alone debauches the soldier's inclination; the best dressed, and the best disciplined when, without home, without industry, and regiment that was opposed to them. And without occupation, he must subsist either why should they not? Why should not a by pay or by plunder. Armies composed people, who have given us so many con- of such as these have sometimes enslaved vincing proofs of their bravery at sca, be a nation, under pretence of doing them equally brave on land, without the appen- justice. Our history fornishes a remark, dage of a bit of scarlet affixed to their able instance of this kind, which shews backs, or any other badge or insigniu of clearly what it is that converts a soldier slavery. When I look into the history of into a rebel, and makes him dangerous to my own country I find that our forefathers his country. As gallant an army as tbis dad no stress on these vain trappings. In nation ever saw, and whici, at the same those days, indeed, there was no such time, was particularly stiled the modest and thing as standing armies. Every man, as self-demying, consisted of the yonths of the Amuricans do now, learned to use the London, who, though unused to aims, and weapon of war from his infancy; and drawn in baste out of town, gare signal when he took the field against the foe, he proof of courage through tlie tvhole civil neither wore a coat of scarlet, nor a coat wars, and at last defeated the royal army bý of green; he fought with that in which be one decisive blow at Naseby. If this army of had been accustomed to fell the tree ; he the Parliament, after they had done the repelled the invader ; and his grateful business for which they were called out, country were not prevented sendering him bad been sent back to their trades; and the homage due to his fame, because he had only been made use of as there was had not gained her battles in the gaudy occasion for them, they would have been attire of modern heroes. It was in these in the nature of a militia, and there days that Britain rested secure in an would have been no danger to apprearm.cd people, equally terrible to domestic hend from them : But, by keeping them as to foreign despots. It was then, it for several years constantly in the field, might be said with truth, that the only after the war was over ; by training them safeguard of the Constitution consisted, to idleness, and making them forget their as it now does in America, in every citi tratles, and depriving them of the common zen being possessed of a sword, and in the methods of subsistence, they were made enactinent and administration of the laws not at all the better soldiers, but became the being confided to citizens only. The sub- worse citizens. Their dispositions were ject of standing armies las employed totally perverted; their modesty changed ming able pens; and their pernicious in- to presumption; they grew imperions and fluence has been often discanted upon ; seditious; they refused to go to Ireland but I do not think any one has done more though they were commanded; neither justice to the subject than Charles Lord would they be disbanded though the ParHawkesbury, in his Discourse on the liament had no other occasion for their Establishment of a National and Consti- service. They petitioned-they remontutional Force ; a work originally pub- strated-they rebelled—and at lengtb delished in the year 1757, but now little stroyed the authority of that Parliament known in this country. His reasoning, which at first called them forth, and had indeed, is so very conclusive, that I can performed such wonders by their assistnot resist the temptation of closing this ance. letter with the following extract, for which

“ Most of the nations of Europe were, , I hope you will contrive to find a corner in till within these three centuries, defended your REGISTER.

by Militias ;-and did not Holland, when “ The miseries, and oppressions (says ber own citizens were obliged to be trained, Lord Hawkesbury), which some States defend herself against the power of Spain have suffered from the common sorts of Could the arms of Phillip, conducted by the armies, have made many absurdly appre- genius of the Prince of Parma, ever pene. hensive, that a firelock or a red coat must trate far into her country? And did not necessarily alter the disposition of the per- the seiges of Harlaam, Alcamar, and sons who have them. They do not observe Leyden, when they were garrisoned only that these evils have arisen from such only by their own burghers, break the spirit of who have made war their profession. It is the Spanish veterans ?

And vet this very the idle and dissolute manner of living that country was overran, and most of bas

towns taken, in the space of a month, inerer, as the Sovereigns of Europe may be the year 1672, when the defence thereof to participate in the freadem of the scas, was entrusted to 25,000 mercenaries.-It and indignant as they feci on account of is useless to cite any more examples. The our intolerant sway, it is possible, thougla very origin of standing forces shews, that by no means probuble, notwithstanding lie they were not thought indispensably neces- alarms and tire vapouring of the Custrier, sary for the defence of a country. They that they may consider it pourt to postwere first raised to suppress rebellious sub- pone the consideration of the question, jectz; to command the unwilling subjec-until after the Congress, when they will tion of distant and oppressed provinces ; feel themselves at liberty to enter fuginto or to extend the conquests of some aspiring onr pretensions, without those restraints prince into distant countries, for which he which must necessarily arise from the precould not legally command the service of sence of a British Minister. I suy this is the Militia."

possibl', though somewhat improbable ; Yours, &c. A North Britox. and my reason for thinking the interference

of the Allies probablc, at present, is its MARITIME RIGHTS.--Tlie Courier likelihood, and the frequ'nt recurrence of writer is in a dreadful rage, from an ap- the French journals to the subject. The prehension that our claims to the so'c- following article appeared in a late number reignty of the seas will be called in ques- of the Gazette de France, said to be taken tion at the ensuing Congress. But is there from “ the journal of one of the departany thing more natural than that the Con- ments contiguous to the Rhine," and dated tinental Powers, having, as they believe, l'ienna, September 29th.--"Questios of put down the tyrant of the land, should * more szeneral interest are about to occupy also wish to put down the tyrant of the “ the Envoys of the great Powers. The ocean? Our corruptionists are not surely “ first, without doubt, will be to fix soso vain as to suppose, that the Allies, in “ lemnly the principles of the law of 1?combating Napoleon, were willing, wien " tions, of which all speak, but only the he was put down, that a maritime despo. “ weak observe. France and Russia are tism, which had so long annoyed them," to stipulaic, in the name of humanity, should continue in all its vigour. We " that hereafter neutral commerce shall scem to have secured, for some time at “ not be pillaced in time of war, por be least, the neutrality, if not the support, of commenced without a previous declaraHolland. But has not Russia, Denmark, “tion, por even without a certain del::$ in Sweden, Spain, and even Austria, to say " order to regociate. The Emperor silexnothing of France, had a thousand times" ander las luid down the only plan earaoccasion to complain of the haughty treat-" ble of insuring these great principles: it meat they have reccived from us on the is a common compact between the Euioseas ?--The moment, too, when our race - pean

Powers to diminish their permanent of naval glory is somewhat checked by the armies one-half.--- Respect for the indeAmericans, seems favourable to the ap- pendence of nations, the sacredness of prehended design, that the other ma- the imprescriptible rights of the legitiritime powers have it in contemplation mate dynasties, the mutual guarantee of to restrain our arrogance. It is-true, they “ established constitutions, the obligation of have all hitherto tried this and fuited in the uniting hereafter against all usurpation attempt. But the result of the struggle“ and insurrection, will form the articles of with France shews them what may be ef- " the new secret compact, in which the gras fected by perseverance, and the fatal. blow" dual abolition of the Slave Trade will which has been recently given to our naral figure also, but only as'aeccseary."'Alsuperiority, may encourage them to the at- though norising is directly said in this article tempt. formerly these Powers resisted respecting our maritime rights, there can be our pretensions almost single-handed.- little doubt that the writer means these, Now, they appear convinced of the neces- when he speaks of neutral commerce, and resity of union', and if such a coalition, as that probates our practice of commencing war which is spoken of, is formed, is it certain, without a previous declaration of hostiliconsidering the state of our relations with ties. In a subsequent article from Paris, America, that we shall be able to oppose to under the head Vienna, Oct. 5th, it is it a successful resistance? --Desirous, how. stated, “ We remark that the Prince de

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“ Talleyrand Perigord has been received threat of the Courier will have the cflcct “ with distinction by the two Emperors of diverting them from their purpose, if " and the King of Prussia. The Prince, an inquiry into our maritime claims has it is said, is to deliver at the opening of been resolved on. But how the copying art “ the Congress a Note of the highest im- article from a foreign journal can be keld portance."-In remarking upon this last a proof of the animus of any Government article, the Courier has published a private towards another, is altogether inconccivable. letter from Paris, dated the 15th instant, li this were to be lield a jusi inferture, in which the writer says,"Our Minister, the whole Powers of Europe would Le in a “ Prince Talleyrand, as I have heard, is state of constant hostility against our Co“ to remit a Memorial to the Congress, in vernment, for the articles which appear “ which it is to be urged that the present every day in our own Journals. As to Taliyo " is the period which more than any other and being disposed to introduce maritime " that ever preceded it, is the most proper questions at the Congress, I entertain no “ for the adoption and establishment of manner of doubt. But to suppose, as the “ those principles of public and national Courier does, that the French Minister will law, which must tend to cement and be able to force these discussions upon the çonsolidate the peace of the world—that attention of the Allies, is to admit that

the fixing the limits and demarcations France possesses more influence on the “ of the different States is subordinate in Continent than we, in this country, have

importance to those principles-that the hitherto been willing to aduit. The fact, "application of them mcrcly by land will in rcality, seems to be : the maritime pov. “ be an incomplete adjustment, liable, nay ers require no stimulus to induce tliem to

certain, to be disturbed by the clashing enter upon a topic, which so many causes “ “ of principles between the maritimc combine to render highly inviting. Let

powers—that these opposite principles the proposal come from what quarter it may and must tend to hostilities between may, I am persuaded it will meet with a them, in wbich, as experience has shewn), cordial reception ; and, if once fairly in. other powers, though not naval, are sure troduced, will not be abandoned, even ale to be involved. Hlence no permanent or though we should carry our threat into exlong peace can be expected, unless the ecution of “nailing the flag to the mast,

Congress extends its attention and its and going down with the ship." “ labours to this subject, which France "carnestly and solemnly invokes it to

NATIONAL DEBT.-No. III. do. Whether these dillerent state

Sir,-Hume says, that'" the source of ments ought to be regarded as indicating

“ degeneracy, which may be remarked in a clear intention on the part of the Allies

“ free Governments, consists in the prać. to take up the subject at the ensuing Con

“ tice of contracting debt, and mortg:ging gress, I shall not be positive in asserting,

“the public revenues, by which taxes may, though, as already said, every thing seems

“ in time, become altogether intolerable, to me to point at this. The Courier has “and all the property of the State be intimated, “ that on the first serious men

“ brought into the hands of the public *. "tion of such a stipulation by M. Nessel- " Thiis practice is of modern date. The “ rode or Prince Talleyrand, Lord Castle

“ Dutch first introduced the practice of “ reaglı, of whose firmness they are well

borrowing great sums at low interest, “ convinced, would declare that his coup

" and have well nigh roined themselves try rejected it with the utmost positive

" by it. Absolute Princes have also con. “ness and indignation, and would sooner

tracted debt ; but as an absolute Prince nail the flag to the mast and go down

can play the bankrupt when he pleases, * with the ship than 'accede to it.”-And

“ bis people can verer be oppressed by his it speaks of the insertion of the above ar

* debts. Popular Governments, the peoticles in the Paris Papers, being a proofhichest offices, being conmoniy the pube

ple, and chies; those who have the " of the animus of the French Govern"ment, and that Talleyrand may endea

“ lic creditors, 'tis difficult for the State * vour to force maritime questions upon

to make use of this remedy, which, how

ever it * the Congress."-From the character of

be sometimes necessary, is the Emperor Alexander, and the command- always cruel and barbarons. This, thereing station which the other Powers now

fore, seems to be an inconvcnicnce, which kold, it does not seem to me that the

" He must here mean à mopied Aristocracy,

may

nav!

nearly threatens all free Governments, i servants of an indebted nation ; else an " ESPECIALLY OUR OWN, AT THE PRE- indebted nation would be justilied in dis

SENT JUNCTURE OF AFFAIRS." A pe- missing all the causes of profusion that riod of nearly sixty years since elapsed, may stand in the way of its liquidating its has no way diminished the truth of this just debts. To an individual, the first ac · assertion. If at that time a National knowledged law is self-defence. A nation, Debt was in itself an evil, what must it heiug an accumulation of individuals, bas be at present, when it has been so wan- that same right and duty in a much more tonly and extravagantly increased? Wan extended sense. If it chuses to exert it, tonly, in stirring up unnecessary wars; and who is there that shall dare

say extravagantly, in the mode of conducting Situs populi prime Ler. To suppose the them ; while, as to the advantages arising now sitting Congress will subscrive to our from these' wars, it would be very difficult assumed sovereignty of the seas, cannot for any Minister, or Minister's apologist, enter the mind of the most dull among our to point them out satisfactorily. To be Courtiers. To immagine ive are to enjoy sure, war abroad, in its commencement, exclusively all the markets of Europe, gave an opportunity for persecution at would be equally silly. Every nation views home. In its continuance it afforded pre- the first object with jealousy; and as to tences for taxes, for a standing army, and the second, experience, woeful experience, for an enormous increase of navy : it gave has already demonstrated to our complete permanency to a then perictitating system ; conviction, that, during these twenty-two it furnished an opportunity of abridging years of sanguinary and destructive warthe liberties of the country ; it eventually fare, we have, in nearly an equal proporenslaved the minds as well as the persons, tion, been destroying our customers, and by spreading corruption through the whole teaching them onr manufactures. They mass. Even the cap of liberty disappeared now imitatc us in all, (qual us in most, from onr coin, as all true idea of it va- and excel us in many ; while our taxes are nished from our minds. Our slackheaded such that we cannot bring our goods into Cappadocian slaves drowned, with their the market to compete with them. As a clamour, every voice raised in behalf of mercantile nation, we liave run our race ! freedom. The Constitution was their cry, | Adhering to the system of late yrars, we and the open violation of that Constitution are a ruined nation ! and our sapient Miw.us their practice ! A debt almost beyond nistry have left us but one remedy-- ecothe power of conception ensued : that nomy, and an lionest composition with the riebe was guaranteed by the rich ; but the national creditors. These, we afiirm, are poor and their posterity were mortgaged by both within the reach of a THOROUGH the representatives of wealth, to pay both ParliJMENTARY REForu, and that interest and capital; and, at the end of THOROUGH PARLIAMENTARY REFORM is twenty-two years, the nation is left in a completely in the power of the people to niuch worse situation than it was at the bring about, as will be shewn hereafter. commencement of this war : payment of

ARISTIDES. the debt is now impossible. To pledge our posterity for its redemption in future, is

SABBATTI Sevi. the heighth of stupidity; and to saddle Mr. COBBETT.-A few days ago I wborn generations with the payment of picked up the leaf of an old book, which the interest, is a worse than highwayman contained the following account of Sabbatti act of injustice. If the debt be payable, Sevi. Perhaps, were it circulated in your let it be paid at present. If it be unpay- valuable REGISTER, the catastrophie of able by us, LET A NATIONAL BANKRUPTCY the story night serve as a lesson to some ENSUE ! Let a dividend be made of all the who are fond of the marvellous—your rez? seeurities given. If a loss must be Messiah-hunters and others. mucountered, let us meet that loss as men,

A Subscriber to your Register. But let us not hand over ruin to our poste

Sabbatti Sevi, a Jewish impostor, who rity. Our behaviour, in the first instance, appeared at Smyrna in 1666, and pretendwill be that of honourable men ; but, in ed to be the Messiah, which opinion the the second, it would be that of swindlers. Jews in these countries were so possessed B: just before you are generous ! Court of, that they left of their trades and busiextravagancies, sinecures, and all need- ness, as assuring themselves that the restoes expeaces, ought to be foregone by the ration of their kingdom was now come,

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