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The calculation of the damages caused by the trouble at Casablanca will be continued before the international commission actually in operation. The sultan will assume the actual and pecuniary responsibility of the decisions of that commission whose powers he will confirm.

Events show the absolute necessity of having the new sultan publicly and officially, in the eyes of his people, show his firm intention to maintain relations with foreign governments and their nationals in accordance with the law of nations.

He should therefore disavow and stop the calls to holy war; to this end he should address shereefian letters to the governors of the tribes and cities, which should aim to prevent or calm all agitation and every hostile act, in the interior as well as on the frontiers of Morocco. The sultan should agree to adopt immediately all the necessary measures to assure the security and liberty of communication around the ports and upon the principal highways of the interior.

These guarantees being obtained, nothing would longer prevent the reception by the powers of an official request for recognition by Mulai Hafid. The sultan will declare that that implies no renunciation on the part of foreign governments of the continuance of the regulation of the questions which concern their respective interests exclusively, nor any prejudice to their right to continue this regulation. In this manner France and Spain reserve the right to be reimbursed for the expense of their military operations and to claim directly the payment of indemnities for the murder of their nationals.

On the other hand, it would be proper for the new sultain to incline toward an honorable arrangement for the personal situation of Ab el Aziz and the powers will recommend that he treat the officials of his predecessor equitably.

Note sent to Mulai Hafid by the Powers, November 18, 1908. The signatory governments to the Act of Algeciras have received a letter dated September 6 last which Mulai Hafid sent them through the dean of the diplomatic corps at Tangier, and by which he announced that, having been proclaimed by all the inhabitants of the Empire of Moghreb, he demanded recognition by the powers as sultan of Morocco. He offered at the same time to recognize all the public conventions concluded with the powers by his predecessors and especially the convention of Algeciras, as well as all the regulations and decisions in which the diplomatic corps at Tangier intervened to assure the execution of that Act.

The governments of the countries represented at Morocco have received with satisfaction the spontaneous declaration of Mulai Hafid, which merits their approval.

But in order to avoid in the future all erroneous interpretation of the extent of his words, they believe they should state exactly the meaning and expressly deduce therefrom the results, in the interest of the relations of friendship and confidence which they wish to maintain with the sovereign authority of the shereefian empire.

They consider that in accepting the treaties concluded by his predecessors with the different powers, Mulai Hafid adheres to all the provisions of the Algeciras Act as well as to all the regulations of application provided by this Act and established or approved by the diplomatic corps at Tangier, to the commissions instituted in virtue of these regulations, to the shereefian decisions and measures of whatever character, made upon this cubject, to the engagements and obligations of every kind resulting from arrangements with the diplomatic corps at Tangier, or from regular contracts with individuals.

Mulai Hafid assumes consequently the responsibility for the debts contracted by Abd el Aziz up to the day when the latter, in view of his renunciation of the throne, began negotiations through the medium of Menebbhi. However, debts which would have been signed for the benefit of individuals shall be submitted to a verification the conditions of which shall be determined later on the basis of the Act of Algeciras.

One of the principal conditions of the maintenance of order is the agreement in relation to the shereefian police in ports and the order which, with the approval of the other powers, has been given temporarily to France and Spain to oversee maritime contraband traffic in arms. It is understood that no reflection shall be cast upon the shereefian authority by these guarantees.

On the other hand, Abd el Aziz having provoked the meeting at Casablanca of an international commission charged with regulating the indemnities due by the Moroccan government on account of damages caused by the troubles which have arisen in that region, and this measure having received the consent of the powers which have sent their delegates, it is necessary that the commission begin again within the shortest possible time, and with the same powers as formerly, its work which has been momentarily interrupted.

Another consequence of the acceptance of the treaties is the obligation of the sultan to do whatever is necessary in order to bring security to his subjects and the foreign colonies in all the regions of the empire. It is proper, consequently, to proceed in harmony with the Act of Algeciras, to take all indispensable measures to guarantee the safety and liberty of communications, in such a manner as to permit of the establishment of a stable government, which shall be proper to the interest of all. It is proper also that Mulai Hafid should make this known to the people of Morocco in an official manner, telling them at the same time that his desire is to maintain with all countries and their nationals relations in accordance with the law of nations, such as should exist between friendly countries which mutually respect one another.

These questions are those which interest all the powers. There are others which concern only certain of them. In recognizing a new sultan, no power renounces its right to take up with him the regulation of the questions which concern exclusively each individual power.

In this way France and Spain have declared that they reserve the right to take up directly with the Makhzen reimbursement for the expenses which they have made to assure peace in certain regions of Morocco by means of necessary military expeditions. France and Spain, , as well as other powers which find themselves in the same position, will of course treat with the Makhzen concerning the question of indemnities due for the murder of their nationals.

If, as the powers have all understood upon reading the letter of Mulai Hafid, these explanations agree exactly with his idea, they ask him to inform them thereof in express terms, so that they may recognize him as the legitimate sultan of Morocco. They beg him to transmit this reply through the dean of the diplomatic corps at Tangier.

They do not doubt that he understands that he owes to his brother Abd el Aziz the means of living as becomes a prince who concerns him so closely and who has occupied the imperial throne of his ancestors. They trust, too, that he will treat fairly the officials who have joined with the Makhzen Abd el Aziz.

Final note of recognition of Mulai Hafid, December 17, 1908. The governments signatory to the Act of Algeciras have received the letter of the fourth of Ramadan one thousand three hundred and twentysix which Mulai Hafid sent them through the dean of the diplomatic corps at Tangier, in reply to their communication of November 18. The governments of the countries represented in Morocco have received that reply with satisfaction. They have found in it evidence that the conditions they had formulated in their note of November 18 in the interest of the relations of friendship and confidence they wish to maintain with the Sovereign Authority of the Shereefian Empire meet Mulai Hafid's sentiments exactly. In consequence the powers signatory to the Act of Algeciras have decided to recognize Mulai Hafid as the lawful Sultan of Morocco and have charged the dean of the diplomatic corps at Tangier to notify this recognition to the representative of His Majesty the Sultan in the said city.

CONVENTION BETWEEN AUSTRIA, FRANCE, GREAT BRITAIN, PRUSSIA AND

RUSSIA, FOR THE NEUTRALIZATION OF SWITZERLAND.

November 20, 1815.

The accession of Switzerland to the declaration published at Vienna the 20th March 1815, by the powers who signed the Treaty of Paris, having been duly notified to the ministers of the imperial and royal courts, by the Act of the Helvetic Diet on the 27th of the month of May following, there remained nothing to prevent the act of acknowledgment and guarantee of the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland, from being made conformably to the above-mentioned declaration. But the powers deemed it expedient to suspend till this day, the signature of that act, in consequence of the changes which the events of war, and the arrangements, which might result from it, might possibly occasion in the limits of Switzerland, and in respect also to the modifications resulting therefrom, in the arrangements relative to the federated territory, for the benefit of the Helvetic Body.

These changes being fixed by the stipulations of the Treaty of Paris signed this day, the Powers who signed the declaration of Vienna of the 20th March declare, by this present act, their formal and authentic acknowledgment of the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland; and they guarantee to that country the integrity and inviolability of its terri-tory in its new limits, such as they are fixed, as well by the act of the Congress of Vienna, as by the Treaty of Paris of this day, and such as they will be hereafter; conformably to the arrangement of the protocol of the 3d November, extract of which is hereto annexed, which stipulates in favour of the Helvetic Body a new increase of territory,

1 This protocol defined the territory to be added.

to be taken from Savoy, in order to disengage from Enclaves, and complete the circle of the canton of Geneva.

The powers acknowledge likewise and guarantee the neutrality of those parts of Savoy, designated by the act of the Congress of Vienna of the 20th May 1815, and by the Treaty of Paris signed this day, the same being entitled to participate in the neutrality of Switzerland, equally as if they belonged to that country.

The powers who signed the declaration of the 20th of March acknowledge, in the most formal manner, by the present act, that the neutrality and inviolability of Switzerland, and her independence of all foreign influence, enter into the true interests of the policy of the whole of Europe.

They declare that no consequence unfavourable to the rights of Switzerland with respect to its neutrality, and the inviolability of its territory, can or ought to be drawn from the events, which led to the passage of the allied troops across a part of the Helvetic States. This passage, freely consented to by the cantons in the Convention of the 20th May, was the necessary result of the free adherence of Switzerland to the principles manifested by the powers who signed the Treaty of Alliance of the 25th March.

The powers acknowledged with satisfaction that the conduct of Switzerland, under these trying circumstances, has shown that she knew how to make great sacrifices to the general good, and to the support of a cause, which all the powers of Europe defended, and that in fine Switzerland has deserved the advantages which have been secured to her, whether by the arrangements of the Congress of Vienna, by the Treaty of Paris, of this day, or by the present act, to which all the powers in Europe are invited to accede.

In faith of which, the present declaration has been concluded, and signed at Paris the 20th day of November 1815. The signatures following the alphabetical order of the courts. AUSTRIA :

THE PRINCE DE METTERNICH

LE BARON DE WESSENBERG
FRANCE:

RICHELIEU
GREAT BRITAIN: CASTLEREAGH

WELLINGTON
PRUSSIA :

THE PRINCE DE HARDENBERG

THE BARON DE HUMBOLDT
RUSSIA :

THE PRINCE DE RASOUMOFFSKI
THE COUNT CAPO D'ISTRIA

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