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hands, could, by reading the side indices, place his hand at an instant on the rule which he desired to scttle, and a question which camc bcforc him for decision. For instance, supposing a member of an assembly appeals from the decision of the chair. In an instant thc chairman could turn to page 17 of this work and Icarn by a glance that any member may appcal from the decision of the chair ; that the appeal must be scconded, that it cannot bc amended and that it is not debatable, if the previous question is pending. This handy little book has been compiled from such authorities as ROBERTS, CUSHING, MATTHIAS, JEFFERSON and ROCKER.

So far as we have examined it, onc placed in position of chairman, can safely rely on the rules given. W. D. L.





MAY, 1894.




There has everywhere, and always, existed a feeling of disquiet among rural populations when thinking of and dealing with the people of towns and cities. The attrition of numbers gives a certain quickness and polish, acquired unconsciously, by the dwellers in towns, and the countryman, in spite of his good sense, often yields to envy and jealously; forgetting that many of the ablest thinkers of the State arc from the country. There can be no denial that this jcalously, howcver unworthy, has more or less force in all communities. Such feeling prevailed in a greater degree in Gcorgia and South Carolina than perhaps any other of the States. These States being very largely agricultural. were fruitful fields for its development

The sea-coast of South Carolina, from commercial interests, was thrown into close communication with many foreign countries, and they sent their citizens as commercial agents to reside in Charleston. There were in that city many French, English, Spanish, German, Scotch and Irish merchants. Many of them were traveled and highly educated men. The influence of these men and of numbers of Charleston's citizens educated

in Europe had a beneficial influence on Charleston's people in thcir refinement and intelligence, though it provoked an cxacerbation of rural feeling.

There was in South Carolina, in common with some other States, a mode of education that in late times has been much interfered with. It was due to the social nature of the people. It was the oral instruction received from friendly intercourse and at the table. Meals were not, as a habit, hurried through, but traditions of the family, of the acts of past and present local Icaders, anccdotes of public men, were accompanimients often cnjoyed by children and friends for the table was for the whole family, young and old. It was to this custom, probably, that the intense pride of South Carolinians in their State was in great measure owing. They vencrated its history and its heroes and they loved thcir Statc. It may scem a very small affair to insist on the value of sentiment to a community, but no Commonwealth can be properly governed or its people happy without the sentiment of home love and home pride.

During the late war, and for some ten or morc ycars after, the schools in South Carolina were deficient in competent instruction to its youth. The poverty of thc pcoplc, the brcaking up of families and the hand to mouth mode of life caused by the upheaval of the so called “ Reconstruction made it difficult for the young mien to become mentally well developed and to acquire trained, disciplined minds. The youth of those years are now at the front. They have the vigor and energy of manhood, and are called upon to take their part in public affairs. They are honest and well meaning. Many of them are readers and creditably informed, but unfortunately they have not been students. Their minds are not disciplined, and they do not understand the reasons of things, the fundamental principles that underlic knowledge. Such men are very useful, but are unsafc as leaders. They do not know how far to go. They speak well but do not always act well.

For several years past the farming population of the State has been unusually discontented. Although the farmers had

improved their impoverished condition since the war and the State was gradually getting a set of well to do citizens and farmers, the progress was not fast enough to suit the restless and ambitious. The speakers and leaders in the Alliances, carnest but not good business men, persuaded the farmers that they were imposed upon and robbed on all sides. They claimed that middlcmen made fortunes out of the farmers, and this the honest and hard working, but two readily trusting farmers bclicved, as they were dishcartencd by the low prices for their crops, and their consequently lessened credit with the monied men. Thcy were ready to run counter to all the laws of trade, in their eagerness to better their supposed lamentable condition. This restlessness and disquiet means something in South Carolina for the farmers as voters count, it is said, more than half of the State.

It will be perceived that lately there was in South Carolina that natural sense of uneasiness, or, if you prefer, of disdain, between the country people and the town people, and that the grcater portion of the State, that part lying away from the sca-coast, was very sensitive in its estimate of its low country brethren. It is true that the up-country complained of the sca-coast's undue representation in the Legislature, but that is now adjusted and all sections are equal. It is to be noticed that State pride was very great and devotion to the State's interests was absorbing to all its citizens. We find also that while there were still many men of thorough education left in the State, there was, and is coming into view and action, a new set, who, while equally honest and true as those experienced men, now becoming aged and passing away, have not had the educational advantages and are not mentally so skilled as their predecessors. One should keep in mind also that the Alliance agitation, low prices and want of business tact have made a dissatisfied rural population. Understanding these things we can casily find how the present rule in South Carolina originated.

In the year 1890, a few men in the up-country met and determined they would attempt to make a new order of things in the State.

They issued a manifesto or address to the people. As a litcrary production it was not perhaps classic, but as a wire pulling device it was consummate. It was addressed to all of the conditions of the State and people which have been alluded to. These wire pullers represented no committee of any party or politics. They were self appointed and they called for a convention, which convention at its mecting suggested" a candidate for Governor. The regular Democratic convention, which met afterwards, adopted the“ suggestion " and nominated Tillman. Tillman was thc inspiration of the whole matter. The wirc pullers said he was the only man to carry out the policy of the manifesto. The regular Democrats had been so astonished at what had been done, not dreaming at first of the success of the policy, that they were inactive until too late. On the publishing of the address, for a while, there was a pause. The office scckers waited to see the strength of the now party, which called themsclves Rcformers. But when it was found that the farmers were carried away by the promise to them of low taxes and of having their rights, whatever they were, these time servers joined what was thought to be the stronger side, for the farmers as a class could poll more votes than all the other people of the State put together. The campaign commenced. The people were told that thcy had never had freedom. They had been living under an aristocracy, plutocracy, oligarchy, or some other terrible government. They, the people, and especially the farmers, had been deprived of office and their rights. The rich were the rulers. There was nothing to be proud of in the history of the State. A fe'w familics had been in possession of all authority for long years. Offices and places in the Legislature were held by lawyers and the chicf citizens of the towns and cities. There was a corrupt ring governing the whole State. And it was insinuated that if Tillman and his friends should be clected, that soul dealings would be uncarthed and the State purified. Tillman was the organizer and leader of the campaign. With ability hc possesses that indescribable power of so-called magnetism. Although a little rough, with occasional profanity in his language, he soon acquired imniense influence with the peo

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