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which a truly permanent court for the trial of such disputes might be created and installed at The Hague, and the services which the successful operation of such a court would render to nations in controversy over questions of a legal nature. At the second annual meeting, held at Cincinnati, November 7-8, 1911, the proposed treaties of arbitration between Great Britain and France, on the one hand, and the United States, on the other, were examined. The present meeting, the third in the series, devoted itself to the question of the law to be administered by such a tribunal.

At the Friday evening session Governor Baldwin spoke on "The International Court, a Natural Incident of the Evolution of the Modern World"; the Attorney General of the United States on the "Supreme Court of the United States a Prototype of a Court of Nations"; Mr. Everett P. Wheeler, of the New York bar, on "The Right to Arbitration under the Hague Convention"; Mr. Thomas Willing Balch, of the Philadelphia bar, on "The Advance of International Peace through Legal and Judicial Means"; Mr. Joseph E. Davies of the Madison (Wis.) bar, on "The American Judiciary and a World-Wide Reign of Law." At the Saturday morning session Professor Henry Wade Rogers, Dean of the Yale Law School, spoke on "The Essentials of Law to be Applied by an International Court"; Mr. Thomas Raeburn White, of the Philadelphia bar, on "The Immediate Establishment of an International Court of Arbitral Justice"; Mr. William Cullen Dennis, of the Washington bar, on "The Necessity for an International Code of Arbitral Procedure"; Professor Paul S. Reinsch, of the University of Wisconsin, on "The Idea of Responsibility for Wrongs as Applied in International Law." At the Saturday afternoon session Mr. William B. Hornblower, of the New York bar, discussed "How far are wars preventable by Judicial Arbitration?" Mr. Robert Lansing, of the Watertown (N. Y.) bar, "The Relation of International Law to Fundamental Rights"; Professor A. L. P. Dennis, of the University of Wisconsin, "The Change in the Nature of International Controversies"; and Mr. Omar F. Hershey, of the Baltimore bar, "The Line of Least Resistance in the Establishment of International Tribunals."

The proceedings ended with a banquet at the New Willard on Saturday evening, which the President of the United States had hoped to attend in person. His absence at Panama prevented this, but he showed his deep interest in the society and its aims and purposes by the following letter:

I am very sorry I cannot be present at the dinner of the Judicial Settlement Society on Saturday evening of this week. While I favored strongly the general arbitration treaties with Great Britain and France which were submitted by me to the Senate, my whole ideal is that of an arbitral court for the settlement of international controversies, and I favored the general arbitration treaties as a long step toward an arbitral court whose jurisdiction should be increased ultimately to include all possible disputes of an international character. Such a court is the natural outgrowth of treaties of general arbitration between all the nations of the world, and it represents the ultimate goal toward which we should be tending. With the hope that the meeting this year may be as successful as in the past, and may give an additional impetus to the cause, believe me,

Sincerely yours,

WM. H. TAFT.

The society has chosen to limit itself to a small portion of a large field, but in doing so it brings together distinguished lawyers and judges who see in the judicial settlement of international disputes the hope of international peace. The proceedings of the first annual meeting have, it is believed, crystalized sentiment in favor of a permanent international court and, printed in an attractive volume, they have been widely read not only at home but abroad, and have been much quoted by foreign publicists. The present addresses and discussions will, when published, be a further and not less valuable contribution to the general subject, for to operate successfully a court must have law, and the essentials of this law must be known and understood in advance.

The officers elected for the ensuing year are the Hon. Joseph H. Choate of New York, President; Dr. Charles W. Eliot of Cambridge, Mass., Vice President; Mr. James Brown Scott of Washington, D. C., Secretary; Mr. J. G. Schmidlapp of Cincinnati, Ohio. Treasurer.

SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

The Seventh Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law will be held, as usual, at Washington during the last week of April (April 24-26, 1913) ending with the customary dinner on the evening of the 26th. The Program Committee has decided to devote the sessions to two subjects: (1) The international use of straits and canals; (2) consideration and discussion of the report of the Committee on Codification. The latter subject has occupied the attention of the Society for the past three years, and it is believed that the committee will be in a position

to report very considerable progress as to the methods and principles of codification.

The subject is peculiarly timely, because it is exactly fifty years to the day since the first successful piece of codification of a branch of international law was undertaken and published; namely, Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, issued as General Orders No. 100 on April 24, 1863, and prepared by Francis Lieber, then professor at Columbia College. The president's address, which will be delivered on the evening of April 24, will deal with Dr. Lieber's services to international law and the importance of the instructions which, as is well known, served as the basis of the Declaration of Brussels and influenced profoundly the codification of the usages and customs of war on land adopted by the First Hague Peace Conference of 1899 and revised by the Second Conference of 1907. Mr. Root's address therefore will very properly commemorate the publication of the instructions which mark a date in the development of international law.

The first subject is no less timely, for the international use of straits and canals is a matter of the greatest moment not merely to theorists of international law, but to the business of the world. The opening of the Panama Canal would alone justify a theoretical and practical consideration of this topic, but the controversy concerning the conditions upon which vessels are to be permitted to use it makes a consideration of the whole question almost a matter of necessity. The committee in charge of the program is unwilling to have the Panama question discussed in a partisan spirit and dissociated from the broad question of the international use of straits and canals in general. The entire subject will be presented, not merely the problems concerning the Panama Canal. Care will be taken to have papers prepared by competent publicists dealing with what may be called the national as distinguished from the international aspects of the case, so that the proceedings will furnish a conspectus of scientific thought on the international use of connecting bodies of water, natural as well as artificial. It is hoped that the discussions of the members attending will be as interesting and valuable as the formal papers and that the proceedings will be a contribution to the subject.

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CHRONICLE OF INTERNATIONAL EVENTS

WITH REFERENCES

Abbreviations: Ann. sc. pol., Annales des sciences politiques, Paris; Ann. Vie Int., Annuaire de la Vie Internationale, Brussels; Arch. dipl., Archives Diplomatiques, Paris; B., boletin, bulletin, bolletino; P. A. U., bulletin of the PanAmerican Union, Washington; Clunet, J. de Dr. Int. Privé, Paris; Doc. dipl., France, Documents diplomatiques; B. Rel. Ext., Boletin de Relaciones Exteriores; Dr., droit, diritto, derecho; D. O., Diario Oficial; For. rel., Foreign Relations of the United States; Ga., gazette, gaceta, gazzetta; Cd., Great Britain, Parliamentary Papers; Int., international, internacional, internazionale; J., journal; J. O., Journal Officiel, Paris; L'Int. Sc., L'Internationalism Scientifique, The Hague; Mém. dipl., Memorial diplomatique, Paris; Monit., Moniteur belge, Brussels; N. R. G., Nouveau recueil générale de traités, Leipzig; Q. dipl., Questions diplomatiques et coloniales; R., review, revista, revue, rivista; Reichs G., Reichs-Gesetzblatt, Berlin; Staats., Staatsblad, Gröningen; State Papers, British and Foreign State Papers, London; Stat. at L., United States Statutes at Large; Times, the Times (London); Treaty ser., Great Britain, Treaty series.

March, 1912.

25 PANAMA PERU. Convention for the exchange of postal packages without declared value, signed at Panama. El Peruano, September 11.

April, 1912.

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24 CUBA PERU. Treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation signed at Lima. B. Rel. Ext. (Lima), 45:86-106.

June, 1912.

26-July 19. MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF AMERICAN JURISTS at Rio de Janeiro to prepare drafts of codes of public and private international law. Mem. dipl., 50:466; this JOURNAL, 6:931-935; Libro Rosado (Salvador), August, 1912.

July, 1912.

4 BELGIUM-PORTUGAL. Ratification of the convention of January 18, 1912, relative to the establishment of telegraphic relations between the Belgian Congo and Angola. B. Usuel, July 4.

July, 1912.

21-28 THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF AMERICAN STUDENTS, met at Lima. P. A. U., 35:477-497. Former meetings at Montevideo, 1908, and Buenos Aires, 1910; the fourth will be held at Santiago de Chile.

22-August 9. GREAT BRITAIN

PORTUGAL. Agreement by exchange

of notes at Lisbon, respecting boundaries in East Africa, Barue section from Mazoe River to Latitude 18° 30′ S. Treaty ser., No. 21, 1912.

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29 ARGENTINE URUGUAY. Protocol regarding the coasting trade signed at Montevideo. D. O. (Uruguay), September 14.

August, 1912.

6-12 SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF MEDICINE met in London. La Vie Int., 1:133.

10 MEXICO-SALVADOR. Promulgation by President of Mexico of the treaty of extradition signed at Guatemala January 22, 1912. P. A. U., 35:647.

11-18 INTERNATIONAL ESPERANTIST CONGRESS met at Cracow. La Vie Int., 1:144.

16 FRANCE-RUSSIA. Naval convention signed at St. Petersburg, Q. dipl., 34:310.

17 ARGENTINE - ITALY. Sanitary convention signed at Rome. Q. dipl., 34:312.

20 COLOMBIA-GREAT BRITAIN. Protocol signed at Bogota respecting the application of the treaty of commerce of February 16, 1866, to certain parts of His British Majesty's dominions. Treaty ser., No. 24, 1912.

21-28 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF MATHEMATICIANS met at London. Times, August 24; R. Scientifique, October 12.

24-31 THE INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW met at Christiania. The Institute accepted the invitation of the Trustees of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to serve as General Adviser to the Division of International Law. This JOURNAL, 6:939; American Political Science R., 6:598; Times, September 4. Next meeting, Oxford, 1913.

26 ARGENTINE - MEXICO. Convention signed at Buenos Aires for the transportation of diplomatic correspondence. B. Rel. Ext. (Buenos Aires), July, 1912.

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