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limit the acceptance of them by many states, but also that they shall have been in practice between nations for a shorter or longer period, until they have acquired such force from custom that the right retained by each state to denounce individual conventions of the Hague Conferences, or the Declaration of London as a whole, shall have ceased to have any practical application. So long as a nation has the legal right to refuse to continue to abide by a given rule, it is hardly safe to regard the rule as settled law. It is true that a nation may violate even the longstanding and well-defined rules of customary law; but in such a case the condemnation of the civilized world would operate as a sanction which could not be applied to the exercise of a legal right to withdraw from the practice of a rule of statutory law. It need hardly be observed that in some cases the conventions of the Hague Conferences embody previously existing rules of law which, of course, lose nothing of their force by reason of the fact that nations retain the right to denounce a given convention as a whole. It is to be hoped indeed that not only will nations not avail themselves of their right to denounce a given convention, but that those individual states which have made reservations of important articles of the conventions will in time yield in favor of rules which commend themselves to the great body of nations.

In illustration of Professor Oppenheim's admirable method of discussing disputed questions, we may refer to his treatment of the so-called doctrine of "continuous voyages” (pp. 499–506). The doctrine is first stated as it was held by the British prize courts in such cases as that of the William (5 C. Rob. 385) in which the condemned cargo was captured while the vessel was on her way to the enemy port. The later doctrine of the American prize courts is next stated, justifying the condemnation of the cargo when the vessel was captured on her way to the neutral port from which she was later to proceed to the enemy port. The next step was to condemn a cargo captured on its way to a neutral port because it was proved that the cargo, contraband if bound for a hostile destination, was to be transhipped by other hands to an enemy port, as in the cases of the Springbok and the Peterhoff, arising during the American Civil War. Later British practice during the South African War is next cited, showing the adoption of the American doctrine. After citing the opinions of certain Continental writers on the subject, the author next proceeds to explain the compromise offered in the Declaration of London, which recognized the application of the doctrine of continuous voyages with regard to absolute contraband and rejected it with regard to conditional contraband.

Nothing short of the highest praise can be given to this simple and logical method of presenting a subject. It is preëminently the part of a teacher to exhibit not only the actual state of the law at the time, but the growth of the law and the fundamental principles underlying a given system of rules. It is in this respect that Professor Oppenheim's treatise will be of especial service to the students for whom the author says that it is primarily intended.

CHARLES G. FENWICK.

PERIODICAL LITERATURE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

(For table of abbreviations see Chronicle of International Events, p. 375)

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Aeronautics. French military aviation in 1912. T. F. Farman. Blackwoods, 193:58. Jan.

Problemas de derecho aereo. Max Henriquez Ureña. R. juridica, 1:301.
Oct.
Agents. Immunities of diplomatic agents and consuls. R. de dr. int. et. dip. [Tokyo.

Japanese text.] Oct., 1912.
Albania. Albania's fate. Lit. Dig., 46:123. Jan.

Albania ed Albanesi. Guido Cora. Nuova Antol., 173:330. Feb.

Albanie et la question albanaise, L'. J. du Pontcray. Nouvelle R., 5 (N. S.]:59. Jan.

Albanie et les Albanais, L. Gabriel Louis-Jaray. R. pol. et parl., 75:239. Feb.

Albanie et ses limites, L. Gaston Gravier. R. de Paris, 20:200, 433. Jan.
Austria and the Albanian question. R. of R., 46:737. Dec.

Conflit Austro-Serbe et la question Albanaise, Le. J. du Pontcray. Nouvelle R., 5 [N. S.), 360. Feb.

Europe and the problem of Albania. Liv. Age, 275:808. Dec.

Independence albanaise et le débouche Serbe sur l'Adriatique, L'. Léon Lanonche. R. pol. et parl., 74:31. Jan.

Question albanaise, La. A. Baldacci et G. Louis-Jaray. R. écon. int., 4:251. Oct. Algeria. Relations maritimes entre la France et l'Algerie, Les. Henri Hauser. R. pol.

et parl., 75:219. Feb. Arbitration. Arbitration and Panama. Theodore Roosevelt. Outlook, 103:111. Jan.

Arbitration of the Alabama claims. Wm. Conant Hurd. Cent., 85:703. March.

International arbitration of justiciable disputes. Wm. W. Thayer. Harvard L. R., 26:416. March.

When Arbitration will not work. Ind., 74:5. Jan.
Armenia. Question arménienne, La. K. T. Khairallah. Q. dip., 35:65. Jan.
Association for International Conciliation. Verband für internationale Verständigung.

Vie int., 2:277.
Balkans. Armies of the Balkan league. H. C. Woods. Fort., 98:1060. Dec.

Austria-Hungary and the Balkan War. R. of R., 47:101. Jan.

Austria-Hungary as a Balkan power. R. W. Seton-Watson. Contemp., 102:801. Dec.

Autriche et la question balkanique, L'. René Pinon. R. de deux mondes, 30:577. Feb.

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Balkan crisis. R. G. Usher. Atlantic, 111:128. Jan.
Balkan League, The. History of its formation. Fort., 99:430. March.
Balkan question. Edwin Mazey. Forum, 49:1. Jan.
British policy in the near east. Sydney Brooks. Fort., 99:112. Jan.

Campagne des Balkans, La. Commandant de Thomasson. Q. dip., 35:193. Feb.

Causes du disastre des Turcs, Les. General Palat. Nouvelle R., 5 (N. S.): 336. Feb.

Conferences de Londres et la guerre balkanique, Les. Raymond Récouly. R. pol. et parl., 74:136. Jan.

Conference of St. James, The. M.G. Brit., R., 1:1. Feb.

Coup de théatre de Constantinople, Le. Commandant de Thomasson. Q. dip., 35:129. Feb.

Crise balkanique, La. Raymond Récouly. R. pol. et Parl., 15:323. Feb.
Crisis in the Balkans. Cur. Opinion, 54:11. Jan.
Crisis in the Near East. Quart. R., 218:278. Jan.

Développement de la crise orientale, Le. Commandant de Thomasson. Q. dip., 34:645. Dec.

Diplomacy and the Balkan war. E. J. Dillon. Contemp., 102:865; 103:109, 261, 414. Dec.-March.

Eastern question and European war. Politicus. Fortn., 98:989. Dec.

États banquiers, Les. Raphael Georges.-Levy. R. des deux mondes, 14 (N. S.), 172. March.

Europe and the war. Sydney Brooks. N. Amer. R., 197:112. Jan.
Europe's dangerous crisis. Sydney Brooks. Harper's W., 57:8. Jan.
Evolution balkanique, L'. Baron de Borchgrave. R. gen., 19:161. Feb.
Finances balkaniques, Les. Vie int., 2:288.

Gewalten im Balkankriege. L. Raschdau. Deutsche Runds., 39:408. March.

Groszmächte und der Orientkrieg, Die. Benedetto G. Firmeni. Deutsche R., 38:268. March.

Guerra balkanica e gli ufficiali di complemento, La. Giorgio Bompiana. Nuova Antol., 178:723. Feb.

Guerre dans les Balkans, La. Q. dip., 34:67, 688; 35:47, 108, 237, 173, 300. Dec.-March.

New Balkan diplomacy: Venezelos and Danev. R. of R., 47:342. March.
New map of Europe. A. Edwards. Outlook, 102:855. Dec.

Peace Conference and the balance of power. J. Ellis Barker. Fortn., 98:25. Jan.

Roumanie et Bulgarie. Tsarigradski. Q. dip., 36:221. Feb.

Russia's unpreparedness for a firm stand in the Balkans. R. of R., 47:112. Jan.

Situazione internazionale, La. Nuova Antol., 173:534. Feb.

Triple entente and the present crisis. W. M. Fullerton. Liv. Age., 275:707. Dec.

Wahrheit über die deutschen und die französischen Geschütze im Balkankreige, Die. D. H. Rohne. Deutsche R., 38:309. March.

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War in the Balkans and European diplomacy. J. Ellis Barker. Fortn., 97:813. Nov. Belgium. Question militaire en Belgique, La. Landrecies. Q. dip., 35:38, 77. Jan.

Réforme militaire en Belgique, La. Claude Arès. Nouv. R., 5 [N. S.]:468. Feb. Bills of Exchange. Chèque postal international et les résultats des virements postaux en Autriche, en Hongrie, en Suisse et en Allemagne. John Mez. Vie Int., 2:249.

Texte de la convention et du règlement uniforme arrêtes par la conférence de 1912. R. de dr. int. et de légis. comp., 15:17.

Unificación del derecho relativo al cheque. Centro-América, 4:565.

Unification du droit relatif à la lettre de change, L'. T. M. C. Asser. R. de dr. int. et de légis. comp., 15:5. Bolivar. Juicio sobre Bolivar. José Enrique Rodó. Centro-America, 4:623. Bolivia. Liberation of Bolivia. H.C. Adams and F. Adams. R. of R., 47:67. Jan. Boundaries. Eastern boundary of California in the convention of 1849. Cardinal

Goodwin. Southwestern Hist. Q., 16:227. Jan. Cables. Trawling and submarine cables. N. Yoneda. R. de droit int. et dip. (Tokyo.

Japanese text). Oct.-Nov., 1912. Canada. British preference in Canada. Ed. Porritt. Quart. R., 218:168. Jan.

Canadian demand for an imperial parliament. H. K. S. Henning. Empire R., 24:318. Dec.

Canada and the naval defenses of the empire. R. of R., 47:25. Jan.

Canadian naval question, The. Hamar Greenwood. Contemp., 103:160. Feb.

Canada's plans for a navy. P. T. McGrath. R. of R., 47:63. Jan.

Linking up the British empire. Canada’s proposed contribution of three dreadnaughts to the imperial navy. Sydney Brooks. Harp. W., 57:11. Jan.

Canalejas. Juan Pérez de Guzman y Gallo. España Moderna, 24:149. Jan. Canalejas. Canalejas y Mendes, José. Canalejas and his rôle in Spanish politics.

R. of R., 46:673. Dec. 47:99. Jan. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Carnegie Endowment for International

Peace. T. Miyaoka. R. de dr. int. et dip. (Tokyo. Japanese text]. Jan., 1913. Children's Bureau. Projet de création d'un Office International de l'Enfance. Vie

2:78. China. China's revolution and its effect. Ching-Chun Wang. N. Amer. R., 197:189. Feb.

Effect of the revolution upon the relations between China and the United States. Ching-Chun Wang. J. of Race Development, 3:268. Jan.

Genesis of the republican revolution in China from a South China standpoint. John Stuart Thompson. J. of Race Development, 3:316. Jan.

Means of unifying China. Charles W. Eliot. J. of Race Development, 3:237. Jan.

New Holy Alliance for China. Albert Bushnell Hart. J. of Race Development, 3:255. Jan.

Plea for fair play and the recognition of the Chinese Republic. Louis Livingston Seaman. J. of Race Development, 3:286. Jan.

Int.,

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