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If proof where needed of the value and character of the work done during the last term by this society, it is at hand. At the Inter-Society Debate which was held in the University Auditorium on the night of Saturday, January 16, 1909, the decision of the judges on the question debated went to the side represented by the Athenaeum, each of her four debaters received a place on the college team, and the second prize for individual excellence was awarded to one of them; the first prize and the title of "Best Individual Debater in College" going to a man from the other society.

With a perfectly natural pride in such a record, the Athenaeum feels that she has acquitted herself with credit both to herself and to the in

stitution.

In the Rusk also there has been a general revival among the men in every phase of literary society work. In its new hall in the Law Building the society has taken on new life. Perhaps no term in its history has witnessed a higher degree of interest in its regular programs nor a better grade of work on the part of the great body of its membership.

The membership of the Rusk is not quite so large as in some previous years. This accounts in some degree for the better work. The men have been given the opportunity of appearing on the programs as often as they were able to prepare, never allowing their interest to flag through inactivity. More than thirty men entered the Rusk preliminary for the inter-society debate.

The one feature of the work of the Rusk for the Fall Term that stands out preeminently is its parliamentary drill. This feature has been stressed in former years with varying results; being generally regarded as of secondary importance to the regular programs. This year the drills have been made a matter of prime importance and attention. While several old men have helped in conducting this work, the chief honor for the increased excellence here is due to a new member, Mr. Capers. He is doubtless the best parliamentarian the Rusk has ever had. His absolute mastery of all the details of parliamentary law and his energy in conducting the drills have inspired the rank and file of the members to become proficient parliamentarians, while those who aspired to lead have been compelled to conduct the drills strictly according to law. In stressing this feature of the work in such a manner as to make it really count for something, the Rusk is giving her members a training that will serve them well as citizens; a training that will help to make them powers in any deliberative body that they may enter.

Since the last issue of The Record, a fourth literary society has been organized among the women students of the University. This is

the Pierian, which was established at the opening of The Women's the present session. The other three are the Ashbel, Literary Societies which dates from 1888; the Sidney Lanier, from 1900; and the Reagan, from 1905. Each society numbers twenty-five or thirty, and membership in three of them is upon invitation from the respective society. In the Pierian, however, membership is permissible either upon invitation from the society or upon application under certain conditions. In all of the societies, no first-year student is invited to membership until the second week of the Spring Term. Each society awaits the reports for the Fall and Winter Terms. In purpose the literary societies are similar, as must needs be. They meet bi-monthly. In addition to the purely literary study, each works toward some general end, which is of profit to the University. As an innovation in the meetings of the Women's Council, different societies have been called upon to conduct one meeting a term. The Ashbel conducted the social meeting of the Fall Term, and the others in turn will have charge.

The course of study for the Ashbel this year is the Greek drama. Dr. Battle, by way of introduction into this unfamiliar field, gave an illustrated lecture on the dramatic art of the Greeks. The plays that have been selected for study are Agamemnon by Aeschylus, Oedipus King by Sophocles, Alcestis by Euripides, and The Frogs by Aristophanes. Aside from its literary study, the Ashbel holds each year an "open meeting," which in recent years has taken the form of the presentation of some comedy or farce. Last year a heterogeneous program was carried out, the most attractive feature of which was the representation of Christy and Gibson pictures. The proceeds are usually given to the Library, but this year they were devoted to the purchase of the Ashbel window for the west entrance, given in memory of Ashbel Smith, from whom the society took its name. This society entertained the Woman's Council at the first social meeting of the Fall Term with an up-to-date finishing-school for young ladies, where all University girls receive instruction in desirable subjects in the most approved college methods.

In the Sidney Lanier, the programs for the Fall and Winter Terms are taken up with a study of the short story, for the Spring Term with a study of the life and works of the Southern poet for whom the society was named. A very attractive Year Book has been issued in memoriam to Edna Hofstetter, '08. For the Fall Term the programs surveyed the short story, ancient, mediaeval, and modern, with Ruth as a type of the ancient, with Arthurian legends, The Patient Griselda, and The Knight's Tale, as mediaeval types, with the stories of Poe and Conan Doyle as modern types. For the Winter Term, one meeting each is devoted to stories of local color, to the psychological short story, to the story of incident, and to the burlesque. Dr. Payne is to conduct the study of the burlesque. The object of this society is two-fold: "helpful,

pleasant intercourse among the members," and "the establishment of a Students' Loan Fund." After praiseworthy effort this fund has been established, and is now divided among several University girls.

The Reagan Literary Society has proved a most patriotic organization this year, inasmuch as the members have selected for their course of study the literature of Texas, verse and prose. As introductory, one meeting adjourned to the State Library to study a book compiled and illustrated by Texans, which took the prize at the Columbian Exposition. Dr. Simonds has given an address on the geography of Texas, and Dr. Garrison is to give one on the history. literature is studied by periods; and though it may not prove as profitable as other lines of work, still the society believes that Texans should be familiar with the productions of their own State. The society, also, is working toward the establishment of a loan fund.

The

The Pierian Literary Society has only started on its career; and hence it remains to tell not of what it has done, but of what it intends to accomplish. Turning aside from the dusty classics, it has selected for one meeting each month topics of world-wide interest, materials for which are gathered from the current magazines. The other meeting is devoted to the study of famous novels. More stress is laid on the novels of other lands in order to increase the acquaintance of the members with the less familiar. Mrs. McLaurin is the director of the society. As yet, no definite plans have been formulated for a general work, such as the other societies are doing. B. C.

ATHLETICS

The foot-ball season of 1908 resulted in the following scores:
October 10: Texas vs. T. C. U., at Austin, 11-6.

Foot-ball

October 17, Texas vs. Baylor, at Austin, 27 to 5.
October 24, Texas vs. Colorado, at Austin, 0 to 16.
November 2, Texas vs. Arkansas, at Austin, 21 to 0.

November 9, Texas vs. A. & M., at Houston, 24 to 8.
November 13, Texas vs. Oklahoma, at Norman, 0 to 50.
November 17, Texas vs. Tulane, at Austin, 15 to 28.
November 26, Texas vs. A. & M., at Austin, 29 to 12.

L. H. Feldhake, of Houston, was captain and W. C. McCutcheon, of Dallas, was the manager of the 1908 team. Professer Metzenthin was assisted in coaching by Messrs. Householder and Parrish. Several other gentlemen assisted from time to time in the coaching. The T was awarded to Feldhake, Dyer, Duncan, B. Estill, Walker, Slaughter, Truitt, Jones, Stieler, Wolfe, McCutcheon, Barclay, Leonard, Goodman, and Coach Metzenthin.

The T was awarded to the following members of the "Scrubs": Irwin, Persons, Lipscomb, Duncan, Goodman, Carter, Vining, Burgher, Cullum

(L.), Cullum (J. D.), Chilton, Denison, Dealey, Nicholson, Kennard, and Harold.

Ben Dyer, of Houston, has been elected captain of the 1909 team, and Kenneth Krahl, of Houston, is to be manager, assisted by Lutcher Stark, of Orange. E. W. Draper, of the 1908 eleven of the University of Pennsylvania, has accepted the position of head coach for the season of 1909. He is a famous and veteran player, and comes highly recommended.

Preparatory to the Thanksgiving game six sections were added to the bleachers on Clark Field, increasing the seating capacity by at least six hundred. A number of boxes capable of accommodating over one hundred people were built in front of the old grand stand. Excluding the cost of these bleachers, the receipts and expenditures for the past season to date were $10,230.92 and $9186.12, respectively.

By vote of the Athletic Council, $500 of the cash on hand in the treasury of the Council has been reserved for the football season of next year. This action practically puts baseball and track upon their own resources for the coming spring, and the managers of these two sports are now engaged in an earnest effort to provide ways and means.

From the point of view of success in winning games, the past football season left much to be desired, while from nearly every other point of view the season was satisfactory. The team worked pretty faithfully, and the coaches were especially diligent; the game that we played was clean and sportsmanlike. The calamity of the season was the Oklahoma game, for which the thermometer seems to have been in part responsible. The best feature of the season was the splendid rally in the Thanksgiving game, which changed defeat into victory, the score being 12 to 0 in favor of A. & M. at the end of the first half.

While all look forward next year to more victories and fewer defeats, it is well to bear in mind, in summing up the past season, some of the words of an open letter in The Texan of December 5: "The causes which may lead to defeat or victory are numerous and often utterly uncontrollable. The presence of student and faculty coaches during the past two years has given us teams fully up to the average of those we had under professional coaches." H. Y. B.

Transactions

THE TEXAS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE

The Texas Academy of Science has recently issued Volume X of its Transactions, in the form of a pamphlet of 80 pages. Its contents include the following papers: "The Resistive Power of the Animal Organism" (Annual Address by the President), Dr. James E. Thompson, Professor of Surgery in the Medical Department of the University of Texas at Galveston; "A Theory of Ferments and Their Action," Dr. J. W. McLaughlin, of Austin, formerly Professor of Medicine in the Medical Department of the University of Texas; "Soil Fertility and Phosphoric Acid," Dr. George S. Fraps, State

Chemist, College Station, Texas; "Lord Monbodda-A Precursor of the Darwins," May M. Jarvis, M. A., Tutor in Zoology, University of Texas; "Fossil Tracks in the Del Rio Clay," Dr. J. A. Udden, Professor of Geology in Augustana College, Rock Island, Illinois; "Some Figures on the Cost of Train Service," R. A. Thompson, Chief Engineer, Texas Railroad Commission; "The Law of the Fall of Rivers and the Value of the Deduced Curves in River Improvements," F. Oppikofer.

Accompanying the Transactions are the Proceedings for the year 1907, which include a list of the officers of the Academy for 1907-1908; the past presidents; the papers presented at the regular meetings; the report of the librarian; a list of the institutions to which the Transactions are sent in exchange; the report of the treasurer; the constitution; lists of patrons, fellows and members. The total membership of the Academy at this time is 155.

The following is an abstract of the Annual Address of the President, Dr. J. E. Thompson, on the subject, "The Resistive Powers of the Animal Organism":

By the "Resistive Powers of the Animal Organism," Dr. Thompson means "the correlation of physiological processes that is necessary for the continuation of life." In reviewing the subject he finds it necessary to consider the physiological processes under two distinct and different conditions: (1) When affected by normal stimuli of ordinary or excessive intensity; (2) when affected by abnormal stimuli, such as would be produced by the action of microorganisms and their toxins.”

The old pathology, studied in its grosser aspects, is compared with the new as developed by the application of chemistry and physics whereby "diseased processes were found to be the logical results of altered physiological conditions," and that "definite alterations in physiological processes invariably produced the same pathological changes." The opinion is advanced that "although new pathology has made immense strides, we are still at the very threshold of knowledge," and that "work of such marvelous accuracy is being accomplished in every branch, and particularly at the present time in problems concerned with metabolism, that the future is full of hope."

"It is generally conceded," writes Dr. Thompson, "that physiological activity is the result of chemical action; and that life ends at the exact moment when chemical action ceases in the animal cell. Therefore, it must be held dogmatically that all animal energy is derived from chemical sources. These chemical sources are of necessity very complex, and at the present time we are able to formulate them approximately only."

The argument which follows is of interest not only to the physiologist and physician, but to the biologist as well. Beginning with the lowest forms of life, where "the anatomical structure is of the simplest possible nature, yet adequate to carry on all necessary physiological functions," the author passes to the multi-cellular forms, with "a special adaptation of certain cells to perform particular functions." In this connection it must be remembered that no matter how highly specialized an organ

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