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becomes, "it is always more or less dependent on the other organs of the body for its proper working." "Physiological interdependence is the. mainstay of life, without which chaos and dissolution would speedily result."

Special note is also made of the fact that where organs differ materially in anatomical structure, as, for example, in the gills of fishes and the lungs of mammals, the retention of function is necessary for the preservation of life. "For, during the course of development, the changes in anatomical structures of an organ could occur with impunity as long as the physiological function remained the same. But, if a coincident marked and sudden change of physiological function became necessary, the other dependent organs would have been unable to respond, and death would have resulted."

Reference is next made to the correlation of the physiological activities of the separate organs of the body, showing their perfect balance under ordinary circumstances, and that "under abnormal stimulation, each particular physiological activity is capable of being increased considerably until a point is reached, which has at times been designated as the breaking strain. This condition of excessive activity can only be produced by drawing on the physiological reserve of the tissues," found in considerable degree in all healthy organs. It is possessed in highest degree, however, by the central nervous system which responds to calls until it is exhausted, its tissues bankrupt.

"The chemical changes occurring in the nervous as a result of excessive mental activity," continues Dr. Thompson, "are little understood. We know, however, that their complexity increases with education, and, pari passu, there arises a greater vulnerability, which is always increased by overwork, particularly if the patient has suffered from syphilis or has been addicted to the excessive use of alcohol. An astonishingly large proportion of insane people suffering from general paralysis have been men and women of unusual mental power and ability."

Attention is now called "to some of the chemical processes by which organs are able to produce secretions necessary for the continuation of life." It is interesting here to note, with reference to the alimentary canal, "that the very foods introduced are teeming with micro-organisms, which, far from being hurtful, are as necessary, probably, as those found at the rootlets of plants." Moreover, "the digestive juices themselves are destructive to the structures that produce them, if there be any injury to the epithelium." Further on we are informed that "curiously enough, the products of digestion, particularly the peptones, are themselves of a poisonous nature, producing symptoms of an extremely toxic nature, if they are injected into the blood."

The chemical characteristics of the secreting glands are next treated and reference made to recent discoveries which "have revealed processes of such minute complexity as to excite wonder at the marvelous smoothness of the machinery." One can indeed wonder at the "hormones" or chemical messengers, "which are carried by the blood stream to various

glands in which they excite specific secretion." Among the examples given the following may be cited: the "prosecretin" of the cells of the small intestine is transformed by the action of the acid chyme into "secretin" which, "being taken up by the blood stream, passes to the pancreas, where it exercises a specific effect, producing a free flow of pancreatic juice containing trypsinogen. Trypsinogen is never secreted without the presence of secretin in the blood circulating through the pancreas."

Part first of the address closes with a discussion of the functions of the secretions of the ductless glands, viz., the thyroid gland, the suprarenal bodies, and the pituitary body.

Part second, which is more technical, deals with the "acquired defenses," or as Dr. Thompson is pleased to interpret the expression, "the correlation of physiological processes brought about to meet abnormal stimuli."

At this point the reader is at once confronted with that state or condition known as "immunity," concerning which the author says: "Immunity is usually divided into three varieties, viz., (1) natural, (2) acquired, and (3) hereditary. Whichever of these is present, the tissues possess the power of repelling infection, either by destroying it completely or rendering it harmless through chemical combination."

"If it be a lively organism, it is destroyed by one of two methods: (a) Either by the bactericidal properties of the blood serum or of other body fluids (bacteriolysis); or (b) by the activity of the living cells, which attack it, ingest it (phagocytosis). But if, on the contrary, the infection be a soluble toxin, then the process of rendering it harmless must be a purely chemical one." A discussion of the subject as above outlined follows.

F. W. S.

THE TEXAS STATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION

The journal of O. M. Roberts, entitled The Experiences of an Unrecognized Senator, which occupies most of the October Quarterly, throws considerable light upon political conditions in Washington from the Southern point of view during the memorable winter of 1866-7. Judge Roberts, Senator-elect from Texas, and his colleagues found not only that their claims to seats in Congress were repudiated by the Congressional radicals, but that even the Northern conservatives, from whom they had expected to get support, the backers of Andrew Johnson, were more than half afraid to do anything for them or to declare for any positive policy on behalf of their own views of the constitutional position of the South. The newly organized and all-powerful Grand Army of the Republic had all but paralyzed the President and his party. This is rather amusingly illustrated in the account of the banquet-rally (pp. 132-137). One of the most interesting features of the document is the inserted Address of the Texas Delegation (pp. 106-119), prepared chiefly by Judge Roberts and published in the National Intelligencer over the signatures of the

members-elect from Texas. It was designed to make clear the constitutional basis of the claims of Texas to representation in Congress, and to vindicate her against the extravagant charges of disloyalty and violence that were being circulated against all the Southern States in furtherance of the radical program.

The second article in the Quarterly, Notes on Clark's "The Beginnings of Texas," is an excellent bit of historical criticism by Professor Herbert E. Bolton. While frankly acknowledging the generally high merit of Professor Clark's paper, which he characterizes as "by far the fullest account of Texas history for the period covered (1684-1718) that has yet been written," Professor Bolton points out numerous errors due to hasty reading of the sources, and from his knowledge of the materials in the Mexican archives is able to correct others which not only Professor Clark but other writers have fallen into through lack of the sources. Of the former class of errors is Professor Clark's statement that Father Mosasanet's letter is the only contemporaneous account of the De León expedition of 1690, though he had De León's own diary in his hands and mistook it for that of the expedition of 1689 (p. 156); of the latter class is the assertion that Isleta, near El Paso, founded in 1683, was at the beginning a purely Indian settlement, while the documents in the Mexican archives show that it was on the contrary exclusively Spanish (pp. 150-51). The review is of most striking interest in its suggestion of the flood of light which exploitation of the Mexican archives promises to shed on the period of Spanish Texas; for example, that Spain was planning to occupy the Bay of Espíritu Santo as early as 1678, several years before the French under La Salle settled there in 1685. C. W. R.

A BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR 1908

The list which follows is intended to be a complete record of the books and special contributions to periodicals written by the instruction force of the Main University and published during the year 1908. Publications appearing before January 1, 1908, or after December 31, 1908, have not been included. Popular articles contributed to newspapers, book reviews not attempting to add to the scientific knowledge of the subject under discussion, and papers read before societies but not actually printed in 1908, have also been omitted. The list has been prepared upon information furnished by individual members of the Faculty, but, in spite of many precautions taken, it is feared that some omissions have been made. It is hoped that such a list can be prepared and published annually hereafter. R. A. L.

I. BOOKS

COLLEGE OF ARTS

Geology. The Maury-Simonds Physical Geography, revised and largely rewritten by F. W. Simonds, Professor of Geology; pp. 347, American Book Company.

Latin.-Sallust's Bellum Catilinæ, edited by D. A. Penick, Adjunct Professor of Latin and Greek, with glossary, introduction, and notes; pp. xx+171, D. C. Heath & Co.

Public Speaking.—Oratory of the South, edited by Edwin Dubois Shurter, Associate Professor of Public Speaking; pp. 336, Neale Publishing Co.

DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING

Civil Engineering.-The Surveyor's Handbook, by T. U. Taylor, Dean of the Engineering Department, and Professor of Civil Engineering; pp. 310, M. C. Clark Publishing Co.

DEPARTMENT OF LAW

Civil Government in the United States and in the State of Texas, by J. C. Townes, Dean of the Law Department, and Professor of Law; pp. 394, Austin Printing Co.

Administration of Estates in Texas, by W. S. Simkins, Professor of Law; pp. 674, Von Boeckmann-Jones Co.

II. CONTRIBUTIONS TO PERIODICALS

COLLEGE OF ARTS

Botany.-Heald, F. D., “The Bud-Rot of Carnations," Bulletin of Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station, CIII, 1-17, Plates I-VI (January).

Heald, F. D., "Bunt or Stinking Smut of Wheat," Press Bulletin, Nebraska Agricultural Eperiment Station, XXVIII, 1-8, Figs 1-3 (April); also in Bulletin of the Nebraska Insect Pest and Plant Disease Bureau, II, 1-8, Figs. 1-3 (April).

Heald, F. D., "Grasses," and "Mosses," articles in United Editors' Encyclopedia (April and May).

Heald, F. D., "Notes on Gymnosporangium Macropus"; and "The BudRot of Carnations," Science, N. S. XXVII, 210-211 (February).

Heald, F. D., "Seed Treatment for the Smuts of Winter Barley," Annual Report, Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station, XXI, 45-53; Figs. 1-4. Heald, F. D., "Spraying Calendar," Bulletin of Nebraska Insect Pest and Plant Disease Bureau, I, 4-12 (March).

Heald, F. D., "Symptoms of Disease in Plants," Report of the Nebraska State Horticultural Society for 1907, pp. 231-244 (1908).

Heald, F. D., Wilcox, E. M., and Pool, Venus W., "The Life-History and Parasitism of Diplodia Zeæ (Schw.) Lev.," Annual Report of Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station, XXII, 1-7; Plates I-X (November).

Heald, F. D., and Pool, Venus, "The Mold of Maple Syrup," Annual Report of Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station, XXI, 54-68; Figs. 1-7. Wolf, F. A., "A Rot of Grapes due to Pestalozzia uvicola Spegaz," Annual Report of Nebraska Experiment Station, XXI, 69-72; Figs. 1-5 (January).

Chemistry. Bailey, J. R., "Hydantoin Tetrazones," Journal of Ameri can Chemical Society, XXX, 1412-1418.

Bailey, J. R., and Randolph, C. P., Jr., “Kritische Bemerkungen zu einer Abhandlung von W. Marckwald, M. Neumark, und R. Stelzner: 'Ueber Thiohydantoine und von diesen derivierenden Basen,'" Berichte der deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, XLI, 2505-2508.

Bailey, J. R., and Randolph, C. P., Jr., "Ueber die Entschweflung der Thiodyhantoine,' Berichte der deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, XLI, 2494-2505.

Harper, H. W., "Amethystine Blue," Science XXVII, 894 (June 5). Schoch, E. P., "The Passivity of Iron and Nickel," Transactions of the American Electrochemical Society, XIV (18 pages).

Schoch, E. P., "A Review of the Present Practice and Economics of Timber Preservation," Transactions of Southwestern Electrical and Gas Association, IV (21 pages); also in Railway Review (Chicago), XIX, 568, ff.

English-Baskervill, C. R., "Some Parallells to Bartholomew Fair," Modern Philology, VI, 109-127 (July).

Baskervill, C. R., "The Sources of Jonson's Masque of Christmas and Love's Welcome at Welbeck," Modern Philology, VI, 257-269 (October). Campbell, Killis, "The Source of the Story Sapientes in The Seven Sages of Rome," Modern Language Notes, XXIII, 202-4 (November).

Law, R. A., "A Further Note on the Date of King Lear," The Nation, LXXXVII, 358 (October 15).

Law, R. A., "Some Words Used in King Leir," Modern Language Notes, XXIII, 94-5 (March).

Payne, L. W., Jr., "A Word-List from East Alabama," Dialect Notes, vol. III, part IV, 1908, pp. 279-328.

History.-Barker, E. C., "Texas as a Republic," in The South in the Building of the Nation, published by the Southern Historical Publication Society.

Bolton, H. E., "Material for Southwestern History in the Central Archives of Mexico," The American Historical Review, XIII, 510-527 (April); reprinted in The University of Texas Record, VIII, 89-109.

Bolton, H. E., "The Native Tribes in the East Texas Missions," Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, XI, 249-276 (April). Bolton, H. E., "Notes on Clark's 'The Beginnings of Texas,'" Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, XII, 147-157 (October). Bolton, H. E., "Papers of Zebulon M. Pike," The American Historical Review, XIII, 798-827 (July).

Bolton, H. E., Articles on Texas tribes and missions, in the Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, Part II, N, O, and P (Bureau of American Ethnology), some forty-five articles, containing about 14,000 words.

Ramsdell, C. W., "Presidential Reconstruction in Texas," Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, XI, 277-317 (April).

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