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of which are left without support. Under the pressure of gravity they may now bend or they may break. Having broken, they may slide and grind on the lower wall of the fissure." It is alleged that earthquakes sometimes are caused by volcanic action, and again they are ascribed in some instances to local disturbances, such as the collapse of caverns.

Following the plan of the original work, Part II, "The Land," treats of the following subjects: "Land Masses"; "The Relief of the Land,” in which the common relief forms, such as plains, plateaux, mountains, valleys, etc., are described; "The Relief Forms of North and South America,” in which the chief physical features and geographic regions of the two countries are outlined; the "Relief Forms of Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia," in which the physical features of these continents are depicted; and "The Islands," in which the classification and origin of these land forms is indicated.

In connection with his illuminating treatment of the Relief of the Land, the author describes the origin of mountains. He states that these may be formed in at least four ways: by folding or crumpling, by faulting, by vulcanism, and by erosion. The folding process is thought to be the result of contraction. The crust of the earth is regarded as a spherical shell or coat, now practically cool, surrounding a heated, but cooling and therefore shrinking interior. Under the influence of gravity the crust is drawn downward, that is, toward the center of the earth, and thus a larger spherical surface is made to fit closely upon a smaller. This can be brought about only by faulting, crushing, and breaking of the crust. The Appalachian Mountains are given as an example of this type. Mountains formed as a result of faulting, a process by which, as described by the reviser, great blocks of the earth's crust slipped one upon the other, are found in the Great Basin Region of the United States, between the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains. He cites no examples of mountains due to volcanic action, as these are common. Mountains due to erosion are found in the region of the Alleghany plateau.

In Part III, "The Water," the following topics are treated in a lucid style, and from the modern standpoint: "Properties of Water”; “Waters of the Land"; "Drainage"; "The Sea and the Oceans"; and “Waves, Tides, and Currents."

Many departures in the treatment from the original text are noted. Notice may be briefly called to one of these. In connection with artesian wells in the chapter on the "Waters of the Land," it is pointed out that research within the last decade has demonstrated the fact that artesian wells may be produced by other conditions than those outlined in the classic diagram of Maury, which represents one wash basin superimposed upon another, having a layer of water between them, and an opening at the center. Hydrostatic pressure will force the water out at the opening. This is as a matter of fact the least common of those favorable arrangements of the rock masses which occasion these useful phenomena. Dr. Simonds points out that beds inclined in one direction only may likewise

give rise to artesian wells, if the porous stratum grades into a more compact and impervious rock mass further down the incline.

In Part IV, "The Atmosphere," is considered: "The Physical Properties of the Atmosphere"; "Climate"; "Atmospheric Circulation"; "Storms;" "Moisture of the Air;" "Rain"; "Hail, Snow, and Glaciers"; "Electrical and Optical Phenomena" are the various topics treated in order.

The concluding part deals with "Life." "Animals and Plants: Their Relations and Distribution"; "The Distribution of Useful Plants"; "The Distribution of Animals"; "Man"; "Geographical Distribution of Labor" are the various aspects of the subject that are discussed.

The appendix deals with Physical Geography as a science.

A most interesting feature of the new work is the excellent collection of diagrams and illustrations. Most noteworthy of the views are "Vesuvius in Eruption, April, 1906," a marvelous picture of earth activity in one of its most terrifying aspects; "Views of the California and Japanese Earthquakes"; "Cloud Forms"; and "Tornadoes."

As stated by the author in the preface, the adoption of the smaller page adds much to the reader's comfort. It is to be questioned, however, whether the change in the size and the external appearance of the book is to be commended. The work was intended to be only a revision. If so, the size and the external appearance were those things that least needed change. In the reviewer's opinion, it would have added to the selling value of the book if the old form had been preserved. Man is much affected by appearances. The average person would have considered, when he bought the revised book with the old form, that he was still. getting Maury's Geography, only brought up to date. It has been demonstrated by experience that he prefers Maury to any other. He will be more apt to consider that he is buying an entirely new book that has little in common with the original Maury when he buys the present volume. He may, therefore, not be any more inclined towards it than to any other of the new Physical Geographies.

This objection is, however, of minor value. The Maury-Simonds Physical Geography can be safely regarded as a very readable book on a very interesting subject, and as such it will be welcomed by the school children, teachers, and lay readers all over the country. A. D.

Dr. Penick's Sallust's Catiline

The first Gildersleeve-Lodge book to appear since D. C. Heath & Co. acquired the series from the University Publishing Company is a school edition of Sallust's ever popular Bellum Catilinae, with an introduction, notes, and a vocabulary, by Dr. D. A. Penick, of the University of Texas. A map of Italy and seven traditional illustrations, such as those of the Mulvian Bridge and the Madrid bust of Cicero, embellish the work and help to relieve the eye.

The text, with the exception of some unimportant changes in conso

nantal assimilation and the adoption of many vowel quantities recently established, is that of Eussner's 1900 Leipsic edition; accordingly, such words as consulueris, on the one hand, and hic, eius, and magnus, on the other, have a peculiar look to the man who has learned his quantities from the old standard grammars. Whatever may be thought of this, such spellings as volgus, vicesumus, and maxumus must be commended, in an edition of Sallust; to spell them otherwise is to efface a literary landmark—an inexcusable procedure; Sallust himself, we may be sure, would no more have written maximus than Macaulay would have written honorable.

It has become fashionable to blacken Sallust's character, which, it is true, may be as wasteful and ridiculous excess as to paint the lily. However that may be, we know that the pendulum of criticism is usually at one side or the other-now on the side of unconditional censure, and now on the side of indiscriminate praise. Biographers expect every man to be either a saint with no redeeming vice or a villain thoroughly wickeda state of life existing nowhere but in fairy tales and novels of the Augusta J. Evans type. The editor's view seems to be a sane one: that in his earlier career Sallust was no better than the average Roman governor of the time, but that his later life may have been an improvement -that Sallust's praises of virtue do not necessarily prove him a hypocrite. The introduction deals rather fully with Sallust as a stylist, and bears evidence of having been written independently, from careful and painstaking study of the text; the examples given, most of them, are different from those of other editions with which we are acquainted. This part of the work, while it is small in pages and lines, must represent a tremendous amount of labor, containing as it does hundreds of examples and citations from the Bellum Catilinae. These are not thrown together in a hodge-podge, but are judiciously classified under four main heads, with logically arranged subdivisions, as follows: (1) Fondness for archaisms; (2) Fondness for unusual forms, words, expressions; (3) Syntactical constructions peculiar to or exaggerated by Sallust; (4) Rhetorical devices, not peculiar to, but abounding in Sallust. There are in addition copious references in the notes to this chapter of the introduction, thus enabling the student to realize the application to the author in hand.

The notes, of course, are the most important part of what the editor of a Latin classic must write; it is here that all the perplexing problems of proportion in history, archaeology, and dry grammar must be worked out, and from them he is to expect success or failure. Moreover, what these notes should be depends on the purpose of the edition and the age and previous training of the prospective student. Sallust, in America and England at least, belongs to the preparatory or early college months of the young reader's course; hence, the notes ought to be elementary. In an edition of this kind no great amount of originality and no display of erudition are to be desired. The first problem is one of proportion: Scylla threatens him who places too much stress on the dry details of grammar, and a worse Charybdis him who neglects the important princi

ples of syntax in a vain effort to make a story book of a commentary. Penick's Sallust, besides fulfilling in an unusual degree these requirements, will prove to be a very teachable book, which many editions of the classics written by university men for younger students are not. As compared with other books of the kind, this one will be found remarkable for the excellent treatment of syntax in an appendix of twentysix pages between the commentary proper and the vocabulary. This appendix is not a mere jumble of rehashed material from other works, but a careful, well-written treatise on syntax, which will prove its value wherever it is used.

The vocabulary is not so easily valued; judging from a cursive examination, however, it is a good one. Perhaps a bad vocabulary does less harm than any other part of a Latin text-book, and certainly a fair one less good-for reasons that are well known to every teacher. The citations of different definitions not only aid in the translation of difficult passages, but serve as a partial concordance to the Bellum Catilinae.

The accurate scholarship and knowledge of when and how to present to the student what he most needs should win a place for this edition in the schools of America.

W. L.

Extempore Speaking is the title of a little book of 178 pages, which, dressed in the fashionable color of 1908-maroon-Associate Professor Shurter has added to his already good-sized list of Professor Shurter's Extempore works on Public Speaking. Its primary aim is to set Speaking forth for class purposes a presentation of the art of extempore speaking, emphasizing the importance, the true conception, and the manner of preparation. The general plan of the book is best apprehended by a glance at the chapter headings, which are as follows: "What Is Extempore Speaking?"; "The Different Ways of Preparing and Delivering an Address"; "Advantages of Extempore Speaking"; "General Preparation"; "Special Preparation"; "The Oral Presentation"; "The Different Types of Extempore Speeches."

The style of the book exhibits all the clearness and ease which characterize the author's former works. There is a marked absence of that fault which is often found in many treatises by university specialists,— namely, the tendency to assume fundamentals, even in elementary texts, and to talk in the language of the specialist. Mr. Shurter has in Extempore Speaking assumed no knowledge of the subject on the part of the reader, but has taken the pains to begin with the fundamentals and to make all the resulting steps in the analysis clear by apt and well-chosen illustrations. Yet there is nothing trite or vulgarly familiar in the illustrations. Not only does the style evince an acquaintance with the conditions and needs of the students, but the treatment also demonstrates it. The book has in each chapter a clear exposition of the subject of the chapter, and in addition a set of exercises which serve as a gymnasium for the exercise

of the theories set forth in the chapter. These exercises show the result of extensive reading and sagacious selection. They are to the point, and from the best literature. Nor are they old and familiar passages, but, in the main, new selections.

The first chapter undertakes to define extempore speaking, and does so very happily. The distinction between impromptu and extempore speaking is clearly made, the former being justly discouraged, and the latter defined as applying, not to the matter of the discourse, but to the form of its delivery. The matter should be as thoroughly assimilated for an extempore speech as for a manuscript discourse, possibly more so. The next chapter points out the merits and disadvantages in the various forms of delivery, special attention being given to the extempore form. Of the latter it is said, as of the little girl, "When it is good, it is very, very good; and when it is bad, it is horrid." The whole of chapter III is occupied with a consideration of the advantages peculiar to the extempore form of delivery. Among the five mentioned, the most characteristic are the third, "it promotes a sympathetic relation with the audience,"-and the fifth,—“it permits a personal grapple with the audience."

In chapters IV and V there is a careful discussion of the general and special preparations necessary to the delivery of an extempore speech. If for no other help, the book is well worth the price for the sane suggestions found in these chapters. "As a means of general preparation an extempore speaker should acquire (1) a fund of facts and ideas, (2) a fund of language for the expression of his thoughts, and (3) the power to use this language accurately and readily." Some timely suggestions are made as to method in gathering material; a habit of careful observation, coupled with an orderly system of preserving by card index or otherwise, is recommended. If anything has been omitted in the matter of preparation, it is certainly not as to the details. Some more stress on the need of a wide and intimate acquaintance with the affairs of as many phases of life and humanity as possible would not have been amiss. The book closes with an extended appendix, wherein the author gives to others the advantage of his many successful years of experience in the teaching of this subject. He sets forth a great many subjects covering a varied field of familiar experiences of college life and other well-known topics. Besides this, there are some valuable suggstions concerning the most successful means of handling classes in this subject. It is not theory here, but the experienced results of the class room.

J. H. K.

The Surveyor's Handbook.—By T. U. Taylor, M. C. E., Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Texas, etc. 310 pp. 44x6 ins. 116 figs. Tables of Logs, Trigonometric Functions, etc. Pocket Professor Taylor's book form, flexible leather binding. Published by the New Book Myron C. Clark Publishing Company, Chicago and

New York.

Up to this time there have been no regular college text-books on

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