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The Ardois mountain lies between Windsor and Halifax, about thir. ty miles north-west from the latter. It is deemed the highest land in the province, and affords an extensive prospect of all the high and low lands, about Windsor, Falmouth, and the distant country bordering on the Basin of Minas ; and must in future time, with the rising improvements and diversified scenery, form a pleasing and variegated landscape Cape Blowmedown, which is the southern side of the entrance from the bay of Fundy into the Basin of Minas, is the eastern terminaa tion of a range of mountains, extending for about eighty or ninety miles to the gut of Annapolis ; bounded on the north by the shores of the bay of Fundy, on the south by Annapolis river. This tract oi luod is considered equil in richness and fertility to any in the American colonies, producing wheat, rye, barley, Oats, and every species of vegetable in perfection and abundance. The principal rivers are Annapolis and Shubenaccadie. The latter takes its rise williin a short mile of the town of Dartmouth, on the east side of Halifax harbour, and empiies itself into Cobequid bay, taking in its course the Slewiack and Gay's river. Other rivers of less note are the rivers which empty into Pictou harbour in the straits of Northumberland ; St. Mary's river, Antigonish, Liverpool, Turket, Musquidoboit, and Sissibou rivers.
The principal lakes are lake Porter, which einpties itself into the ocean aboui five leagues to the eastward of Halitax, which lake is fifteen miles in length, and an half a mile in width, with islands in it ; Potawock, so called by
the savages, which lies between the head of St. Margaret's bay and the 1 main road from Halifax to Windsor ; the great lake of Shubenacca
die. lying on the east side of said road, about seven miles from it, and twenty-one miles from Halifax.
is another lake of considerable magnitude, called by the original French inhabitants Rossignol, which lies between Liverpool and Innapolis, and from Indian accounts is said to be the main source of Liverpool and Petit Riviere (so called) rivers. It has been a place of resort for the Indians, from the favoura able hunting grounds about it. There are many other lakes, streams, and brooks, which water and diversify all parts of this province.
Tne principal bays are the bay of Fundy, which washes the shores of N. w Brunswick on the north, and Nova Scotia on the east and south. This bay is twelve leagues across, from the gut of Annapolis to St. John's, the capital of New Brunswick. The tides are rapid in this bay, and rise at Annapolis Busin about thirty feet. At the head of Chignecto channel, an arm of this bay, the spring tides rise sixty feet. At the Basin of Minas, which may be termed the north east arnı or branch of this bay, the tides rise forty feet. Des Barres, the late nautical surveyor of this province, has in general been corrrect and particular in noling the latitude and longitude of all the different towns, barbours, capes, and head lands in imis province ; and wis charts are so publick, they cari be resorted to by all who require further information on the subject. VOL. III.
For natural productions, Charlevoix in his Historie Generale de Nouvelle France, will give full information. Mr. Pernette, who has been curious in observing the natural productions of this province for upwards of thirty years, speaks highly of the accuracy of Charlevoix on the subject.
The province of Nova Scotia contains eight millions, seven hundred and eigiity-nine thousand acres ; of which three millions have been granted, and two millions settled and under improvement. This prov. ince is accommodated with many spacious harbours, bays, and coves of shelter, equal to any in the universe. Its coasts abound with fish of all kinds, such as cod, salmon, mackarel, herring, alewives, trout, and from its contiguity to the banks of Newfoundland, Quero, Sable, banks, fish. eries, under proper management and regulations, might be carried on with a certainty of success. The southern shores of Nova Scotia, to the eye of a stranger, exhibit an unfavourable appearance, being in general broken and stony ; but the innumerable islands along its coasts, coves, and harbours, though generally composed of rocky substances, appear. by nature designed for the drying of fish, and are clothed with materials for flakes and stages, and there is land sufficient for pastures and gar. dens to serve the purposes of fishermen.
As you advance into the back country, the face of it wears a far More favourable and pleasing aspect ; and at Cornwallis, Windsor, Horton, Annapolis, Cumberland, Cobequid, Pictou, and along the north shores of the province, are extensive well improved farms : and the gradual improvements in busbandry, which has been encouraged by the laudable efforts and successful experiments of the Agricultural Soe ciety here, afford a well grounded expectation of its becoming a fourishing colony ; especially if a disposition for frugality, economy, and industry should prevail among us ; the want of which important qualities has been hitherto the source of all our embarrassments. Nova Scotia may be compared to the rude diamond in the quarry : it only wants the colish of well directed industry, to give it beauty and increase its value.
There are mines of coals at Cumberland, and on the east river which falls into Pictou harbour. There are also lime stone, and plaster of Paris at Windsor, and in the gut of Canso ; and there is plenty of bog and mountain ore in Annapolis township, on the borders of the Nictau river and a bloomery erected there ; and from some late successful experiments, there is a flattering prospect of its becoming of great publick benefit. Some small pieces of copper have been found at Cape D'Or, on the north side of the Basin of Minas ; but not sufficient to establish a well grounded expectation of any mine rich enough to pay for the working of it. There are no cascades in this province that merit distinction.
The only two that have been noticed, are, one of them on a stream that falls into the head of Milford Haven, which is about forty feet high, and
de which falls into the harbour St. John, on the north-east shore of the province, about the same height.
THE ISLAND OF CAPE Breton.] The present seat of government is at Spanish river, on the north side of the island. The coal mines are situated near the entrance of the harbour ; the working of which and the fishery are the chief employment of the inhabitants. This isl. and is intersected with lakes and rivers. The great Bras D’Or is a very extensive sheet of water, which forms into arms and branches, and opens an easy communication with all parts of the island. There is a great proportion of arable land on this island ; and it abounds in timber and hard wood, such as pine, beech, birch, maple, spruces, and fir. Isle Madame, which is an appendage to this government, is seuled for the most part by French Acadians, whose chief employment is the fishery at Amshot, the principal harbour in said island. There are about fifty families settled ; and on this island there are computed to be one thousand souls. They take about thirty thousand quintals of fish annually, which are shipped for Spain and the Straits, principally by merchants from Jersey, who resort here annually and keep stores of supplies for the fishermen.
PROVINCE OF New BRUNSWICK.) Bounded on the south, by the north shores of the bay of Fundy and by the river Missiquash to its source, and from thence by a due east line-to the bay of Vert ; on the west, by a line to run due north from the head or main source of St. Croix river, in the bay of Passamaquoddy, to the high lands which divide the streams which fall into the river St. Lawrence and the bay of Fundy ; and from thence by the southern boundary of the colony of Quebec, until it touches the sea shore at the western extremity of the bay of Chaleur ; then following the several courses of the sea shore to the bay of Vert (in the straits of Northumberland) until it meets the termination of the eastern line produced from the source of the Missis quash above mentioned, including all islands within the said limits.
The city of St. John's, the capital, is situated at the mouth or en trance of the river St. John, on high and rocky ground. The streets are regular and spacious; and there are many decent, well built houses. It contains about one thousand inhabitants. The town of St. Anne's, the present seat of that government, lies about eighty miles up the river. About one mile above the town is the only entrance into the river St. John, which is about eighty or a hundred yards wide, and about four hundred yards in length ; and this passage is called the Falls of the river. This passage being so strait, and a ridge of rocks running across, whereon there are not above seventeen feet of water, renders it insufficient to discharge the fresh waters of the river above. The common tides flowing here about twenty feet, at low water, the waters of the river are about twelve feet higher than the waters of the sea, and at high water, the waters of the sea are about five feet higher than the waters of che river : so that in every tide there are two falls, one outwards and one inwards ; and the only time of passing this place, is at the time when the waters of the river are level with the waters of the sea, which
is twice i tide ; and tiis opportunity of passing continuies not above twinty minutes At other times it is impassable or extremely danger
From the confluence of this river with the bay of Fundy to its main source, is computed to be three hundred and fifty miles. It is navigable for sloops to Frederickton Its general course is W. N. W. On the banks of ihis river are rich intervale and meadow lands, well clothed with timber and wood, such as pine, beech, elm, maple, and walnut There are many rivers that empty into it: the Oromocio river (by which the Indians have a communication with Passamaquoddy) the Nashwack, Madamkiswick, on which are ric': intervales that produce all kinds of grain in the highest perfection. St. John's river opens a vast extent of fine country, and takes in its various courses a number of fine rivers ; on all which are rich meadow and intervale lands, and most ol tiem settled and under improvement. The upland is in general ciothed with timber trees, such as pine and spruce, hem. lock and hard wood. principally beech, birch, maples, and some ash. Tlie pines on this river are the largest to be met with in British America, and afford a considerable supply of masts for the royal navy.
The town of St. Andrew's is siuvaled in the rear of an island of that name, on the east side of an arm (called Scoodick) of the inner bay of Passamiaquoddy. It is very regularly laid out in the form of an oblong square ; but few houses, and those built on a small scale. but few inhabitants, whose chiet en.ployment is in the lumber trade. The common ricies rise here : bout eighteen feet. There are three riv. ers wiich fall into the bay of Passä maquoddy. The largest is called by the ndern Indians the Scoocick ; but by De Mens and Champlaire who accompanied De Mons in one of his voyages thither (str their voyages, in Purchase's Collections, written and published in 1632) called Eichemins lis main source is near Penobscot river, to wiici river the Indils have a communication ; the carrying place across is three miles.
The rivers that fall into Passa maquoddy bay have intervales and meadows on their banks, and must have formerly been covered with a large growih of timber, which is observable from the remains of large trunks wnich are s!ili 10 he seen) ; but a raging fire having passed through that country (accoroing to Indian accounts fifty years ago) burnt so furiously in a very dry season) that it destroyed most of the timber on the east sidt of the bay of Passamaquoddy, and particularly on the Magegadavick or Eastern river, which falls into the bay, where it raged with uncommon violence, and spread as far eastward as the river which falls into St Joon's, and extended ortherly and westerly beyond the Dick wasset or Digdeguash river, which falls into the same side of the bay
Merrimichi river, on the north east coast of New Brunswick, falls into the head of a bay of that name ; and a little above its confluence with the bay. it forins into two branches, and runs through a fertile tract of choice intervale land, and the land in general is well clothed with timber of all kinds. From river they have a communication with St. John's, partly by land, but principally by water carriage in caDoes. The salmon fishery is carried on with success, and the cod fishery is improving near the entrance of the bay.
Petitcodiak river falls into an arm of the bay of Fundy, called ChigDecto channel. From its confluence, after a course of some miles northerly, it takes a western direction ; and the Indians have a communication from the head of it with St. John's river by a portage across to the head of Kennebacasius. Memramcook river lies a little to the eastWard of Petitcodak, and takes a northeasterly direction, and has been recommended as the most proper boundary for the division between this province and Nova Scotia.
Road FROM HALIFAX TO THE GULF OF ST. LAWRENCE.
Extract of a Letter from Halifax in Nova Scotia, dated October 23, 1792.
AST evening Governour Wentworth arrived in town after thir
chiet object of which was. to open a road from the settlements at Poic. tou, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, to this place. Such a road has been long wanted, but thought impracticable, from the expense and the supposed difficulty of the country.
Both are, however, overcome, and a good cart road is cut, cleared and bridged, by which the inbabitants of that populous, increasing, and fertile district, have an easy communication with the capital, and can enjoy the benefits of its commerce, as well as the advantages of law and government ; of which, before, they were almost wholly destitute. This work has been accomplished wit out any burthen on the publick, from a revenue which has always been disposed of by former governours, but hitherto not applied to such benefic cial purposes. The distance is sixty-eight miles, of which eight were done before ; forty are newly cut, cleared and bridged ; the remainder is made very passable; and the fund is diminished not one hundred and fifty pounds currency."
GOVERNOURS OF NOVA SCOTIA FROM 1720.
Nova Scotia, and in the year 1749, General Cornwallis was appointed in his stead ; and was the founder of the present settlement of this colony.
In 1752, Colonel Hopson succeeded ; in 1753 Colonel Hopson had leare to go to England, and was succeeded in the administration of governinent by Lieutenant-Colonel, then Lieutenant Governour, Law. rence, and in 1756, he was appointed Governour in the room of Colosel Hopson.