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The Ardois mountain lies between Windsor and Halifax, about thirty miles north-west from the latter. It is deemed the highest land in the province, and affords an extensive prospect of all the high and low lands, about Windsor, Falmouth, and the distant country bordering on the Basin of Minas; and must in future time, with the rising improvements and diversified scenery, form a pleasing and variegated landscape Cape Blowmedown, which is the southern side of the entrance from the bay of Fundy into the Basin of Minas, is the eastern termina tion of a range of mountains, extending for about eighty or ninety miles to the gut of Annapolis; bounded on the north by the shores of the bay of Fundy, on the south by Annapolis river. This tract of land is considered equal in richness and fertility to any in the American colonies, producing wheat, rye, barley, oats, and every species of vegetable in perfection and abundance. The principal rivers are Annapolis and Shubenaccadie. The latter takes its rise within a short mile of the town of Dartmouth, on the east side of Halifax harbour, and empties itself into Cobequid bay, taking in its course the Slewiack and Gay's river. Other rivers of less note are the rivers which empty into Pictou harbour in the straits of Northumberland; St. Mary's river, Antigonish, Liverpool, Turket, Musquidoboit, and Sissibou rivers. The principal lakes are lake Porter, which empties itself into the ocean about five leagues to the eastward of Halifax, which lake is fifteen miles in length, and an half a mile in width, with islands in it; Potawock, so called by the savages, which lies between the head of St. Margaret's bay and the main road from Halifax to Windsor; the great lake of Shubenaccadie, lying on the east side of said road, about seven miles from it, and twenty-one miles from Halifax. There is another lake of considerable magnitude, called by the original French inhabitants Rossignol, which lies between Liverpool and Annapolis, and from Indian accounts is said to be the main source of Liverpool and Petit Riviere (so called) rivers. It has been a place of resort for the Indians, from the favourable hunting grounds about it. There are many other lakes, streams, The

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and brooks, which water and diversify all parts of this province. principal bays are the bay of Fundy, which washes the shores of N.w Brunswick on the north, and Nova Scotia on the east and south. This bay is twelve leagues across, from the gut of Annapolis to St. John's, the capital of New Brunswick. The tides are rapid in this bay, and rise at Annapolis Basin about thirty feet. At the head of Chignecto channel, an arm of this bay, the spring tides rise sixty feet. sin of Minas, which may be termed the north east arni or branch of this bay, the tides rise forty feet. Des Barres, the late nautical surveyor of this province, has in general been corrrect and particular in noting the latitude and longitude of all the different towns, harbours, capes, and head lands in this province; and his charts are so publick, they can be resorted to by all who require further information on the subject.

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For natural productions, Charlevoix in his Historie Generale de Nouvelle France, will give full information. Mr. Pernette, who has been curious in observing the natural productions of this province for upwards of thirty years, speaks highly of the accuracy of Charlevoix on the subject.

The province of Nova Scotia contains eight millions, seven hundred and eighty-nine thousand acres; of which three millions have been granted, and two millions settled and under improvement. This province is accommodated with many spacious harbours, bays, and coves of shelter, equal to any in the universe. Its coasts abound with fish of all kinds. such as cod. salmon, mackarel, herring, alewives, trout, and from its contiguity to the banks of Newfoundland, Quero, Sable, banks, fisheries, under proper management and regulations, might be carried on with a certainty of success. The southern shores of Nova Scotia, to the eye of a stranger, exhibit an unfavourable appearance, being in general broken and stony; but the innumerable islands along its coasts, coves, and harbours, though generally composed of rocky substances, appear by nature designed for the drying of fish, and are clothed with materials for flakes and stages, and there is land sufficient for pastures and gar. dens to serve the purposes of fishermen.

As you advance into the back country, the face of it wears a far more favourable and pleasing aspect; and at Cornwallis, Windsor, Horton, Annapolis, Cumberland, Cobequid, Pictou, and along the north shores of the province, are extensive well improved farms: and the gradual improvements in husbandry, which has been encouraged by the laudable efforts and successful experiments of the Agricultural So ciety here, afford a well grounded expectation of its becoming a flourishing colony; especially if a disposition for frugality, economy, and industry should prevail among us; the want of which important qualities has been hitherto the source of all our embarrassments. Nova Scotia may be compared to the rude diamond in the quarry it only wants the polish of well directed industry, to give it beauty and increase its value.

There are mines of coals at Cumberland, and on the east river which falls into Pictou harbour. There are also lime stone, and plaster of Paris at Windsor, and in the gut of Canso; and there is plenty of bog and mountain ore in Annapolis township, on the borders of the Nictau river and a bloomery erected there; and from some late successful experiments, there is a flattering prospect of its becoming of great publick benefit. Some small pieces of copper have been found at Cape D'Or, on the north side of the Basin of Minas; but not sufficient to establish a well grounded expectation of any mine rich enough to pay for the working of it.

There are no cascades in this province that merit distinction. The only two that have been noticed, are, one of them on a stream that falls into the head of Milford Haven, which is about forty feet high, and

one which falls into the harbour St. John, on the north-east shore of the province, about the same height.

THE ISLAND OF CAPE BRETON.] The present seat of government is at Spanish river, on the north side of the island. The coal mines are situated near the entrance of the harbour; the working of which and the fishery are the chief employment of the inhabitants. This island is intersected with lakes and rivers. The great Bras D'Or is a very extensive sheet of water, which forms into arms and branches, and opens an easy communication with all parts of the island. There is a great proportion of arable land on this island; and it abounds in timber and hard wood, such as pine, beech, birch, maple, spruces, and fir. Isle Madame, which is an appendage to this government, is settled for the most part by French Acadians, whose chief employment is the fishery at Amshot, the principal harbour in said island. There are about fifty families settled; and on this island there are computed to be one thousand souls. They take about thirty thousand quintals of fish annually, which are shipped for Spain and the Straits, principally by merchants from Jersey, who resort here annually and keep stores of supplies for the fishermen.


Bounded on the south, by the north shores of the bay of Fundy and by the river Missiquash to its source, and from thence by a due east line to the bay of Vert; on the west, by a line to run due north from the head or main source of St. Croix river, in the bay of Passamaquoddy, to the high lands which di vide the streams which fall into the river St. Lawrence and the bay of Fundy; and from thence by the southern boundary of the colony of Quebec, until it touches the sea shore at the western extremity of the bay of Chaleur; then following the several courses of the sea shore tọ the bay of Vert (in the straits of Northumberland) until it meets the termination of the eastern line produced from the source of the Missir quash above mentioned, including all islands within the said limits.

The city of St. John's, the capital, is situated at the mouth or en trance of the river St. John, on high and rocky ground. The streets are regular and spacious; and there are many decent, well built houses. It contains about one thousand inhabitants. The town of St. Anne's, the present seat of that government, lies about eighty miles up the river. About one mile above the town is the only entrance into the river St. John, which is about eighty or a hundred yards wide, and about four hundred yards in length; and this passage is called the Falls of the river, This passage being so strait, and a ridge of rocks running across, whereon there are not above seventeen feet of water, renders it insufficient to discharge the fresh waters of the river above. The common tides flowing here about twenty feet, at low water, the waters of the river are about twelve feet higher than the waters of the sea, and at high water, the waters of the sea are about five feet higher than the waters of the river: so that in every tide there are two falls, one outwards and one inwards; and the only time of passing this place, is at the time when the waters of the river are level with the waters of the sea, which

is twice in a tide; and tais opportunity of passing continues not above twenty minutes At other times it is impassable or extremely dangerOUS From the confluence of this river with the bay of Fundy to its main source, is computed to be three hundred and fifty miles. It is navigable for sloops to Frederickton Its general course is W. N. W. On the banks of this river are rich intervale and meadow lands. well clothed with timber and wood, such as pine, beech, elm, maple, and walnut. There are many rivers that empty into it: the Oromocto river (by which the Indians have a communication with Passamaquoddy) the Nashwack, Madamkiswick, on which are rich intervales that produce all kinds of grain in the highest perfection. St. John's river opens a vast extent of fine country, and takes in its various courses a number of fine rivers; on all which are rich meadow and intervale lands, and most of them settled and under improvement. The upland is in general clothed with timber trees, such as pine and spruce, hemlock and hard wood. principally beech, birch, maples, and some ash. The pines on this river are the largest to be met with in British America, and afford a considerable supply of masts for the royal navy.

The town of St. Andrew's is situated in the rear of an island of that name, on the east side of an arm (called Scoodick) of the inner bay of Passamaquoddy. It is very regularly laid out in the form of an oblong square, but few houses, and those built on a small scale. There are but few inhabitants, whose chief employment is in the lumber trade. The common tides rise here about eighteen feet. There are three rivers which fall into the bay of Passamaquoddy. The largest is called by the modern Indians the Scoodick; but by De Mons and Champlaine who accompanied De Mons in one of his voyages thither (see their voyages, in Purchase's Collections, written and published in 1632) called Etchemins Its mein source is near Penobscot river, to which river the Indians have a communication; the carrying place across is three miles.

The rivers that fall into Passamaquoddy bay have intervales and meadows on their banks, and must have formerly been covered with a large growth of timber, which is observable from the remains of large trunks which are still to be seen; but a raging fire having passed through that country (according to Indian accounts fifty years ago) burnt so furiously (in a very dry season) that it destroyed most of the timber on the east side of the bay of Passamaquoddy, and particularly on the Magegadavick or Eastern river, which falls into the bay, where it raged with uncommon violence, and spread as far eastward as the river which falls into St Jonn's, and extended northerly and westerly beyond the Dick wasset or Digdeguash river, which falls into the same side of the bay

Merrimichi river, on the north east coast of New Brunswick, falls into the head of a bay of that name; and a little above its confluence with the bay, it forms into two branches, and runs through a fertile tract of choice intervale land, and the land in general is well clothed with timber of all kinds. From this river they have a communication

with St. John's, partly by land, but principally by water carriage in caThe salmon fishery is carried on with success, and the cod fishery is improving near the entrance of the bay.


Petitcodiak river falls into an arm of the bay of Fundy, called ChigBecto channel. From its confluence, after a course of some miles northerly, it takes a western direction; and the Indians have a communication from the head of it with St. John's river by a portage across to the head of Kennebacasius. Memramcook river lies a little to the eastward of Petitcodak, and takes a northeasterly direction, and has been recommended as the most proper boundary for the division between this province and Nova Scotia.


Extract of a Letter from Halifax in Nova Scotia, dated October 23, 1792.

ty-four days absence, from an expedition into the woods, the chief object of which was, to open a road from the settlements at Poictou, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, to this place. Such a road has been long wanted, but thought impracticable, from the expense and the supposed difficulty of the country. Both are, however, overcome, and a good cart road is cut, cleared and bridged, by which the inhabitants of that populous, increasing, and fertile district, have an easy communication with the capital, and can enjoy the benefits of its commerce, as well as the advantages of law and government; of which, before, they were almost wholly destitute. This work has been accomplished without any burthen on the publick, from a revenue which has always been disposed of by former governours, but hitherto not applied to such beneficial purposes. The distance is sixty-eight miles, of which eight were done before; forty are newly cut, cleared and bridged; the remainder is made very passable; and the fund is diminished not one hundred and fifty pounds currency."


N the year 1720, Colonel Philipps was appointed Governour of Nova Scotia, and in the year 1749, General Cornwallis was appointed in his stead; and was the founder of the present settlement of this colony.

In 1752, Colonel Hopson succeeded; in 1753 Colonel Hopson had leave to go to England, and was succeeded in the administration of government by Lieutenant-Colonel, then Lieutenant Governour, Law. rence, and in 1756, he was appointed Governour in the room of Colonel Hopson.

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