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Governour Lawrence died in 1760, and Governour Ellis, who had been Governour of Georgia, was appointed Governour, and near left Europe; but Mr. Belcher, senior counsellor, was appointed Lieuten. ant Governour, and was succeeded by Colonel Wilmot in 1763. who was appointed Lieutenant Governour, and was afterwards, in 1764, ap pointed Governour in the place of Mr. Ellis.

In 1766, Governour Willmot died, and the administration of gov. ernment was successively carried on by Mr. Green, the senior counsellor, and Lieutenant Governour Franklin, until the end of the same year, when Lord William Campbell, who had been appointed Governour, arrived. He continued in the government until he was succeeded by Colonel Legge in 1773, who was called home in 1776. The administration of government was afterwards successively in Lieutenant Governour Arbuthnot; in 1778, in Sir Richard Hughes; and in 1781, in Sir Andrew Hammond.

In 1782, Colonel John Parr was appointed Governour, in the stead of Governour Legge. He died in November, 1791, Et. 66. On his death, Richard Bulkely, President of the Council, was sworn into the administration of government. John Wentworth, surveyor general of the woods, was then in England; and as soon as Governour Parr's death was known there, he applied for the commission and obtained it. He arrived in the spring of 1792, at Halifax, and was received by the inhabitants with great satisfaction.

N. B. It is to be observed, that since the British provinces in North America have been put under a general Governour, the Governour of each province is styled Lieutenant Governour. The general government comprehends Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, St. John's, Lower Canada, and Upper Canada. The residence of the general Governour is at Quebec.



HIS little fish is called by Linnæus Atherina (Menidia) pinnaani radiis viginti quatuor, or Atherine with twenty-four rays in the fin behind the anus. It is four inches in length, is semitransparent, and has a broad silver line extended from the opening of the gills to the insertion of the tail. The tail is forked. The iris of the eye silvery. The back is marked in diamonds by dotted lines.

It is found in great abundance in the river Piscataqua, in the months of August and September. It feeds on minute aquatick insects of the monoculus kind, and is preyed upon by several fishes as well as shell drakes.


[This letter is misplaced.

It should have followed the Journal of the War at the end of the second volume, with a reference to it, page 169 of the Journal.]


Dear Brother,

Fairfield, July 15, 1779.

SIT down to write you some account of the sad and awful scenes which have been exhibited in this once pleasant and delightful town, now, alas! a heap of ruins, a sad spectacle of desolation and wo

It was in the beginning of wheat harvest, a season of extraordinary labour and festivity; a season which promised the greatest plenty that has been known for many years, if within the memory of man. Never did our fields bear so ponderous a load, never were our prospects, with regard to sustenance, so bright.

The British fleet and army, with the American refugees that had possessed and plundered New-Haven, set sail from that distressed place on the 6th instant.

About four o'clock the next morning, the approach of the fleet was announced by the firing of a gun from a small fort we have on Grover's hill, contiguous to the Sound. They seemed, however, to be passing by. And about seven o'clock we, with pleasure, beheld them all to the westward of us, steering, as we thought, to New York. A very thick fog came on, which entirely deprived us of the sight of them till between the hours of nine and ten, when, the mist clearing away, we beheld the whole fleet under our western shore, and some of them close in with Kensie's Point. They presently came to anchor, and lay till about four in the afternoon, when they began to land their troops a little to the east of Kensie's Point, at a place called the Pines. From thence the troops marched along the beach, until they came to a lane opposite the centre of the town, through which they proceeded, and in about an hour paraded in their divisions on the green, between the meeting house and court house. From thence they detached their guards, and dividing into small parties, proceeded to their infernal business. Their commanding officers were Sir George Collier by sea, Generals Tryon and Garth by land. The approach of the fleet was so sudden, that but few men could be collected, though the alarm guns were fired immediately on the dissipation of the fog. There was no thought of opposing their landing, as our force was nothing to theirs. Our little party,however,posted themselves so as to annoy them to the best advantage, expecting they would land at the Point. When our people found them landing on the left and marching in their rear to take possession of the town, they immediately retreated to the court house; and as the enemy advanced from the Beach lane, they gave them such a warm reception with a field piece, which threw both round and grape shot, and

with their musquetry, as quite disconcerted them for some time. The column, however, quickly recovered its solidity, and advancing rapidly, forced our small body to retreat to the heights, back of the town, where they were joined by numbers coming in from the country. The enemy were likewise galled very much, as they turned from the beach to the lane, by the cannon which played from Grover's hill. A few women, some

The town was almost cleared of inhabitants. of whom were of the most respectable- families and characters, tarried with a view of saving their property. They imagined their sex and character would avail to such a purpose. They put some confidence in the generosity of an enemy, who were once farmed for generosity and politeness; and thought that kind treatment and submissive behaviour would secure them against harsh treatment and rougn usage. Alas! they were miserably mistaken, and bitterly repented their confidence and presumption.

The Hessians were first let loose for rapine and plunder. They entered houses, attacked the persons of whig and tory indiscriminately; breaking open desks, trunks, closets, and taking away every thing of value. They robbed women of their buckles, rings, bonnets, aprons, and handkerchiefs. They abused them with the foulest and most profane language, threatened their lives without the least regard to the most earnest cries and entreaties. Looking glasses, china, and all kinds of furniture were soon dashed to piece

Another party that came on were the American refugees, who in revenge for their confiscated estates, carried on the same direful business. They were not, however, so abusive to the women as the former, but appeared very furious against the town and country. The Britons, by what I could learn, were the least inveterate: some of the officers seemed to pity the misfortunes of the country, but in excuse said, that Individuals they had no other way to regain their authority over us. among the British troops were, however, exceedingly abusive, especially to women. Some were forced to submit to the most indelicate and rough treatment, in defence of their virtue, and now bear the bruises of the horrid conflict.

About an hour before sunset, the conflagration began at the house of Mr. Isaac Jennings, which was consumed with the neighbouring buildings. In the evening, the house of Elijah Abel, Esq. sheriff of the county, was consumed, with a few others. In the night, several buildings in the main street. General Tryon was in various parts of the town plot; with the good women begging and entreating him to spare their houses. Mr. Sayre, the Church of England Missionary, a gentleman firmly and zealously engaged in the British interest, and who has suffered considerably in their cause, joined with them in these entreaties; he begged the general to spare the town, but was denied. He then begged that some few houses might be spared as a shelter for those who could provide habitations no where else; this was denied alAt length Mr. Tryon consented to save the buildings of Mr. Burr

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and the writer of this epistle. Both had been plundered ere this. He said, likewise, that the houses for publick worship should be spared. He was far from being in a good temper, during the whole affair. General Garth, at the other end of the town, treated the inhabitants with as much humanity, as his errand would admit.

At sun rise, some considerable part of the town was standing; but in about two hours the flames became general. The burning parties carried on their business with horrible alacrity, headed by one or two persons who were born and bred in the neighbouring towns. All the town from the bridge by Colonel Gold's to the Mill river, a few houses excepted, was a heap of ruin.

We had some

About eight o'clock, the enemy sounded a retreat. satisfaction, amidst our sorrow and distress, to see that the meeting house. and a few other buildings remained. But the rear guard, consisting of a banditti, the vilest that was ever loose among men, set fire to every thing which General Tryon had left, the large and elegant meeting house, the ministers' houses, Mr. Burr's, and several other houses which had received protection. They tore the protection to pieces, damned Tryon, abused the women most shamefully, and then ran off in a most disgraceful manner. Happily our people came in and extinguished the flames in several houses; so that we are not entirely destitute.

The rear guard, which behaved in so scandalous a manner, were chiefly German troops, called Yaugers. They carry a small rifle gun, and fight in a skulking manner like our Indians. They may be properly called sons of plunder and devastation.

Our people on the heights, back of the town, were joined by numbers, but not equal to the numbers of the enemy. They were skirmishing all the evening, part of the night, and the next morning. The enemy were several times disconcerted and driven from their outposts. Had they continued longer in town, it must have been fatal to them; for the militia were collecting from all parts.

Our fort yet stands. The enemy sent a row galley to silence it, and there was constant firing between tham all night. One or two attempts were made to take it by parties of troops, but it was most bravely and obstinately defended by Lieutenant Isaac Jarvis of this town, who had but twenty-three men besides himself.

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The militia followed these bloody incendiaries to the place of embarkation, and galled them considerably. The embarkation took place about twelve o'clock, and they set sail for Long Island about two and three in the afternoon.

Many were killed on both sides. The number cannot be ascertained. They carried off some prisoners, but no person of distinction.

One particular I would mention. After Tryon had begun to burn, he sent out the proclamation which you have in the Hartford paper. In the midst of hostilities, while the flames were raging and bullets flying, who should come out with a flag, but Mr. Sayre! A spirited answer was sent in; and the people were so enraged that hostilities should be VOL. III


going on in the time of negociation; and that Mr. Sayre should be the bearer of such an insulting proclamation, and at such a time, that the said gentleman was obliged to quit the town, when the enemy left it. His whole family were obliged to go with him, leaving the greatest part of their substance behind, which became fuel for the flames, indiscriminately scattered by the rear guard. The reply which General Tryon made to Mr. Sayre, when he asked to go with him, was, " You may go on board the ships, Sir, but I cannot promise you any help or assistance."

The Church of England building was consumed, but by whom, or at what time, I am unable to say.

Unconnected with them, unsolicited on my part, through the intercession of Mr. Sayre, my house and property received a protection in General Tryon's own hand writing. A sentinel was placed there some part of the time. But sad experience convinces me to how little purpose all this was. My property was plundered, my house and furniture all consumed, though a lady was so kind as to show them the protection, which like others, was torn in pieces by the Yaugers.

Our friend, Joseph Bartram, was shot through the breast; old Mr. Solomon Sturgis, an Irish servant of Mr. Penfield, and a negro man belonging to Mr. Lewis, were put to death by the bayonet.

The distress of this poor people is inexpressible. A most pleasant and delightful town in flames! What a scene did the 8th of July present !

But I must forbear!-Every thing I have written you may depend upon as fact: my pen has not been guided by prejudice, whatever my feelings are; and should you publish the letter, every reader may be assured that there is not the least deviation from what actually took place upon this melancholy occasion.

Yours, &c.




My Lords,

Boston, Nov. 30, 1748.

TAKE the first opportunity, after informing myself fully of the necessary facts, to answer that part of your lordships' letter of the 18th June last, which relates to Fort Dummer.

I find, upon examining the records of the province, that this fort was built about the year 1728, in time of war with the Indians: that in 1726, Lieutenant Governour Dummer made peace with them, and agreed to supply them with necessaries, and take their furs in exchange: that several forts in the eastern parts were pitched upon as places for carrying on this truck trade; and Fort Dummer being the only fort at the west

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