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view to a general treaty with Germany. Negotiations of that character necessarily occupy considerable time, and it is probable that before any arrangement satisfactory to both countries could be reached, the period for which the German Government are disposed to agree would almost have expired. The undersigned, therefore, submits that, reserving for further consideration the question of a treaty to take effect after the year 1903, it is desirable that a friendly temporary arrangement be made with Germany. In view of the figures already presented, showing how largely the balance of trade is in favour of Germany, it would not be unreasonable to ask the German Government to take that important fact into consideration and extend to Canada the tariff advantages from which the Dominion is at present excluded. || The only matters in which the products of Germany are at any disadvantage in the Canadian markets as compared with the products of other foreign countries are those which arise out of the arrangements made between France and Canada by the Commercial Treaty of 1894. The advantages of that treaty were extended to Germany, and were only withdrawn after the adoption by the German Government of the adverse policy which is the subject of this memorandum. In the event of Germany agreeing to allow favoured-nation treatment to the products of Canada, the benefits which are granted to France under the Treaty of 1894 should, of course, be extended to Germany, thus placing German goods in every respect on equal terms with the goods of other foreign countries. The making of a formal treaty would require the appointment of plenipotentiaries by His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, and His Majesty the King of Great Britain on behalf of Canada. But while recognizing this fact, the undersigned is of opinion that a friendly exchange of views between members of the Canadian Government and Herr Bopp, representing the Government of Germany, may be very useful in bringing about a better understanding, and therefore, it is recommended that a copy of this memorandum be furnished confidentially to Herr Bopp. If Herr Bopp should be able to intimate at an early date that the suggestions herein made are received with favour, steps could then be taken to have the matter dealt with more formally through the proper treaty-making channels.

W. S. Fielding,
Minister of Finance.

Nr. 13367. DEUTSCHES REICH. -Der Generalkonsul für Kanada an den kanadischen Premierminister. Antwort auf die beiden vorigen.

Montreal, December 2, 1901.

Dear Sir Wilfrid, I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your two favours of the 20th and 21st ultimo. | Of course it was not the intention of my letter of 14th ultimo to enter into a discussion of the possibilities, of a formal tariff treaty. I fully understand your view that under the existing circumstances a temporary agreement allowing reciprocally the most-favoured-nation treatment would be desirable. But even taking into consideration only such a modus vivendi, I think it quite indispensable that each party should know exactly what the other party demands and is willing to give in return. || Now I am fully aware what you demand, i. e., the German conventional tariff to its full extent, but your remarks at the end of our last interview make me doubtful as to what you are willing to grant; also the memorandum does not remove this doubt. || Before transmitting your memorandum to my government, I therefore beg you kindly to state whether also you offer most-favoured-nation treatment in full, i.e., not only the special reductions granted to France so far, but also any further reductions that may be granted to France or some other third country in the future, or whether such eventual new reductions would not implicitly and unconditionally be enjoyed by Germany under the modus vivendi as you have in view. || Hoping to be honoured by an early answer, Bopp, Imperial German Consul for Canada.


Der kanadische Premierminister an den deutschen Generalkonsul. Kanada bietet Deutschland die Frankreich gewährte Ermäßigung an.

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Ottawa, December 3, 1901.

Dear Mr. Bopp, || I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of yesterday. In order that there may be no misunderstanding whatever between us, it may be advisable for me to make it here and now perfectly clear that what we offer is to give to Germany the most-favourednation treatment, such as she had it by our treaty with France, prior to the denunciation of the German treaty with Great Britain, which came to an end on August 1, 1898. Should we negotiate any other treaty with any other country, we cannot undertake to extend the same treat

ment to Germany, unless she is prepared to give us as much as we would receive from the country negotiating with us. || I would like to remind you that a strong effort will be made at the next session of Parliament to meet the discrimination of Germany against us with countervailing duties. Wilfrid Laurier.

Nr. 13369. DEUTSCHES REICH. - Der Generalkonsul für Kanada an den kanadischen Premierminister. Deutschland ist in Kanada ungünstiger gestellt als andere Staaten.

Montreal, December 7, 1901.

Sir, I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of your favour of 3rd instant; I shall communicate its contents to my government together with the memorandum. || Of course I will call my government's attention to the fact that the consequence of an agreement as pointed out by you would be: France, by its special treaty with Canada, and all other nations that have a commercial treaty with Great Britain, applicable to the colonies f. i. Austria-Hungary, Denmark, Russia, Sweden and Norway, Switzerland, &c., would enjoy fully and unconditionally and without any new concession any further reduction that Canada may grant to some foreign power in the future; only Germany, which you expect to allow Canada its full conventional tariff, will be excluded therefrom and remain confined to the few insignificant reductions of the French Canadian Treaty as now in force.

Bopp, Imperial German Consul for Canada.

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Der Premierminister von Kanada an den deutschen Generalkonsul. Protest gegen das vorige.

Staatsarchiv LXXI.

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Ottawa, December 9, 1901.

Dear Mr. Bopp, || I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your favour of the 7th instant. Let me say that your construction is rather a forced one. We are yet tied by a few old treaties which interfere with our commercial freedom, and which we intend to get rid of at the earliest opportunity. We have not yet made any movement in this direction, because the trade we had with those countries: Hungary, Denmark, Switzerland and a few others, is very insignificant. In the future, however, we are determined to act upon the principle of favour for favour. Wilfrid Laurier.


Nr. 13371. DEUTSCHES REICH. Der Generalkonsul für Kanada an den kanadischen Premierminister. Die Handelspolitik Deutschlands gegen Kanada ist noch nicht endgültig entschieden.

Montreal, November 3, 1902.

Dear Sir Wilfrid, || In reply to your favour of 31st ultimo*), I can only say that the proposals of your Government relative to the trade relations between the Dominion of Canada and Germany are still under consideration of my Government, and that the latter has evidently not yet arrived at a decision. You are aware that in Germany the tariff legislation is entirely unsettled at the present time, and may remain so for some time to come. Personally, I am inclined to believe that as long as this uncertainty lasts, my Government will touch her foreign commercial relations as little as possible, and will particularly, for lack of a solid legal basis, refrain from making new arrangements.

Bopp, Imperial German Consul for Canada.

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Nr. 13372. RÖMISCHE KURIE. Rundschreiben des Papstes Pius X. bei der Thronbesteigung.

Rom, 4. Oktober 1903. Venerabilibus fratribus patriarchis primatibus archiepiscopis episcopis aliisque locorum ordinariis pacem et communionem cum apostolica sede habentibus

Pius PP. X.

Venerabiles fratres salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.

E supremi apostolatus cathedra, ad quam, consilio Dei inscrutabili, evecti fuimus, vobis primum eloquuturos, nihil attinet commemorare quibus Nos lacrymis magnisque precibus formidolosum hoc Pontificatus onus depellere a Nobis conati simus. Videmur equidem Nobis, etsi omnino meritis. impares, convertere in rem Nostram posse quae Anselmus, vir sanctissimus, querebatur quum, adversans et repugnans, coactus est honorem episcopatus suscipere. Etenim quae ille moeroris indicia pro se afferebat, eadem et Nobis proferre licet, ut ostendamus quo animo, qua voluntate Christi gregis pascendi gravissimum officii munus exceperimus. Testantur, sic ille 1), lacrymae meae et voces et rugitus a gemitu cordis mei, quales

*) Darin hatte sich der Premierminister nach den handelspolitischen Plänen Deutschlands gegen Kanada erkundigt. Red.

1) Epp. 1. ш, ep. 1.

1) Ps. 72, 27.

nunquam de me, ullo dolore, memini exiisse ante diem illam, in qua sors illa gravis archiepiscopatus Cantuariae visa est super me cecidisse. Quod ignorare nequiverunt illi qui, ea die, vultum meum inspexerunt. . . Ego magis mortuo quam viventi colore similis, stupore et dolore pallebam. Huic autem de me electioni, imo violentiae, hactenus, quantum potui, servata veritate, reluctatus sum. Sed iam, velim nolim, cogor fateri quia quotidie iudicia Dei magis ac magis conatui meo resistunt, ut nullo modo videam me ea posse fugere. Unde iam, non tam hominum quam Dei, contra quam non est prudentia, victus violentiâ, hoc solo intelligo me uti debere consilio, ut, postquam oravi quantum potui, et conatus sum ut, si possibile esset, calix iste transiret a me ne biberem illum . . meum sensum et voluntatem postponens, me sensui et voluntati Dei penitus committam. || Nec plane repugnandi causae, multae et maximae, defuerunt Nobis. Praeterquam enim quod honore pontificatus, ob tenuitatem Nostram, nullo pacto Nos dignaremur; quem non moveret ei se successorem designari, qui, cum ecclesiam sex fere ac viginti annos sapientissime rexisset, tanta valuit alacritate igenii, tanto virtutum omnium splendore, ut vel adversarios in sui admirationem traduxerit et memoriam sui nominis factis praeclarissimis consecrarit? Dein, ut praetereamus cetera, terrebat Nos, quam quod maxime, ea quae modo est humani generis conditio afflictissima. Quem enim lateat, consociationem hominum gravissimo nunc, supra praeteritas aetates, atque intimo urgeri morbo; qui in dies ingravescens eamque penitus exedens ad exitium rapit? Morbus qui sit, intelligitis, Venerabiles Fratres; defectio abscessioque a Deo: quo nihil profecto cum pernicie coniunctius, secundum Prophetae dictum 1): Quia ecce, qui elongant se a te, peribunt. Tanto igitur malo, pro pontificali munere quod demandabatur, occurrendum esse Nobis videbamus; arbitrabamur enim Dei iussum ad Nos pertinere: Ecce constitui te hodie super gentes et super regna, ut evellas et destruas, et aedifices et plantes 2); verum conscii Nobis infirmitatis Nostrae, negotium, quod nihil simul haberet morae et difficultatis plurimum, suscipere verebamur. || Attamen, quoniam numini divino placuit humilitatem Nostram ad hanc amplitudinem potestatis provehere; erigimus animum in eo qui Nos confortat, Deique virtute freti manum operi admoventes in gerendo pontificatu hoc unum declaramus propositum esse Nobis instaurare omnia in Christo 3), ut videlicet sit omnia et in omnibus Christus 4). Erunt profecto qui, divina humanis metientes, quae Nostra sit animi mens rimari nitantur atque ad terrenos usus partiumque studia detorquere.

His ut inanem

2) Jer. 1, 10.

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3) Eph. 1, 10.

4) Col. 3, 11.

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