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rians, a circumstance which has given me no small degree of pleasure.
A few years ago all architecture not Grecian was, by the vulgar and many above the vulgar, called gothic. Since the year 1771, more correct ideas have begun to prevail, and it
though the different species of it vary according to the nations by whom it has been adopted. Who the Goths were may be learnt from Mr. Pinkerton's elaborate and convincing Essay on that nation. The intention which I have at present, is to promote the study and practice of that has been proved by many men of species of architecture which is pecularly called English, and which took its rise in this nation about the reign of Stephen or Henry the second, judging it not only the most beautiful but the best adapted for convenience, both in sacred and civil architecture, and The origin of the English is dated because I think the Grecian is neither capable of calling forth such exertions of genius, so pleasing to the eye, nor so well suited to the uses for which it is intended.
deep research and judgment, that three different stiles are found in this nation, the Saxon, the Norman, whose pillars and arches are circular and heavy, and the English, whose pillars are slender and arches pointed.
from the reign of Henry the 2d, for at that period the circular arch was entirely disused, and the pointed one become general. It continued in its pure and simple state till the reign of The origin of the architecture pecu- Edward the 3d, when a more ornaliar to this country is not difficult to mented stile began to prevail, of find out, for when the Saxons settled which the first specimens are to be here they found many buildings left found in the works of William of by the Romans; the temples they Wykeham, the illustrious founder of converted into churches, of the for- Winchester school, and New College, tresses some they destroyed, and Oxford. This stile has been denomi built others after the Roman me- nated the pure, and the former the thod; by degrees they adorned the early gothic, for which we ought to simplicity of the Roman arch and substitute the word English. The pillar, with many grotesque orna- sepulchral chapel of Henry the 4th, ments, though their successors (the in Canterbury cathedral, is one of the Romans) added many more, so that finest specimens of this elegant stile; in the time of Henry the 1st, rarely a and the chapel on the bridge at Wakesingle Roman arch was to be found; field, built by Edward the 4th, one of of the few they left standing, there is the latest; one addition of ornament one at Lincoln, which is the north produced another, till, in the reign of gate of the city; and twenty years Henry the 8th, the inventive and exago there was another at Canterbury, ecutive powers of our English artists which was taken down by greater became exhausted by excess of art; barbarians than the Saxons them- and at the same time the introduction selves. A few more may perhaps be of a less splendid form of worship, by found, though they are only known means of the reformation, contrito the antiquarian. buted to the decline of an art which The Saxon architecture, soon after arrived under popery at the highest the conquest, gave way to another in- state of excellence. About this time troduced by the Normans, which, too, the revival of literature, by bringthough it lasted but a short time, pro- ing back a taste for Grecian study, duced many specimens of great beau- recalled also the Grecian architecture, ty and elegance, of which the quire of which was introduced into this counCanterbury cathedral is the most ad- try by Charles the 1st and the Earl of mired. It was in this venerable pile, Arundel, so that gothic buildings in the year 1803, that the idea first were not only despised and neglected, struck me of the origin of the painted but when they stood in need of rearch, which forms the peculiarity of pairs, were injudiciously decorated the gothic or English stile, from the with splendid patches of Grecian arintersection of two circular arches: chitecture; and as the two harmoan idea which I have since found con- nize very ill together, some of our fifirmed by many profound antiqua- nest cathedrals are spoiled by this
heterogeneous mixture of things succeeded Mr. Wyat, though not which are essentially different. possessed of equal taste and judg A taste for English architecture be- ment; by whom he will be succeeded gan to revive about fifty years ago; I have yet to be informed. My next but many buildings professing to be will attempt to show the superior built in that style were English only beauty and convenience of English to in name, and in having a few pinna- Grecian architecture, and name those cles along their battlements, with books by which the study of this art something like a painted arch in their may principally be advanced. windows and doors. Of this a striking example is to be found in the new building of the Archbishop of Hartford, near Morpeth, York's palace at Bishop Thorpe, and Feb. 9, 1808. many others might be given. The Erratum in my last letter:-page most complete and judicious restorer 26, first line, for Hero read Thero of the gothic or English stile, was Mr. at Agrigentum. Essex, of Cambridge; to him has
I remain, &c.
"Nulli negabimus, nulli differemus justitiam."
DISCOURSES on the Management of lized life have introduced, in opposiINFANTS, and the Treatment of tion to those laws of nature and protheir DISEASES. Written in a plain vidence which are wisely suited to familiar style to render them intel- the exigences of our being. ligible and useful to all Mothers. By JOHN HERDMAN, M. D. Pages 300.
HIS work engages the public
The inquiries connected with this work appear to have been a favourite object of pursuit with Dr. Herdman, and he has entered upon a task by
teresting and important subjects that riety of treatises have been written can occupy the human mind. The upon the subject, there are few com care and management of infants is a paratively who have ventured to atneglected brauch of study; and in tack those deep rooted prejudices this age of retinement and luxury, the which have too long governed the greatest evils are often introduced practices of mothers, and which owe into society by the continuance of their origin chiefly to empiricism and obsolete prejudices and practices; ignorance. In this respect Dr. H. and this alarming circumstance calls has neither feared the offence or prealoud for serious reformation, and judices of mothers, but directed them that through every class in the com- to the "faithful and unerring hand of munity.
nature." But we cannot help fearing Parents are impelled by nature and with Dr. Gregory, "that this practice affection, to watch with tender and is not likely to become soon general. anxious solicitude over the health and Physicians do not concern themselves welfare of their offspring, but this with subjects of this kind, or with the anxiety is often directed to a line of regimen of mankind, unless their adconduct dangerous both in its nature vice is particularly asked. These and consequences. The laws and matters are founded on established operations of nature are extremely simple and beautiful, and providence has afforded a suitable supply to the wants of the various tribes of being that cover the earth. To man, the lord of the creation, he has not been unmindful. But man is the creature of caprice, of folly, and of fashion, which the arts and luxuries of civi
customs and prejudices, which it is difficult to conquer and dangerous to attack; nor will it ever be attempted by men who depend on the favour and caprice of the world for subsistence, and who find it their interest rather to sooth prejudices than to oppose them." If Dr. Herdman is able to withstand such obstacles he need
not dread animadversion, for his is the evidence to the savage tribes, whose cause of helpless humanity, a cause infants are by no means subject to which future generations will grate- the many diseases, and the consefully applaud and justly appreciate. quent mortality which prevail among
The work consists of two dis- civilized states. Whenever the incourses, the first of which is the most fant is allowed the free exercise of its important, and deserves the serious vital energies, and its body preserved and attentive perusal of all parents. from injurious powers, there is little The second discourse relates to the danger of disease and death." The primary diseases of the infant, and great source of all the ills of infant hugently assists the mother in under- manity is mismanagement. Ignorance, standing the cause of those diseases, false reasoning, and fancied improve which are often wrapt in obscurity. ments, have introduced a thousand Without this knowledge, it is vain to absurdities, in the dress of infants, in introduce the use of drugs, or the their food, and in the temperature to nostrums of our quacks, which have which they are exposed, as well as in long enriched the coffers of some of every other part of their managethe most ignorant and vulgar of man- ment." Again, he suffers from no kind, and which deserves the repre- less than five causes-exposure to hension of any respectable practitioner cold, from being tumbled on the nurse's knee, from friction by her The author in the first discourse rude hands, from the nature of the reprobates the implicit confidence cleansing substance immediately after which is placed in the judgment and birth, and most severely from the exopinion of midwives and nurses," coriations and inflammations, which and the mistakes which result from follow this officious cleansing of his their supposed experience, which is skin." The doctor thus very judimere repetition of the same prac- ciously shews the absurdity of this tices, be they wright or wrong," and line of conduct, in each of these parcertainly not founded in nature, but ticulars, and demonstrates that such owe their origin to ignorance and practices are not founded in nature or credulity. the reason of things.
He next proceeds to draw a com- Under the head of nursing, we parison between man and other ani- have some just censures on that ab mals, in which he closely follows the surd and unnatural practice of forcing learned Dr. Gregory upon the same children to take extraneous food subject. Instinct is considered as the against their own natural feelings. unerring principle in the manage- Nature remonstrates with the ignoment of infants; and though it may rant and unfeeling parent, but in be difficult to draw the line of distinc- vain. The child must early be cramtion between instinct and reason, med with food, and if its body is not owing to the artificial state of society, deranged, it must then have physic. yet enough is discoverable in ana- This is the uniform practice; and logy. "Where are we to find pre- professional characters are teized concepts for our guide?" says Dr. H. tinually, without being able to cen"Not in civilized society, nor even sure such practice. It is more hoamong savage nations; but among nourable, however, to remonstrate the interior animals, where the dic- plainly with parents, than sacrifice tates of nature and of instinct reign the dignity of the profession either to free and uncontrouled, and where the ignorance, or pride, or weakness every action is strictly consonant to of mankind. The doctor then exposthe nature and condition of their in- tulates with mothers." What then fant offspring." Page 15. must happen, if a mother does not Following instinct as a guide, Dr. nurse her infant? Disease must hapH describes the management of the pen. For, by so doing, she violates infant from the moment of birth, the laws and institutions of nature, He rejects almost all the common which cannot be done with impumodes of treatment and advises the nity; cannot be done without throwmother continually to consult the ing the constitution into disorder and simplicity of nature. He appeals for disease; into disease both general and UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. IX.
local; swellings, inflammations, and two discourses affords a good epitome suppurations in the breasts; milk of the whole, and with which we shall fevers and milk sores. Besides, if a conclude. "In the first of these dismother does not nurse her infant, her courses I have shewn you how to preconstitution is either so much in- serve the health of your infants; in jured that she becomes barren; or if the second, how to remove their this should not happen, she becomes diseases. The preservation of health pregnant again, and the injurious consists in preventing the operation effects of frequent child bearing with- of the causes which produce disease. out nursing are not to be told. The Attend, therefore, to the rules deliConstitution may stand it out awhile; vered in the first discourse, and prebut, at least, derangement of consti- serve the health and the life of your tution and disease will come; prema- infants, neglect them and witness ture old age and death." Page 93. their diseases and their death. The first discourse concludes by "The cure of disease comprises some just observations on the right the investigation of its exciting cause knowledge of temperature in the ma- or causes; the removal or prevention nagement of infants and of a conve- of their action; and lastly, the adminient and comfortable dress, the in- nistration of such powers as are fitted utility and injury of cradles, and the to aid the efforts of nature, in remov conduct to be observed in the progress ing their effects or in reproducing the of teething and of gradual weaning. healthful state. The discourse which Dr. Herdman, in the second dis- I have just closed is modelled on these course, enters into a particular consi- principles:-it is an attempt to found deration of the causes, symptoms, na- the treatment of infantile diseases ture, and cure of infantile diseases, upon the firm and indestructible base which arise from unnatural or impro- of a genuine philosophy." per food; and the undue operation of temperature in the following orderdisease of the stomach and bowels, of the nose, lungs, and eyes, and disease of the skin.
CONSIDERATIONS on the CAUSES, OB-
It is certainly surprising how ignorance could invent, and prejudice sanction, the unnatural custom of de- HIS is a well written pamphlet, ranging the stomach of the infant the and in every respect worthy the first moment after birth. There are name it bears. Mr. Roscoe is a deno arguments, founded upon a physio- cided enemy to the principle of perlogical basis, to establish the practice; petual war, as every reflecting man and the reasoning here employed is must be. He takes a rapid and disconclusive, and consistent with the passionate view of the events of the general economy of nature. We present war, and the successive causes know the happy. consequences that of it which have been ostensibly adresult from the child first receiving vanced. He shews that not one of only the mother's milk; and we can the reasons that have been at different say with Dr. H. that if the infant be times, considered as the occasion of properly managed, if he be not the war, now exists, and that consethrown into the state of disease, if the quently the nation might demand changes which take place in his body from its ruler a knowledge of what and in his bowels be not interrupted the grounds are upon which we are or disturbed, assuredly the meconium now contending. He sees no solid will be discharged, for the one is the objections to a peace with Bonaparte; consequence of the other." but one of his arguments upon this "As
This subject is farther illustrated by head is sufficiently fallacious. observations on some passages ex- the primary motives of the war extracted from Underwood, Moss, and pired, new ones however arose; and other writers; with a chemical analy- we next carried on the contest, besis of milk and its effects upon the cause the government with which we infant constitution. had to treat was unable to maintain
The author's recapitulation of the the accustomed relations of peace and
amity; as if the same government to us that we should relinquish or diwhich could call forth the energies of vest ourselves of any of these invaluaa nation to successful warfare, had ble treasures? If we look either to not sufficient authority to grant it re- the treaty of Amiens, the discussions pose." With all due deference to on the war in 1803, or the negocia Mr. Roscoe, we would answer cer- tions in 1806, we find no traces of any tainly not: and Mr. Roscoe need not propositions on the part of France, travel far into historical records to which could infringe in the slightest find it so. We do not, in particu- degree upon the independence, the lar, say that Bonaparte cannot main- interest, or the prosperity of this countain a peace if he made one, but to try. Even the complaints made by the general proposition we strongly the French ruler against the licenti object, that the power which calls ousness of the British press were abanforth the energies of a nation is neces- doned, and eventually formed no part sarily efficient to command them of the discussions. In the negocia into repose. Those very energies tions in 1806, we shall find, that so would themselves become the oppo- far from any concessions being resing barrier: and history is full of quired from us, every demand upon facts that prove the easiness of exeit- which we insisted as essential to the ing, but the difficulty of ruling a mul- interests of this country, was complied titude. To undam the headlong cur- with. They were, in fact, even more rent is often but a moment's labour; than complied with, and the island of but to check its course again, defies Tobago was voluntarily added by the their own concessions, the same power. The French revo- French to lution itself was an awful and la- upon the principle alleged by them, mentable proof of this. and not by our ministers, that it was a Mr. Roscoe's arguments in favour British island. Is it then in this that of a pacification with France are those we recognize any intention on the of a temperate and an enlightened part of France to encroach upon either mind. It is surely a boon worth trying our honour or our interest? or has it for; and besides, for what do we now not been on the contrary openly ascontend? The chimera of the balance serted by the present administration, of power, for the preservation of that the proffered peace was rejected, which former statesmen laboured and not because the terms were unacceparmies fought, none will be so hardy table to England, but because they as to name: allies we have none, and were unsatisfactory to Russia? If, we have no further need therefore to however, instead of acceding to just subsidize them till they find it conve- and reasonable terms of accommodanient to leave us that war is a benefit tion, we choose, through motives of to a nation no one will affirm; that animosity, of resentment, of jealousy, our commerce, our manufactures, or of pride, to continue the war, we our industry, our wealth, and our then must contend for our liberties, happiness, would be advanced by our lives, and our existence; as any peace is beyond contradiction; and individual in private life may, if he thinks proper, stake his whole fortune that we can force Bonaparte into one, with the whole continent at his beck against a bubble, and has only himself and numerous armies scattered all to blame for the result. We might over it, is a probability which nobody have continued at peace in 1803, if on the outside of Bedlam will confide we would have evacuated Malta, as we had agreed to do by the treaty of Amiens; or would even have been "If it be true," says Mr. Roscoe, satisfied by a ten years possession of it. as we are every day reminded by We might have had it in 1906, with
the cession of Hanover, Malta, and the Cape, with the possessions of the French in the East Indies, and the island of Tobago in the West, and with an acknowledged right of interference in the affairs of the continent.
the advocates for the war, that we are to contend for our constitution, our liberties, our religion, and our laws, it is only because we ourselves bring them voluntarily forwards, and submit them to the hazard of the die. At what pe riod, since the revolution in France, has the French government proposed if our connection with Russia had not