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ent about them, and content so long the years 1773 and 1774, amounted as they did not fall into the hands of to no more than 5216l. 8s. 10d. the any other power.

principal part of which consisted in wrecked goods. Their imports, during the same period, amounted to 35921. Os. id.

The inhabitants were poor and not numerous; their property consisted of a few small vessels and some negroes. Their occupations were confined to So contemptible, indeed, was this fishing, wrecking, and wood-cutting; government at that time, that the caagriculture they had none, nor did pital was taken and the governor made they conceive the country capable of prisoner, in the course of the war with it. Their only produce was fruit, with our colonies, by an American priva some yams, cassada, and potatoes: teer. The Americans committed no they raised no sheep nor horned cat- depredations upon the inhabitants, tle, yet in no country are sheep more and, after a short stay, left the island. prolific, yeaning two or three lambs The government was thereupon rein common, sometimes four, and this established, and soon after again intwice a year. terrupted by a considerable force from Possibly this account may appear the Havannah, to which the island of extraordinary to English farmers: but New-Providence, with the rest of the it is a fact, which I have well ascer- Bahamas, surrendered by capitulation tained. The mutton is inferior to in November, 1781. none; and, if the smallest attention By the subsequent treaty of peace were paid to keep the sheep within with Spain, it was agreed that these enclosures, instead of suffering them islands should be restored to Great to run at large in the woods, and to Britain. However, previous to the provide them with a little stover dur- notification of that event, a volunteering the dry season, when the herbage expedition was undertaken for their is all burnt up, they would yield con- recovery, by a spirited young partisan, siderable profit. Lieutenant-colonel Deveaux, of the They have a grass, which grows in South-Carolina militia, and Captain great luxuriance after a little moisture, Dowd, of the Ranger privateer, of and would make good hay; but, hav- St. Augustine. They sailed from ing no winter to guard against, they Florida, with a force of two armed pay no attention to it, forgetting that vessels and about fifty militia. Afthe poor animals are as destitute of ter picking up a few recruits at Eluprovision, in a hot dry season, as they thera and Harbour-island, they apwould be in a cold sharp wintry cli- proached New Providence under comate. I have seen the sheep, horses, ver of the night, took by surprise two and cattle, pawing and scraping with stout galleys that guarded the eastern their feet to get at the roots, which entrance of the harbour; and, turnthey would gnaw many inches within ing their guns against one of the forts, the sandy soil. But the truth is, I did soon drove out the troops that were not meet with a single person, in the in it. After this successful exploit, Bahamas, who had any idea of farm- a handful of men were landed, and ing, though it would richly repay the Spanish governor, with the garthem to attend to it. To return to rison, amounting to nearly 700 reguthe first settlers; their diet was chiefly lar troops, were intimidated into a fish, and even vegetables were almost capitulation, through a degree of galunknown among them. lantry and address that have seldom been equalled.

In the year 1784, there were scarcely any settlements but those of New Florida being ceded to Spain, many Providence, Eleuthera, and Harbour of the inhabitants of that province, island. The whole population then among whom were several loyal reamounted to 1722 whites, (men, fugees from Georgia and the Carolinas, women, and children,) and 2333 per- removed, in 1784, to the Bahamas, sons of colour, a great proportion with their property and slaves, thereof whom were free; and, at the ut- by doubling the population of these most, there were not 500 acres of cul- islands; and it is from that period their tivated land in all the islands. Their importance as a colony may be dated. whole export to Great Britain, during The islands were soon after purchased

Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke."

from the proprietors by government, and the learned world have established and the progress they have since made my right to promulgate; and who, is wonderful. notwithstanding my ordinary sublime There are now several merchants and extensive lights, now questions and store-keepers, whose annual ex- the propriety of affording me the ports and imports amount singly to asylum even of an humble furrow; treble and quadruple the amount of I shall, on this occasion, divest myself the whole exports and imports of the of all metaphorical images, conformyears 1773 and 1774. There is ably to the opinion I entertain of the likewise a lucrative trade carried on conception of your correspondent, with the Spaniards from Cuba and and, in the plainest language I am Hispaniola, who come over in small capable of using, strive to render myfast-sailing craft, bringing with them, self intelligible to him, in answer to besides cattle and sugars, from five to the objection he holds to my friend thirty thousand dollars in specie, in Gray's admitting me into the followeach vessel, with which they purchase ing line of his inimitable Elegy: goods to smuggle back to those islands. The average quantity of specie may be from eight to ten thousand dollars He asserts that the term furrow, in to a vessel, and seldom a week passed, its common acceptation as a trench, while I was there, but four or five of makes the line " highly absurd;" these vessels arrived: their business and gives, as his opinion, that the was done and they were gone again term formerly must have borne a difwithin a week. The trade, therefore, ferent signification. Now, Sir, in reis all ready-money to the merchant ply to this, I should think it quite and store-keeper, and it appeared to sufficient to ask him, in what quarter me, that, if the number of the mer- of the world a furrow does not break chants and stores were increased ten- the glebe? If he contends that a fold, for supplying the Spaniards, the furrow, being not only passive, but traffic thither would increase as fast, a meer vacuum, cannot on those acit being a much more convenient port counts be made an agent, even by my for the Spaniards to come to, than to influence; and that to have rendered go so far round to Jamaica, if they the sense clear, the instrument that were but sure of a market sufficient to made the furrow ought to have been supply them. substituted; his sagacity will in course The shores of the Bahama-islands persecute me to the very ditches, and abound with excellent fish; turtle is in future writers, in local descriptions, great plenty and reasonable. Indeed, will be obliged to state that certain they are the only two articles of pro- fields are divided and surrounded by vision that are so, which is so much a spade, or pick-axe; for I confiin favour of a farmer for raising and dently allege that it is just as improfattening his stock. In the woods, per to say, a ditch divides a field, as there are wild pigeons, which afford a furrow breaks the globe. Thus you amusement to those who are fond of see, Sir, I am in danger of meeting shooting; there are also wild cats and with universal rejection, unless your racoons, that do much mischief among learned friend will leave me undisthe lambs, from a want of care: the turbed in the shades below; but even racoons are generally fat, and are then I despair of his encouragement, eaten by those who are not prejudiced against them.

To the Editor of the Universal Mag.

should his influence extend to that quarter. A total annihilation therefore is the sole prospect his criticisms afford me, the dread of which will, I hope, atone for the liberty I have

AST am writing chiefly for the in- taken, in requesting you to insert this

feeble attempt to justify myself in your celebrated Magazine.

formation of one of your corspondents, whose literary attain ments may be respectable; but the I shall close my letter with a repeScope of whose comprehension is per- tition of my desire to be informed, haps too narrowly circumscribed to before my irrevocable doom is scaled coluprise the figurative ideas custom (or in plain English decided), in what

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part of the universe your correspond- endeavoured to keep up their spirits, ent ever saw or heard of a furrow and persuaded them not on any acwhich did not break the glebe?

I am, Sir,
Your very humble servant,

Air-Street, 24th Dec.

(Continued from page 489, Vol. VIII.)


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count to revolt. When having made a sudden attack and slain numbers of the enemy, they took the castle, and rejoicing in the victory, prepared for the supper, Archidamus asked them "in what stage of the business they thought that they had taken the city?" Some replied, when they made the attack; others answered, when we threw our darts into it. By no means," said he, "but when you marched that long road without Water: for a willingness to sustain labour will conquer every difficulty."

No. 7.-Aristides. RISTIDES and Themistocles having taken different sides in the republic, were of all men almost the most hostile to each other. But the king of Persia passing over into No. 10-Agesilaus at Coronea. Greece, laying hold of one another Agesilaus had nearly drawn up his and repairing to a spot out of the forces for battle at Coronea, when a city, placing their right hands toge- Pisander, the prefect of the Lacedæmessenger arrived with the news that ther, with fingers between fingers, monian fleet, had fallen, conquered they delared, that from that moment they would lay aside their enby Pharnabasus. Lest the army should mity, as long as they were at war with be seized with despondency and fear, the Persians. Having said this, they to report quite the contrary to the Agesilaus commanded the messengers raised their hands, loosened their soldiers, viz. "that the Lacedæmofingers, and leaving something as a pledge in a hole they dug in the earth, nians were victorious at sea." they returned and acted in agreemented, offered sacrifices for good news, himself, moreover, appeared crownthrough the remainder of the war. and sent portions from them to his Thus the harmony of the generals friends. The soldiers, seeing and had the principal influence in the conquest of the barbarians.


hearing these things, felt their courage renewed, and marched with great alacrity to the fight at Coronea. No. 11.-Agesilaus.

No. 8.-Archidamus. Archidamus, as he was on the next day to commence a battle in Arcadia, encouraged the Spartiatæ.* In the When Agesilaus had conquered the night he raised an altar, adorned it Athenians at Coronea, and be was with the brightest armour, and led told the enemy was flying to the two horses around it. As soon as it temple of Minerva, he replied, "Let was day, the leaders of the cohorts as many as will go off, as it would and the centurions seeing the new be hazardous to engage with those arms, the steps of two horses, and who should renew the fight in a fit the altar risen up, as it were, of its of desperation." own accord, went and reported that No. 12.-Agesilaus and Tissaphernes. Castor and Pollux were come to fight into Asia and laid waste the territoWhen Agesilaus had passed over with them. The soldiers taking courage and fired with a martial ries of the king, Tissaphernes entered spirit, fought nobly, and conquered which time he persuaded the king to into a truce for three months, during No. 9.-Archidamus. permit the Grecian cities that were Archidamus led his soldiers by their own laws. The Grecians resituated in Asia, to be governed by night against Care. The road was long, rough, and destitute of water, mained inactive for the appointed The soldiers became discontented term; but the Persians having colwith the labour and difficulties. He lected together a great force, attacked the Grecians. There was a general

the Arcadians.

* Or Lacedæmenians.

† A town in Lesser Asia.

A city in Bactia


consternation and fear. Agesilaus No. 15.-Epaminondas and Cleomled out his army with joy and a cheerful countenance, saying, "I am greatly obliged to Tissaphernes for his perjury, for he has made the Gods his own enemies, and allies to us. With such allies let us go and courageously engage in battle." The Grecians, inspirited with the words of their general, fought with the barbarians and conquered.

No. 13. Agesilaus suppresses a

Agesilaus, when a sedition broke out in Sparta, and many armed men seized the hill sacred to Issori and

Diana, near Pitance; when the

Epaminondas led the Thebans, Cleombrutus the Lacedæmonians, at the battle of Leuctra. The contest was equal. Epaminondas requested the Thebans to allow him to advance one step, and he would gain the victory. They obeyed, and were victorious. The Lacedæmonians retreated, and their king, Cleombrutus, fell in the battle.

On Cowper and Sir Philip Sydney's


YOWPER's meaning has been

misapprehended by Crito, (See

Boetians and Arcadians approached and made an incursion into the coun- Univ. Mag. for Nov. p. 412) in the try; and a great fear arose both on ac- use of tramontane and the epithet of Count of the foreign war and the civil poetic prose. The former vocable dissensions, remained himself un- signifies, without doubt, the north daunted. But as it was dangerous to wind, as your correspondent observes; attack with violence and arms those but the Italians also employ it in the who had seized the hill, and to sup- same characteristic spirit of vanity plicate would be debasing, he waved that attached to the ancient Greeks, both. He himself, singly and un- in order to denote that all northern armed, went to the hill with a firm nations were barbarians; and the and courageous countenance, and adjective which is derived from it is said, "I did not order you, my lads, thus applied by the poet.

to this hill; but go to that," pointing Neither is it Cowper's intention to to another, "go and take possession panegyrize Sir Philip Sidney's prose, of the castle and defend it." The but to satirise his poetry; which he Lacedæmonians, ignorant of his ac- archly wishes us to regard (by the quaintance with their intentions to revolt, and struck with fear, departed obedient to his commands. In the night leading off the leaders of the faction, twelve in number, one way and another, he put an end to the defection.

No. 14.-Epaminondas' permission

adjunct he has assigned to it) as exemplifying that species of style which has been not inaptly termed " prose on horseback." Another communicant (H. G.) in the same number, relative to the occurrence of furrow in Gray's elegy, in an active signification, has found in my judgment, a difficulty that does not exist; since a Epaminondas was about to lead out metonymy of the effect for the cause his phalanx at Leacha, when the is so trite in the language of pocsy, Thespians followed him with great as to require neither specimen nor reluctance. This was not concealed comment. from Epaminondas, but that the ranks might not be disturbed in the time of battle, he proclaimed, "It was permitted to all the Boeotians who were disposed to it, to leave the army." The Thespians departed with their arms. Epaminondas remained; and availing himself of the armed ranks drawn up in battle array, ready for action, gained a celebrated victory.

A city of Colia in Asia. Baotians, who lived under Mount Helicon, on the river Thespius.

Dec. 16, 1907.

D. L. S.

LETTER XIV.-On the Management
of the Affairs of the Poor.
(Concluded from p. 487, vol. VIII.)
DUT it was not families only

which lived upon the public purse; there were many of Queen Elizabeth's sturdy beggars, pretending diseases to which they were strangers, that they might live in idleness, upon the labour of others. When there was a house to receive

them, and a provision to supply their workhouses are the schools where the wants, many of them thought proper poor have their morals corrupted, by to provide for themselves. Many of congregating the idle, the drunken, the forty-seven who are now in the the infirm, the dissolute, and the house, were brought there by their prostitute, under one roof." In conown indiscretions. cluding this invective against workAt Posling they now relieve 1 in houses, it is further added, "that the 5 of their inhabitants at their own paupers feel a diminution of every houses: at Cundall, 1 in 8,9; at stimulus to industry and activity, Lympne, 1 in 9,5; Upper Hardes, whenever they enter them; and doand Horton, 1 in 34, and 35: and mestic habits, independence, the the remainder, from 1 in 10, to 1 in 17. power of being useful, and the hopes It is impossible for a stranger to of bettering their condition, are all say how this great disproportion for ever closed." It is also said, “ in arises in relieving their out-poor. pauperism, as in slavery, the degra Whether it be from any local circum- dation of character deprives the indistance, or the inattention of officers; vidual of half his worth, and if we but it is worth a serious inquiry by are to believe all we read, such is the those who are interested in it. It is infection of the air breathed in a the duty of every member in society, workhouse, that it enervates the to see that the idle and the vicious do whole man to such a degree, that he not live upon the sweat of the indus- seldom, if ever, regains his power and trious. The second table shews the exertion. The influence of this examdates of the union of the eleven pa- ple is so extensive, that it even inrishes; the medium of each rate for fects the industrious poor, by their three years; the sums saved at the listening to the detail of the waste three different periods; and the me- of the public establishment, and the diums paid by the six last parishes licence and the idleness they enjoy which united; which enabled them there. This leads them to compare to pay off in five years, the money it with their own hard fate and hard borrowed for building, buying furni- labour, and the comparison lessens in ture, utensils, and raw materials to set their sight: the value of domestic the poor to work. Facts like these, comfort and personal independence shew, that in the present state of so- insensibly diminishes in their estimaciety, not workhouses, but houses of tion: labour is no longer sweetened correction are required, to reform by the society of a wife and children, the idle and the drunken, and to convince them that they are no longer to live upon the sweat of their neigh bours.

when they are considered as a burden, and when the mind is prepared for admission into a workhouse, the useful cottager becomes a dead weight upon the public."

It is much to be doubted, whether many of those who are so loud in their I will admit for a minute that the praise of the happiness to be found in evils and the contagion of a worka cottage, have ever entered many of house, are as great and as extensive as them, or attended to the habits of the declaimers against them wish us their inhabitants; and they are as to believe, as there can be no doubt little acquainted with the rules of a of their having repeated their invecwell-regulated workhouse, where tives till they believe them themselves; several parishes are incorporated un- but still it is necessary to ask, whe der Gilbert's act. We have a proof of ther the evils and the infections this gross ignorance in an author who proceed from the very nature of the hath offered his thoughts to the pub- establishment, or from the vicious lic, who says "that each parish habits of the individuals, who are pays the same, whether they have sent there in the last stage of moral many or few paupers in their house; depravity, or from the gross neglect and this makes the officers send them or inattention of those who are apto the parish jail, when they night pointed by law to superintend them, have continued happy in their own and to restrain those flagrant abuses cottages, with a limited assistance." which they describe in such daik It hath also been asserted, that shades in their writings.

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