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late ministers, and was a very strong do every thing, that a free and indeand a very justifiable reason for the pendent member of the House can do little interest that the people took in upon such an occasion; and we trust their dismission from office. But, it will end in proper measures being when the people heard with amaze- taken, that in future the interest of the ment the speeches of Lord Henry king and his people shall not be disPetty, little did they think, that a united. very different source was open for supplying the wants of the younger branches of the royal family; and that when every person above sixty pounds a year, and every person rich or poor, who had a farthing in the funds, was contributing to make up the deficiencies, arising from the hardness of the times, a cornucopia was left behind to shower upon the princes abundance without measure.

The question before the House, introduced by Sir Francis Burdett, is of very great importance to the nation, as involving the separate interests of king and people, and the means of keeping them in future closely united: another question is likely to be soon brought forward, in which the important question of imprisoning a subject, and lettres de cachet, is likely to be again discussed. Our readers will recollect the obloquy thrown on Sir Francis Burdett for his manly attempt to prevent houses of correction being made the instruments of similar ty ranny to the ancient bastilles of France. His efforts did him the highest honour; and he acted as an independent member of the House of Com mons, and as an honest Englishman, knowing the privileges of an Englishman, derived from Magna Charta, the Habeas Corpus act, and the Bill of Rights. We mention these three standards of English liberty, because no opportunity should be lost of teaching Englishmen what their ancestors have done for them, and what base degenerate wretches those are who suffer these monuments of their fathers' zeal for honour and liberty to be impaired. In vain may Frenchmen invent delusive theories. The Englishman has something practical to refer to; but, if he permits or connives at the breach of his standard laws, and from little factious views rejoices, when his fellow subject, of whatever station he may be, is exposed to the caprices of power, he becomes unworthy of the station, in which he has been placed by Providence.

To understand this, it is requisite to have clear ideas of war and peace, and their effects. In a state of war captures from the eneiny become the property of the captors; in a state of peace property may be seized by order of the crown, to which the captors have not any right, as in the case of the Dutch frigates in the last war, and of the Spanish frigates in this. The amount of property thus seized is unknown, the application of it, except in a few instances, is unknown; but sufficient evidence was before the public, that the Duke of York, and the younger princes, had received grants of money to a very considerable amount out of this fund. The question evidently became a very serious one. For it may turn out hereafter, that a king will commit hostilities for the sake only of his private funds, whilst the nation must be at the expence of the future battles. The subject excited the attention of the representative of Westminster, of him, who was sent into parliament by the citizens, without any expence to himself, and who may, therefore, strictly and properly be called, the man of the people. He moved for papers, relative to the amount of this property and its application, which led to a slight discussion on the rights of the admiralty, and the rights of the crown. His request was only in part granted, and papers relative to the amount of the property were allowed to be brought into the house. It remains to be seen, what will be the end of the enquiry. There cannot be a doubt, that Sir Francis Burdett will since that time, that they were not


From the efforts of Sir Francis Burdett, an enquiry was instituted into the conduct of the house of correction in Cold Bath Fields; and from the committee appointed for this purpose, worthy baronet was carefully excluded. Abuses were declared by this committee to exist in this prison; but rumours have reached the public

rectified. Visits have been made by witnesses have been examined, and it the grand jury, and lately it seems, is not at all unlikely that another that a grand jury, on visiting the pri- month will elapse, before the subject son, found considerable cause of com- is brought to a final decision. Much plaint; so much so, that they have pre- may undoubtedly be said on both sented a petition to the House of Com- sides, on the propriety of not printing mons on the subject. This petition the evidence till the whole has been was brought in by Mr. Sheridan, and gone through; as in many cases it may after some objection in point of form, be proper to keep the witnesses apart: it was withdrawn, and was brought but in a trial of this nature, it is imposin the next day, and ordered to lie on sible that any evidence should be the table. The merits of the petition given which will not be known to the will be hereafter examined. It com- other witnesses, and of course we see plains among other things, that per- no impropriety in laying the daily sons were sent to solitary confinement transactions before the public, which in this prison, against whom no crime is not obviated by the superior advanhad been substantiated; and this, we tages attending publicity. The great apprehend, without mentioning the point, however, would be to shorten other matters, some of which are very the proceedings, and this might be atrocious, is of sufficient importance done without inconvenience to either to claim the utmost attention of the the court or the parties at issue. legislature. The petition is accom- But it is now time to look to the panied by a letter from Sheriff Phil- state of affairs on the continent; and lips to the magistrates on the subject the attention is drawn to two king of this prison; and we may congratu- doms, one fallen, the other falling. late the public on the whole matter, The King of Sweden is known more being now likely to be discussed with- by the vigour of his writings than that out that party agitation, in which the of his troops. His manifestos proformer enquiry was involved; and claimed him to be the champion of with a regard to the liberty of the sovereigns, and his conduct lost him subject, to which the haughty and the affection of his subjects in Pomeoverbearing spirit of the late unfortu- rania. Deprived of his German donate Mr. Pitt was so great a stranger. minions, he made his escape from The result of the orders of council, Stralsund; and found on his return to relative to commerce, is not yet clearly Sweden, that with his people the fate perceived. Some few attempts to pe- of the people was of as great importtition for peace have been made; but ance, as in the royal breast the fate of the general opinion is, that this is not sovereigns. It is in vain to dissemble the time, and that we must stay to see this matter. Men, according to their what turn the war will take, and what stations in life, will form different prospect there is of ministers entering prejudices: but they are very much into a negociation. The petitions of misguided, if they make their own the Irish for the emancipation of the prejudices the standard of other mens' Catholics are increasing in number, opinions. The King of Sweden rushed and with them the liberal spirit of the into his Quixotic war, but did not protestants is rising. It is high time sufficiently reflect on the tendency of for both parties to get rid of those that war to create discussions at home, stupid prejudices, by which hypo- which it must be the interest of a decrisy and priestcraft endeavour to spotic sovereign to keep as much as keep them alienated from each oth r. possible out of sight. Louis the sixIt is too much, however, to expect teenth fell into a similar error. With that their petitions will be granted a view to injure Great Britain he sent during this session.

his soldiers to range with those who The trial of General Whitelocke fought for liberty and independence. would have excited much of the pub- It was natural, that the French soldiers lic attention, if the new regulations should bring home with them sentiintroduced into this country had not ments, to which their breasts had hiconfined the detail of it to the know- therto been strangers. The King of ledge of a very few auditors. The Sweden did not range his soldiers in process is extremely slow. Very few the same manner; but the very colliUNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. IX.


sion brought to their minds what the internal government of the counSweden once was, and what cause try; but our intelligence is too little they were now opposing. to be depended upon, to ascertain the The loss of Pomerania has naturally real state of the country. The Queen made the subjects of Sweden look a of Etruria, it is still said, is to be a little more attentively into their own sovereign in Portugal, and part is to government; and however we may be given up to Spain; but the whole applaud the valour, firmness, and he- is conjecture, and awaits the decision roism of the king, they will enquire to of the mighty monarch, in whose acwhat purpose this valour, firmness, tual possession the country now is. In and heroism tend; and in what man- the mean time, orders against the ner and to what degree they are in- English and their property are exeterested in their king's quarrel. To cuted with the utmost rigour. sharpen their wits upon this subject, Of Spain, we know little. We canthe Russians are hanging over them not doubt, that the French influence on the south-east, and by the latest predominates, and that the troops of accounts have actually declared war. France can execute any purpose. BeA very considerable force is in Rus- fore the summer the fate of that kingsian Finland; and news is daily ex- dom will be determined. The Dutch, pected, that the Russians have en- under their sovereign Louis, are latered Swedish Finland, and it is not at menting the extinction of commerce, all improbable that they will have as they enter heartily into the new deoverrun that wild and inhospitable crees: and the Danes are preparing country before sufficient troops can vigorously to exercise their hatred arrive to resist them. It is, we fear, against England, not alarmed by the loss too true also, that Denmark has raised of their West India islands, of which we a considerable force in Norway; and have taken possession. Russia seems it is expected, that as soon as the to be more and more determined to news arrived at Copenhagen that the shew the English how much she reRussians had entered Swedish Fin- sents their languor in the former conland, war will be declared by the test, and how much determined she is Danes against Sweden, and a diver to assist in rescuing the continent sion will be made from Norway to co- from what is called our maritime ty operate with one from the north of ranny. Her attack on Sweden is eviDenmark. The valorous King of dently from the reluctance of that Sweden was at Stockholm when the country to enter into the general conaccount of the Russian war reached federacy; and it is melancholy to reStockholm: he will now learn his real flect, that the only country which re state in his kingdom. One thing is in mains in alliance with us is so situated his favour: the Swedes are a brave that we cannot send any troops to its people; and whatever cause of disgust assistance, till the enemy has rendered they may have at late proceedings, it every exertion on our part unavailing. is possible that they will rise with Besides, there is too great. reason to energy to maintain their indepen- believe, that Russia is engaged with dence. The conflict is, however, a Persia and France in some meditated doubtful one; and we cannot but be attack upon our East Indian territo apprehensive that it will end in the ries. Such is the result of our mad sovereign's becoming either more un- and injudicious interference with the der the restraint of his subjects at French revolution. home, or placed in a very humiliating In the midst of all the tumults and situation, with respect to his adjacent alarms, France sits perfectly quiet and neighbours. easy, fearless of any attack, indifferent The fallen kingdom of Portugal has to the moves of Great Britain, and not been disposed of. Rumours of raising conscripts to take possession insurrections turned out either to be of new territories, and to bring back not true, or not true to any great ex- an increase of wealth into their own tent. The French have as complete country. No relaxation has appeared possession of Portugal as we have of in the regulations against commerce: Madeira. As yet, it does not appear but preparations are said to be making that they have made any alterations in in all the ports to rear ships for ano


ther attempt at the mastery of the sea. by no means set at rest on the slave A squadron has escaped from ore of trade question. their ports in spite of our blockade; In the House of Commons, Mr. the cause of our neglect remains to be Ponsonby introduced his promised discovered. To what part of the motion for papers relative to the Coworld they are bound it is not known; penhagen business, on the 3d of Febut it cannot be doubted, that some of bruary, stating, that his object was to our numerous squadrons will give a ascertain how far the ministers were good account of thein. The sove- justifiable in advising the attack on reign of France is in his capital, mak- Copenhagen; an attack which he coning regulations for all his dominions ceived to be repugnant to the honour and dependencies, and we should not and integrity of the king, the moral be surprised if his squadron is to an- character of the people, and the true nex Florida to his imperial crown. dignity of the crown. This subject America has taken active measures, required a view of the three distinct and such as it is perfectly justified in relations of Denmark, Russia, and doing. What the arrival of our ac- France. Of Denmark, as involving credited agent, Mr. Rose, may affect its disposition towards this country has not yet transpired. As the French for some time previous to the attack. and English seem to be united in their Of Russia, to discover whether she endeavours to cut up commerce by was so completely abandoned to French the roots, all that the Americans can councils, as to confederate with them do is to put an end entirely to all com- in forcing the Danish fleet to act merce with Europe, and thus free against us. Of France, to ascertain themselves from the vexations which what means she had to compel Denmust attend the arrival of their ships mark to depart from her system of neuin Europe. Enough of the world is trality. As the king's speech menopen to their exertions, in spite of the tioned a recollection of the hostile bickerings of Europeans: but it is not confederacy, in which Denmark was kely that the country will persist in engaged against this country at the any firm measures. They seem not to close of the late war, he should move dread a war with us, from their sup- for various papers relative to that subposed power to harrass us more in Ca- ject. He should require also papers, if nada and Nova Scotia, than we can any there were in office, relative to the possibly do them by our maritime state of Denmark and its preparations code; and in this they seem to be jus- for war. But he anticipated, that hified by every view of the subject. If there were none; as Denmark had at Bonaparte should take possession of that time two millions of money inFlorida, the United States will have vested in cargoes in our ports, and two very disagreeable neighbours; there was not the slighest appearance but it cannot last for any great length of a wish to act against us. As to the of time, as the increasing population means of France to compel the Danes, of America will soon defy all that Eu- that must require an examination of rope can bring against it. Of the the power of the two countries, of the middle of America and the Brazils we want of maritime force in the French, know little. The French laugh, and and of the physical strength of the with great reason, at our congratula- Danes, from the position of their cations on the escape of the Prince of pital in an island in the Baltic. As to Portugal to the Brazils: we may ex- Russia, he observed, that on the arripect in a very short time to know in val of the news from Tilsit, nothing what manner he has been received. was talked of but immediate hostilities What Liniers will do with the south on the part of Russia: yet its fleets of the Plata we are yet to learn. It is were permitted to range at liberty, said that we have not given up the whilst those of neutral Denmark were idea of an expedition to that quarter; to be attacked and seized. Hence and if we were to seize again on Monte was evidence, that the pretended seVideo, and be content with allowing cret articles were not the primary independence to the south of La Plata, cause of the armament against Denwe might make that country still very mark. flere he took a view of the advantageous to Britain. Jamaica is conferences between our minister at

Petersburgh and the Russian cabinet, ing a fleet into the Tagus, and the exand specified the papers he should pedition against Madeira. want to make this subject clear; con- Whatever might be the result of the cluding, that upon the whole, the debate, he felt confident, he said, measure was every way censurable, as that the country approved of the conto the attack itself, or the manner in duct of ministers, as it added a fleet which it had been followed up. It is to the force of this country, and dea monstrous doctrine, that statesmen ducted as much from Bonaparte. His are discharged from the changeless projects against commerce he would and eternal laws of morality, which find to be vain and idle, and the mea Providence has prescribed for the rule sures taken by his Majesty's ministers, of nations. History in glowing co- would shew him that they were alive lours shews the folly of such maxims, to all his attempts, and would at any We departed from these rules, and rate take care that he should not, lost America: France interfered, and through their negligence or miscon its royal family was annihilated: Po- duct, obtain a fleet to invade this land was partitioned out, but Prussia country. Mr. Windham termed the has lost its share of the spoils, and foregoing speech, mere insanity and Austria and Russia have been hum- stage declamation. The ruin of Cobled. This country, for the first time, penhagen, he said, would serve as an has entered into a similar species of eternal monument of injustice, and plunder with the last. It is therefore an eternal provocation to the resent a great national question; and all sides ment of the Danes. When the preof the House must be desirous of that sent ministers were no longer heard complete information by which its merits may be ascertained.

of, cared for, or thought of, this abandoned expedition would entail dis Mr. Canning began with a sneer on honour and calamity upon Great the late ministers for their achieve- Britain. But the worst effect of this ments whilst in office. He then de- ill-fated expedition was the influence nied that Denmark was to be consi- it had upon our own moral character, dered as a power friendly to us: and the loss of those principles for which he asserted, that that country had this nation was famed. For the sake shewn no jealousy of France, but of the country and for his own sake much of England. He asserted from individually, he completely disavowed our minister's account, that all the any part in this Danish, or in the departments of the Danish govern- Spanish war. From Denmark we had ment were filled with persons attached obtained ships, and from Spain dolto the French interest. The seizure lars; but he really wished, that the of the Danish fleet he allowed to be a country would disclaim all share in barsh measure, but not so harsh as the profit of both. Mr. Milnes acthe attack on the Turkish fleet. It cused the opposition, of preferring was incredible, he said, that Denmark the interest of every country to their could defend itself against France: own, and of giving full credit to Boand, if we had adopted milder mea- naparte, when they omitted no op sures, we must have been at war with portunity of calling in question the that country. He then vindicated the veracity of their own sovereign, and policy of not attacking Russia, as long his ministers. Some other personal as there was a hope of bringing back allusions occasioned this gentleman to the emperor to our interest. That be called to order, and nothing indeed court had been in a great degree ali- that he said was worth recording. enated from us by the neglect of as- Mr. Bathurst contended, that the sistance in the war: but it is certain, house would be lost to a sense of its that this alienation was not increased duty, if it did not make the enquiry, by the news from Denmark. Mr. Can- The language of ministers was, that ping allowed, that the general princi- they had achieved a splendid ac ples of morality ought to be revered, but tion, and therefore that every thing he contended against a very rigid ap- was right; but it struck him as someplication of them in the present state what singular, that while they with of Europe: and he brought, as proofs, held all information respecting the the actions of the late ministry in send- late expedition, they had not the

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