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N'LII.-Vol. IX.]

For MARCH, 1808.


Ve shall never envy the honours which wit and learning obtain in any other cause, if we can be numbered among.the writers who have giveu ardour to virtue, and confidence to truth."-DR. JOHNSON.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCIIES. JOHN WHITELOCKE. West Indies: it remained some time O proceres censore opus est, an ha- among the Windward islands, when ruspice nobis ?

it was sent down to Jamaica. N whatever way a man becomes Mr. Whitelocke's promotion was

notorious he becomes an object not very rapid, for in the year 1787 of curiosity. The name of Mr. he was only a lieutenant in the army, Whitelocke, which, but for his con- and then quartered at Chatham, duct at Buenos Ayres, might have where he held some kind of garrison been contined to the pages of the army rank in the depot. At this period list, and the immediate circle of his captain Lane was senior officer, Mr. friends, is now spread over the whole Brownrigg was second, and Mr. kingdom, and inquiry is on tip toe to Whitelocke third in rank. It was learn something of his history. To about this time that he married a sis. gratity this eagerness is the object of ter of Mr. Lewis, the present first the present memoir.

clerk in the war department, another Mr. Whitelocke can boast no il. sister at the same time being married lustrious line of ancestry, and had to Mr. Brownrigg. bis career been glorious, this would At the breaking out of the late war bare added rather than detracted from in 1793, we find him Lieutenant Cohis merit. His father was employed lonel of the 13th regiment of foot, and in some domestic or confidential situa- then at Jamaica with his regiment. tion about the person of the Earl of Previously to this the disturbances in Aylesbury, and his lordship, from re. St. Domingo had obliged General gard to his services, extended his pro- Williamson, the governor of Jamaitection to bis son,

ca, to be much on the alert, and had John Whitelocke was born about even induced him to keep the troops the year 1700, and received a gram- in a state of readiness for service, aş mar school education at the town of several deputations had been sent to Marlborough; he was afterwards him from St. Domingo, requesting

to town and placed at a mili- military assistance. lary academy in the neighbourhood While waiting for orders from of Chelsea, then kept by vir. Lochee. England the troops were appointed Flere he remained till 1777, when for the expedicion, and the command the Earl of Aylesbury procured him was given to Lieutenant Colonel a pair of colours in the 14th regi- Whitelocke, who sailed from Jament. This regiment was then quar- maica with a force of about 700 men fered in Chatham barracks, and here under the protection of Commodore be formed some of those connections Ford's squadron, in order to proceed that were afterwards of service to to Jeremie in St. Domingo to give him, particularly with the present protection to the unfortunate inhabit. Quarter Master General Brownrigg, ants, who were suffering under all the who was then a lieutenant, and afier- borrors of civil commotion, and of the

an adjutant in the same regi- insurrection of the slaves. ment. The regiment remained in We shall not here detail the operaEngland till the early part of the year tions that took place against St. Do. 2780), when it was ordered to the mingo, as that has been already largeUNIVERSAL MAO, VOL. IX.

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ly done in Vol. II. of the Universal fall; leaving to you the choice of Magazine, p.p. 106 et seq. 205 et arms, either on foot or on horseback. seq. One event, however, we will Your situation as my enemy, on the venture to re-capitulate, as it involved part of your country, did not give you Colonel Whitelöcke in much oblo- a right to offer me a personal insult, quy at the time, and in our opinion, and as a private person I ask satissets the noble disinterestedness of an faction for an injury done me by an enemy in an amiable light.

individual." The speedy possession of Port au

Colonel Whitelocke, however, did Prince, the capital of the colony, was not accept the challenge, and we are deemed a matter of much import at a loss to conceive how he could ance: and the Colonel, therefore, justify the action in his own breast, was induced to make some primary or at least, the declining its conseattempt for its surrender without quences. It may be said that in war waiting for reinforcements, and for all stratagems are fair : so they are: this purpose he made the offer of a but this was an insult, not a stratasum of money to the officer com- gem : and it was such an insult as no manding

truly dignified mind would offer. This general officer, named La

Another, and more successful atyeaux, was of the ancient Noblesse, tack took place about this time under and though of small fortune had been the auspices of Colonel Whitelocke, long in the royal army, and even com- who, bearing that Rigaud, a Mulatto manded a troop of dragoons, previous Chief intended to make an attack to the revolution. Sonie bave blamed with 1,500 men on the post of Colonel Whitelocke for making this L'Acul de Leogagne, sent out a de atteinpt, and for improperly suppo- tachment of 400 men under Baron de sing ihat the General could be Montalembert to intercept them. bribed; others have asserted that his

Oiher military operations took orders were ili properly executed, and place, in which Colonel Whitelocke that it was merely the fear ot disco- was concerned, and in which much very induced the General to refuse, commendation was bestowed upon by which he obtained additional con- bis services by General White, and fidence from, and additional respect

he returned to England with dis. in the republican army; however, it patches on the 16th of July, 1794. certainly appears that an officer was

Atier so long an absence it is natusent with a flag of truce, bearing a


to suppose he might wish for some letter in' which ihere was an offer of interval of repose and domestic com. 5,000). to surrender the place. La fort; and we do not therefore tind veaux having read the letter, asked that be proceeded again on foreign the officer, to declare upon his ho- service; but having some interest by nour, if he knew what it contained;

his matrimonial connections, he was the officer having assured him he did soon placed upon the home staff, he pot, Laveaux told him it was well, got the rank of Brigadier General, as otherwise he would have ordered and afterwards became successively him to have been instantly hanged.

Major and Lieutenant General, with The letter was then read to those of foot. - About the year 1797 he was

the colonelcy of the sgth regiment who were present, and Laveaux is appointed second in command at stated to have given this answer.

Portsmouth, and in 1800 had the com You have endeavoured to dis- mand of the depot at Carisbrooke, in honour me in the eyes of my troops, the Isle of Wight, conferred upon by supposing me so vile, so' base, and him; a trust of much exertion and flagitious, as to be capable of betray, considerable responsibility. ing my trust for a bribe; this is an af- When we considered the situafront for which you owe me personal tion in which Mr. Whitelocke lately satisfaction, and 'I demand it in the stood, we necessarily felt it a dename of Honour. Wherefore, pre- licate and difficult task to parrate vious to any general action, I offer the circumstances of his life; for you single combat, until one of us though we bave, from every principle

of candour and humanity, forborne to Whitelocke's career which has made give currency to a thousand reports him notorious. that are in circulation against him, The business of South America yet we hold a part of justice to de- must exhibit a strange appearance to clare, that there was perhaps no of the world, and will be regarded with ficer of rank in the British army who stranger feelings by posteriry. Oce was so universally spoken of without officer tried by a court martial for esteem. In every command, and in garning the conquest, and another for every situation which he has held, losing it! The footing which bad his conduct has been such as to calí been made on the banks of the Plata forth no sentiments of regard to- by Sir Home Popham and General wards him. It will doubiless be Beresford was to be secured and exurged, that every man is exposed to tended by subsequent arinies, and

the insinuations ot malice, and the al- General Wbitelocke sailed to take : legations of falsehood; and that he the command of these in 1807. Of

whose duty it is to enforce the duty an expedition which has eventually of others, must otien appear harsh been so minutely investigated, and when he is compelled to run counter detailed to the public in such a vato individual feelings and inclinations, riety of ways, it will not be expected All this is true; but it must at the that we should say much. The same time be remembered, that causes of the failure are now fully Mr Whitelocke has not been alone illustrated; to recapitulate even the in his stations of responsibility; and heads of them would demand a that many are the generals in our greater portion of space than the army, who know at once to win the pages of a Magazine can allot : and affections of those whom they com- to garble them in a disjointed and inmand, and yet to enforce á strict accurate manner would be to delide obedience. In fact, no man is uni- our readers with a shew of informaversally reprobated without being, in tion without the substance. Those some respect, really culpable. The who are anxious upon the subject, writer of this article has had opportu- (and what Englishman is not ?) will nities of conversing with officers of do well to peruse the two octavo all ranks in the army, and he can volumes of the trial as taken down truly affirm, that he never heard and published by Mr. Gurney: we Mr. Wbitelocke's coupled shall content ourselves by observing, with the language of praise, in their that the expedition having completemouths. We are bound to say thus ly tailed, in consequence of a most much, because we do not wish to shameful and infanious line of conmake the pages of the Universal duct on the part of the commander, Magazine subservient to courtly arti- in-chief of that expedition, General fices; or to salve over with the Whitelocke was put under an arrest honied words of adulation the sores on the 9th of November last, and of any man. All truth is valuable; afterwards tried on the following but all moral truth inestimably so. charges : Biography, which ought to give the First Charge-That Lieutenant Gevery man, is false to her highest trust neral Whitelocke, having received inwhen she prevaricates ; and with the structions fron, his Majesty's princisame feeling generosity that we will pal secretary of state, to proceed for record, and have recorded, the vir- the reduction of the province of Buetues of our contemporaries, with the nos Ayres, pursued measures ill-calsame manly independence will we culated to facilitate that conquest; proclaim their errors when they come that when the Spanish commander before us. We are actuated by no had shewn such symptoms of a dispoparty feelings of any description : we sition to treat, as to express a desire to

our course straight forward, communicate with Major General anxious for applause, but determined Gower, the second in command, upto deserve it by a fair character.

on the subject of terms, the aid Lieu. We shall now proceed to an teuant General Whitelocke did reaccount of the only action in Mr. turn a message, in which he demand


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ed, amongst other articles, the sure operate with or support the different render of all persons holding civil divisions of the arıny under his coinoffices in the government of Buenos mand, when engaged with the enemy Ayres, as pri-oners of war. That the in the streets of Buenos Ayres, on said Lieutenant General Whitelocke, the 3th of July, 1807; whereby those in making such an otten ive and unu- troops, after having encountered and sual denand, tending to exasperate surmounted a constant and well-dithe inhabitants of Buenos Ayres, to rected fire, and having effected the produce and encourage a spirit of re- purport of their orders, were left withsistance to his Majesty's arms, to ex- out aid and support, or further orders; clude the hope of amicable accommo- and considerable detachments, under dation, and to increase the difficulties Lieutenant Colonel Duft and Brigaof the service with which he was en- dier General Craufurd, were thereby trusted, acted in a manner unbecom- compelled to surrender; such conduct ing his duty as an officer, prejudicial on the part of Lieutenant General to military discipline, and contrary to Whitelocke, tending to the defeat and the articles of war.

dishonour of his Majesty's armis, to Second Charge–That the said Lieu. lessen the confidence of the troops in tenant General Whitelocke, after the the skill and courage of their ofticers, landing of the troops at Ensanada, being unbecoming and disgraceful to and during the march from thence to his character as an officer, prejudicial the town of Buenos Ayres, did not to good order and military disciplive, make the military arrangements best and contrary to the articles of war. calculated to insure the success of his

Fourth Charge-That the said Lieuoperations against the town; and that tenant General Whitelocke, subsehaving known, previously to his at- quently to the attack upon the town tack upon the town of Buenos Ayres, of Buenos Ayres, and at a time when upon the 5th of July, 1807, as ap- the troops under bis command were pears from his dispatch of the 10th of in possession of posts on each flank of July, that the enemy meant to occupy the town, and of the principal arseual the flat roofs of the house; he did, with a communication open to the nevertheless, in the said attack, di- Acet, and having an effective force of vide his forces into several brigades about 5000 men, did enter into and and parts, and ordered the whole to finally concluded a treaty with the be unloaded, and no firing to be per- enemy, whereby he acknowledges, mitted on any account; and under in the public dispatch of the both of this order to march into the principal July, 1807, that he resolved to forestreets of the town, unprovided with


the advantages which the bravery proper and sufficient means for force of his troops had obtained, and which ing: the barricadoes, whereby the advantages had cost him about 2500 troops were unnecessarily exposed to men in killed, wounded, and pri destruction, without the possibility of soners;" and by such treaty he unne; making etlectual opposition; such cessarily and shamefully surrendered conduct betraying great professional all such advantages, totally evacuated incapacity on the part of the said Lieu- the town of Buenos Ayres, and contenant General Whitelocke, tending sented to deliver, and did shamefully to lessen the confidence of the troops abandon and deliver up to the enemy in the judgment of their officers, be the strong fortress of Monte Video, ing derogatory to the honour of bis wbich had been committed to his Majesty's arms, contrary to his duty charge, and which, at the period of as an officer, prejudicial to good order the treaty and abandonnent, was and military discipline, and contrary well and sufficiently garrisoned and to the articles of war.

provided against attack, and which Third Charge–That the said Lieu- was not, at such period, in a state of tenant General Whitelocke did not blockade or siege; such conduct, on make, although it was in his power, the part of the said Lieutenant Gene's any effectual attempt, by his own per- ral Whitelocke, tending to the dishosonal exertion, or otherwise, to co- nour of his Majesty's arins, and being

contrary to his duty as an officer, pre- behaviour on fornier occasions, like a judicial to good order, and military criminal at the Old Bailey, who calls discipline, and contrary to the articles witnesses to prove that there was of war.

a time when he had not got the A warrant was accordingly issued knack of stealing: We thought it, for the assembling of a court-martial, however, somewhat singular, that which was held at Chelsea Hospital, be should refer to his conduct in commencing Thursday, January 28, St. Domingo as the herald of his and continuing, by adjournment, till fair name; had he forgotten the Tuesday, March 15, 1808. Of this, soldier-like, the manly, the brave at. Court Sir William Medows was pre- tempt to bribe Laveaux ? Lieutenant sident, and the Hon. Richard Ryder, General White too was called in to Judge Advocate. The proceedings speak to his gallantry at Port au were minute and voluminous; every Prince ; and his eulogium being githing was brought forward that could ven, Mr. Whitelocke then addressed in any manner be connected with the the Court as follows: trial; the examinations of the wit

“ Mr. President, and Gentlemen nesses occupied nine and twenty days, of the Court, here I close my eviand the most patient and persevering dence; it only remains for me to attention was bestowed by the Court. thank the Court for their patient at. All this tedious minuteness, this legal tention to my detence. I am satisfied protraction, may speak well for our that no prejudices can operate here to cautious equity; but speaks badly for our military character. Who would whatever they may have been, will

my disadvantage; and that my errors, not wish for a Roman or Spartan pe- be considered by this Court with imriod, when such notorious and obvi, partiality, with candour, and, if it be ous delinquency becomes hemmed in with the forms of a court of justice, their judgment I subunit my hononr,

necessary, even vuth indulgence. To and the instantaneous feelings of re- and character, and every thing dear to tributive morality, the quick acknow

me in life.” ledgment of guili, are suffered to evaporate and be frittered away by a

The Judge Advocate immediately poor adherence to forms and modes? afterwards addressed the Court in a

prompt decision of a Roman tri- correct and argumentative speech. bunal would have been more conso. He replied, in particular, to some inhant to justice and the wounded ho. sinuations that had escaped Mr. nour of military glory.

Whitelocke, respecting the manner The evidence for the prosecution in which he had exercised his funcbeing closed, Mr. Whitelocke en tions, and shewed, that he had, in tered upon his defence, which he read reality, acted with every gentlemanly from a written paper." He began by and feeling reserve which his duty stating the satisfaction which we telt permitted. Mr. Whitelocke, inin being at length able to address the deed, acknowledged afterwards his Court and the mortification which he error.

We shall extract the perorihad endured, from the manner in tion of this address, which relates to which his conduct had been canvass. the allegation of Mr. Whitelocke, ed in the daily prints, and in separate that he capitulated from motives of publications, previously to his being humanity towards the prisoners'? put under arrest. He then proceeded The language is bold and energetic; to the immediate subject of enquiry the ideas such as become a Briton before the Court, premising with and had Mr. Whitelocke so thought, some observations upon the state of and acted in correspondence with the country he was sent to conquer,

his thoughts, England had been and the disposition of its inhabitants. saved from disgrace, and himself from He answered each of the charges se infamy: parately; and in which it is impossi- “ But there is another part of Geble for us to follow him through a neral Whitelocke's defence upon this hundred closely printed octavo pages. subject which I cannot pass over in He also brought testimony of his guod silence; I mean, the strong stress


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