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as the others avoided it; and his sig- Rambouillet, endeavours with much matism becoming proverbial, fur- ingenuity to defend this car, for which nished to the lyrick comic writers a it was proposed to substitute pour ce field for numerous pleasantries. The que. following is one out of many :

Esosa s'os isasin hillinón osi.

Other poets, whom we may call pangrammatists, following a dírectly contrary mode, have endeavoured to Many centuries afterwards appeared make each of their verses contain the a yet more singular poet under the whole alphabet. We have at present reign of the Emperor Severus. Nes- six of these ridiculous verses, comtor, born at Laranda, a town of Lycia, posed by 7setzes, a Greek author of composed an entire Iliad, with the the twelfth century. Similar insingular care of excluding successively stances are also to be found in the from each of the twenty-four cantos French and Latin languages. The each of the twenty-four letters of the following," says the Seigneur des alphabet. There was no A in the Accords, "is a verse that inadverfirst canto; no в in the second; and tently escaped me, in which all the so on. Nestor had a worthy imita- letters of the alphabet are contained: tor. Tryphiodorus, of whom there Qui flamboyant guidait zéphir sur ces eaux, is yet extant a small poem on the taking of Troy, composed a liprogram- A German informed me at Avig. matic odyssey; in which, as in the non, that he had also composed a Iliad of Nestor, each book was de- Latin one that had the same singulaprived of a letter. Addison, in the rity:

Spectator, has ridiculed this folly of Duc zephyre exsurgens curvum cum flaTryphiodorus with his usual plea


tibus æquor."

Some moderns have imitated these An absurdity more known, but not less ridiculous, was that of Placentius silly attempts at wit and ingenuity. and some Fabius Claudius Gordianus Fulgenothers who composed tius composed a treaty on the Ages of poems, which they called Lettrizes. the World and of Man, divided into The Pugna Porcorum (the battle of twenty-three chapters; and in each the pigs) of Placentius, who assumed chapter each letter is omitted accord- the name of Publius Porcius, contains ing to its rank in the alphabet. "The nearly three hundred and fifty verses, work," says Menage, is very ridi- and each word commences with a P. culous both in style and ideas; and the The following is an example : notes which accompany it are equally Præcelsis proavis pulehere prognate r2


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section a letter was omitted.


Father Riga, a canon of Rheims, Pectore prudenti pretateque priædi:e prisco. wrote, about five or six centuries ago, But this is nothing in comparison an abridgement of the Bible in Elegiac with Christus Crucifixus. Pierius, verse. This abridgement was divided the author of it, had the patience into twenty-three sections, and in each to compose nearly twelve hundred verses, each word of which began With these may be compared the with a c. Ex. Gr. singular affectation of Gomberville, one of the first members of the French academy, who had, says Desmaizeaux, "so furious an antipathy for the word car, that he boasted one day of having never employed it in the whole five volumes of his Polexandre.” Hence, in the comedy of the Academicians, it is he that St. Evremont makes utter the following:

Currite, Castalides, Christo comitante Ca-
Conce ebraturque cunctorum carmine cer-



Confugium collapsorum.

The epoch of these whimsical compositions was also that of the Leonine verses, thus called, according to some, from Leo, a writer of the twelfth century, who was the supposed inventor of them; but they have been found prior to this period. The Voiture, in a letter to Mademoiselle Leonine verses are Latin verses,

Que feront nous, messieurs, de car & de


which rime at the end, or at the end French. This sale produced to the Spaniards one million of francs per annum, which sum was disbursed in French commodities.

and in the middle; sometimes even
there are three rimes in the same verse.
If the following inscription on an
image of Dagobert be by a contempo-
rary author, it may be considered as
the most ancient example of the true
Leonine verse extant:

Fingitur hac specie bonitatis odore refertus,
Istius eccleste fundater, rex Dagobertus.

The epitaph on St. Edme has been frequently cited: it is indeed a rich depository of rimes:


There exists between the two powers a treaty of commerce, bearing date 1604, the occasion of which was as follows:--

The Spaniards had imposed very heavy duties, as well upon the goods France; and the latter nation in its exported for, as those imported from turn laid still more exorbitant imposts upon Spanish goods landed at Calais: Hic erat Edmundus anima cum corpore but by the treaty of commerce already mundus, mentioned, both nations agreed, that Quem non immundus potuit pervertere the duty of 30 per cent. &c. should be taken off. Under the administraBut the following is an example of tion of Colbert, the French made use mariculous patience hardly credible. of three different modes to obtain a Bernard Morlaxinsis, a monk of the participation in the silver brought in eleventh century, composed three bars and specie by the fleet and the entire books of Leonine verses with triple rimes:


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These monks were led into these absurd combinations by the example of the ancients: but they abused it ridiculously. There are many in Virgil, and other good poets. Cornua velatarum obvertimus anteunarum. I nunc et verbis virtutem illude superbis. Totaque thuriferis Penchaia pinguis arenis. These rimes, however, in Virgil, Horace, &c. were purely accidental. When Persius, in his first satire, ridicules the famous verses of Nero, Torva Minualloneis implerunt cornua bom


Et raptum vitulo caput ablatura superbo

he ridiculed equally the recurrence of
the rimes and the affectation of the

London, April 2d.


galleons from the East Indies. The first of these modes was, that of carrying the merchandises of France to Cadiz, where they were shipped in the gallcons and the fleet bound for New Spain. The second was to export similar merchandises in French vessels for all the ports of Spain, and also to send them by land carriage into the interior of that kingdom. The third mode was put into effect by the Auvergnats, Limosins, and Gascons, who annually passed into Spain, and obtaining as recompence for their working there at the lowest trades, labour small sums of money.

Such, for a considerable period, were the branches of commerce between the French and the Spanish nations; but at the commencement of the eighteenth century, the peace of Utrecht having confirmed the throne of Spain to a Prince of the House of Bourbon, the commercial relation between the two countries became considerably more important. The imports from Spain into France, at the end of the reign of Louis XIV. amounted to the sum of 17,600,000 An Account of the COMMERCE of francs, in which were included twelve FRANCE with SPAIN und POR- million, the value of dollars or piastres. At the time of the Revolution, they THE HE commercial intercourse be- amounted to 83,300,000 francs, being tween France and Spain has un- the value of merchandises only; exdergone a wonderful change since the clusive of which the piastres and fifteenth century. At that period the quadruples of gold formed a sum of Spaniards manufactured their own 62.500,000 francs. wools, and sold their cloths to the


This large quantity of gold and

ilver was not wholly the result of exist as soon as a Prince of the House cash balance due by Spain to France of Bourbon ascended the Spanish upon their mutual trattic; on the throne. At the end of Louis XIV.'s contrary, the greater part of it was reign, the commerce between France destined to pass to other nations of and Portugal was next to nothing. Europe, which had demands upon The monopoly of Portuguese trade Spain. was delivered over to England in virThe payment of the balances due tue of the treaty of Methuen 1703. by Spain to various powers was, in The imports from Portugal, at the fact, made through the medium of end of Louis XIV.'s reign, amounted Paris, in virtue of the contract entered only to 340,000 francs, and consisted into after the peace of 1783, between of various articles, especially hides in the bankers of that capital and the the hair, Brazil tobacco, olive oil, and bank of Saint Charles established at dried fruits. At the time of the RevoMadrid. In fine, in the said sum of lution, they amounted to 10,400,000 62,500,000 francs were included francs. The progress of luxury seems 15,250,000 francs, being the value to have caused this increase, which is of gold and silver brought from Cadiz about the proportion of one to thirty. by French East Indianen. By con- In effect, the articles sent to France fining ourselves therefore to the com- from Portugal consist mostly of Inparison between the importations of dian manufactures and produce. The merchandises, at the three epochs al- exports of France for Portugal, at the ready mentioned, we perceive that end of Louis XIV.'s reign, amounted at the end of Louis XIV.'s reign the to the sum of 740,000 francs, conaugmentation of Spanish goods was sisting chiefly of paper, haberdashery, in respect to those of the fifteenth woollens, &c. At the time of the -century as one is to sixteen, suppos- Revolution, their amount was coming however that the purchases of the puted at four million. The result of two nations were of equal value. The this commerce has usually been a increase of imports from Spain at the balance in favour of France of about time of the Revolution was in respect 6,400,000 francs, which is paid in to those of Louis XIV.'s time, nearly cash. as one is to four. The merchandises, whose value as already quoted, was CHARACTER of WILKES. By. the. 33,300,000 francs, formed four ABBE DE VAUXCELLES.* classes-1st, Raw materials, particu- Written in the year 1768. larly wool, ashes, &c. also beasts of ISTORY has often done justice burden, horses, mules, &c. to the to the favourites of kings: it value of twenty million. 2d, Eatables, will be well to make known a man seven million. 3d, Brandies and who has become the idol of the peowines, four million. 4th, Manufac-ple, and particularly of the English tured articles of various kinds about people. Of all modern nations, they possess the noblest character; but The exports of France for Spain at enthusiasm becomes more fatal and the end of Louis XIV.'s reign, dangerous in this country than in any amounted to twenty million francs, other, because every man is at liberty and at the time of the Revolution to to become factious.

two million.


44,400,000, thus exhibiting an aug- Wilkes knows this, and confesses mentation with respect to the se- that he would not have dared to be cond epoch of more than double. what he is had he lived in any other These exports are also divided into country. I will endeavour to depict four classes, viz. 1, manufactures, this man to you, who possesses no26,500,000 francs; 2d, raw materials, thing remarkable but his reputation, 200,000; 3d, vegetables and animals, I have known him; I have conversed eleven million; 4th, wine and brandy,

1,500,000 francs.

Some letters upon the English The ancient ties which united nation, written at this period by the France and Portugal, when the Spa- Abbé, have recently been published nish branch of the House of Austria in the French Journals, whence the was their common enemy, ceased to above is extracted.

with him; he has not suffered me to party of fanatics, who believe that in think that he is merely a fanatic for upholding him they acquit themselves liberty; and when I see with what of a debt due to their country. impudence he deceived his nation and He is about forty-two years old: braved the government, I concluded he has renounced with glory the pubthat the latter was inexpert and the lic splendour of the court to be the former easy to be seduced, since such pensionary of the people. That is a a man has become dangerous. character which the late Mr. Pitt,

His birth is obscure, and his ugli- now Lord Chatham, and Mr. Campness notorious: his portraits, which bell, chancellor of England, have also are numerous, give but a feeble idea played with success, and which they of it. He squints, and his teeth are abandoned when their fortunes were crooked; his laugh has something in- made. Wilkes will be forced to keep fernal in it: but every passion is de- it up, because he is too hateful to the picted with singular envy on his hi- king, and at the same time too dedeous countenance. He is suscepti- based, to follow their example. He ble of every sentiment, even of volup- said one day to Marmontel, that he tuousness: not indeed the most deli- would be content with the governcate, but lively. He loves the sex ment of Jamaica; and he has since greatly, and feels himself capable of said in print that he wishes to remain Toving them all except his wife. He all his life a simple citizen. His mind has employed with success every is fertile in petty resources, calculated means of quickly ruining himself. It to re-animate constantly the precais said, that when he had dissipated all rious zeal of the people: he supplies his fortune, he supported himself by by his writings the talent of speaking the funds of an hospital of which he in public, which nature has denied was governor, and the pay of a militia him: his style is clear, energetic, and regiment of which he was colonel. pure, though extremely figurative; Necessity compelled him to write; he endeavours to repair his past frivoand inclination made him a factious lity by important undertakings: he writer. This sort of celebrity flatters studies the laws; he has published an him; and an article in the newspa- Introduction to the History of Engper, speaking of Mr. Wilkes, is to land. The plan of his life is laid out him a real delight. He speaks a great to an extreme old age; but it is hardly deal of glory, and pretends that Plu- probable that his life will be happy, tarch elevates his soul and fills it with or his old age honourable. It is said vast projects. that the logic of self-interest is short: In fact, he has no other resources it is his, and his intrepidity braves than those of faction. He resembles, every event: he has behaved with in one sense, Cæsar: Cæsar was courage in several affairs of honour, forced to overthrow Rome to pay his and whoever dares attack him must debts. These sort of people have either kill him or be dishonoured by great means in popular governments. him.

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In France he would have been simply Such a man will reckon as nothing a celebrated libertine, and have ended- the repose of others: none of the voured to become a man of letters, consequences of faction surprise him: fear of the ministers would have pre- he talks coolly of a civil war, which vented any thing beyond. But he however he will never be able to prohas braved those of England: and duce. What is astonishing is, that he after being proscribed as an obscene speaks thus of himself: but what is and libellous author, he re-appeared shocking is, that his imprudence will all at once, got himself elected a discover some day that he is merely a member of parliament, had the pro- political hypocrite, who laughs at his ceedings repealed, and annihilated the cause and at his principles, who has only means left to ministers of at- the insolence to avow that he does tacking the liberty of individuals. not value either Englishmen or EngThe present fruit of these bold steps land; and he ridicules the people,. imprisonment of twenty-two whose idol he has made himself. months: but he escaped from his cre- I know not what his morals are ditors, and has formed in England a with regard to individuals. He ap

is an

pears to me capable of friendship. who waited at table, cleaned shoes, He has that part of politeness which &c. whose name was William, a weak consists in wishing to please, and in but good-tempered young man.being useful. His conversation is Goldsmith would now and then make lively and witty; but he mixes with himself merry at his expence; and it much that is disgusting. He laughs poor William generally enjoyed the loudly; he lives with fanatical citizens joke without any diminution of his who teaze him to death, and with own self-satisfaction. demagogues, the refuse of the nation.

William used to think that in his He likes much to meet with a foreigner way he was not to be out done; and of good sense, to whom he can unfold Goldsmith thought one day that he his projects, and shew himself as an would make trial of him. Accord extraordinary man. Is he such in ingly, having procured a piece of unfact? I will not endeavour to com- coloured Cheshire cheese, he rolled it pare him with any personage in his- up in the form of a candle, about an tory. He has dared to put in the inch in length, and twisting a bit of public papers a parallel of his enter- white paper to the size of a wick, he prise with that of Brutus, the liberator thrust it into one of the ends, having of Rome; and another, of his history blackened the extremity that it might (yet unfinished) with that of Hume's. have more the appearance of reality. He has often insulted this great writer, He then put it in a candlestick over who despises him, and compares him, the fire-place in the kitchen, taking not to Brutus, but to Mazaniello. care that another bit of real candle I shall say but little of his religion, of equal size should be placed by the of which he makes no mystery. He side of it in another candlestick.pretends to be an unbeliever-I know The apparatus being thus prepared, not wherefore; but this I know, that in came William from his daily task, he is impious, and often pleasantly when Goldsmith, immediately taking so, if it be possible. A fanatical wo- down the bit of candle of his own man called upon him one day from manufacture, challenged William in God, in whom she believed:-" He the following terms-" William, if does me much honor," said Wilkes, you will eat yonder piece of candle "how does he do?"

GOLDSMITH and WILLIAM, two original Anecdotes.*


(pointing to what remained on the shelf) I will eat this in my hand; but it must be done together, and Í will begin!" The challenge was accepted in the presence of the other G Milner, at Peckham, was reOLDSMITH, while with Dr. servants in the kitchen; and Goldsmith immediately began gnawing his markably cheerful both in the family candle, making sad wry faces, but not William and with the young gentlemen of the flinching from his task! school. Two instances of it have beheld with astonishment the progress been communicated to me lately, by he was making in devouring it, howan intelligent lady, the only surviving ever nauseous, but having no heart or daughter of Dr. Milner, now residing at Islington; and they are not unworthy of preservation.

There was a servant in the family,

stomach to touch his own. At last

when William saw that Goldsmith had devoured all but the last morsel, he, not willing to be out done, opened his mouth and flung his own piece down his throat in a moment! This The silliest follies of great men sudden triumph over his antagonist are interesting, and upon this principle made the kitchen ring with laughter. alone we insert the above anecdotes of Some little time after, poor William Dr. Goldsmith, Nothing but their could not help expressing his surprise veracity could entitle them to that to Goldsmith, that he had not done honour; and for that qualification as he did-swallowing so disagreeable Mr. Evans has unequivocally pledged a morsel all at once" Truly," rehimself. As such, they are additional plied Goldsmith, with great gravity, proofs of the childish character of Dr. my bit of candle was no more than Coldsmith.-Editor. a bit of very nice Cheshire cheese; and

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