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Now, had the patient either have impeded, he commanded the herald been sufficiently temperate in his to proclaim, that they should requantity and choice of food, or had frain drinking from that river, for he been in the habit of cleansing from the water had a deadly quality." They time to time the alimentary canal, the abstained from fear, and quickened necessity for powerful evacuants would their march. He pushed his rout, not have existed, and by proper ma- and fixed his tents, and then he and nagement he would in most diseases his officers, in the sight of the solhave had the greatest probability of diers, drank at the river. They all cure, and would have remained with laughed on discovering the cause of this conviction on his mind, that the deceit, and quenched their thirst "Nil tam," &c. without any apprehension.

With increasing years a natural No. 34.-Cambyses. torpor is produced, which usually ex- Cambyses besieged Pelusuim. The tends to the alimentary canal. This Egyptians made a brave resistance; we find increased in persons of seden- and shutting up the ports of Egypt, tary habits, by the determination to and drawing up their machines, they the internal surface which loads the poured from them their sharp darts, mucous glands, lines the intestines stones, and fire. Cambyses, because with a tenaceous phlegm, prevents the Egyptians worshipped such anithe action of the bile, and produces


In such circumstances the most effectual remedy is to be sought for in the deterging process recommended by our great philosopher.

mals, placed before his army, the ibis, dogs, sheep, and cats. The Egyptians suspended thowing, lest they should strike any one of the sacred animals. Thus Cambyses took Pelusuim, and advanced into Egypt.

No. 35.-Xerxes.

From the observations I have had an opportunity of making in the Xerxes had lost many Persians at course of a long life among the rich, Thermopila, on account of the narand a very extensive practice among row passes of the mountains; when the poor, I am convinced that nothing one Ephialtes, a native of Trachis, contributes more to health and longe- pointing out to him a straight path vity than proper attention to the ali- round the mountains, he sent two Inentary canal. This part nature has thousand men to come on the back subjected to our controul; of the of the Grecians, who slew all that other organs she takes charge herself. were led by Leonidas. By attention to this we may enjoy a vegete old age; by neglect and by abuse of it we may hasten premature decrepitude and death.

No. 36.-Mithridates. Mithridates was commanded by the king to slay, or to bring alive to him, Datames, who had rebelled. He himself pretended also to have revolted from the king: but Datames would not credit him till he had

On some future occasion I may enlarge upon this subject, and submit to your readers the observations I have made on the numerous spe- committed considerable devastations cies included in that class of medi- in the king's dominions. He imme cine which this great philosopher

recommends to our attention.

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diately began his depredations; he destroyed even to the ground the royal castles, burnt the villages, plundered the revenues, and carried off a great booty. He thus made a show of hostility to the king. They then both met together unarmed, to deliberate on proper measures. Mithri

toge the side of a river, the enemy ther on the spot in the night a numlving along the bank, in a hot season. ber of daggers, and hid them in difThe thirsty soldiers cast their eyes, he ferent parts of the ground, putting a observed, on the flowing water. mark on them. In the course of Lest, by drinking, they should break conversation, he by degrees led him, their ranks and their march should be as they were walking, to one place;

and when they had sufficiently talked king the head of Crassus. At this over subjects, Datames saluted him there was a general shouting and and walked off. Mithridates instant- clapping of hands. Exaithres, jumply laid hold of a poignard, and con- ing up, cried out, "I had better join cealed it under his left hand, and in these songs and chorus than with called Datames back, as if he had the tragedian." The king, being forgotten something which he ought much pleased, gave Jason a rich preto have said. When Datames re- sent, and bestowed on Exaithres the turned, pointing to one hill, he ad- honours of the country. vised him to fortify that hill; and Mithridates, stabbing Datames in the back as he turned to look at the hill, slew him.

No. 38.-Numa.

Numa, desirous of diverting the attention of the Romans from war and slaughter to peace and legislation, No. 37.-Surenas. withdrew from the city to the sacred Surenas, the general of the Par- grove of the nymph Egena: when he thians, when Crassus was retreating had spent many days there he reafter a great slaughter, and attempt- turned, bringing with him the oracles ing a march over very high grounds of the nymph, which he advised from fear that desperation would them to receive as laws. The Rourge him to renew the battle, sent an mans obeyed him. All the feasts, anbassador to him, to say, "that sacrifices, expiations, and sacred rites, the great king offered him friendship, which are in use this day are the for as he had shown the Romans his same which Numa ordained, as the bravery, he wished to give them a institutions of the nymph. proof of his humanity." Crassus, He appears to me to have been, in suspecting treachery, was not com- this respect, the rival of Minos and pliant. The soldiers, dispirited and Lycurgus. For so they, having quite worn out with fatigue, clashed learnt or pretending to have received their arms together, and compelled their laws, the former from Jupiter, him to credit the Barbarian.. Crassus the latter from Apollo, the one prereluctantly went to him on foot. Su- vailed with the Laconians, the other renas received him with great polite- with the Cretans, to adopt them. ness, and presented to him a horse No. 39.-Tarquinius. with a bridle that had a gold bit, on Tarquinius, having for a long time. which he directed him to sit. He besieged Gabii and not being able to mounted the horse; but the Barba- take it, ordered his youngest son rian, being a manager of horses, ap- Sextus to be scourged, and then sent plied the spur to it and put it on full him off as a deserter. The Gabians, speed; so that it carried Crassus into perceiving how his body was marked the midst of the Parthians. Octavius, with severe stripes, received him, an officer of Crassus, perceiving the making many and great professions trick, seized the reins; and after him of what he would do against his faPetronius, one of the Tribunes, did ther. As he carried his threats into the same; when Octavius, drawing execution, confidence was placed in his sword, slew Surenas. A Parthian him. He laid waste the lands of the on that killed Octavius; and Exaith- Romans, put the inhabitants to flight, res, another Parthian, Crassus; and, took many of them prisoners, and cutting of his head and right hand, conqueredem in many skirmishes. bore them to Herod the Great, King The Gabians, filled with admiration, of the Parthians. It happened, that invested him with the absolute comat that instant of time, the king was mand of their forces. On this he entertaining some friends, and was secretly sent a messenger to his listening, over the cup, to the trage- father, to ask him what steps he dian Thrason, of Thrallis, acting a should take? Tarquinius, happenpart in the Bacchis of Euripides. ing at that time to be in conversation The actor was reciting this verse: in his garden, struck off the heads "From the mountains we lead a new of the highest poppies, and said to "Slain heifer to the temple; a propitious the messenger, "Tell my son to do booty." the same." When he had made his report, Sextus put to death the lead


They brought in and offered to the

ing persons of Gabii, and having thus weakened and destroyed the power of the city, he delivered it into the hands of the Romans.

To be continued.]



taua e Tahete nee, eaha utou e fano mae ea pohe au. Fenua haa pao ata Tahete nee eaha utou e fano mae ea pohe au ete mae. Teee hoe te tahe henaaro ou, e fapono mae utou e te ta oa ree eáha e toe te peu ree no Bretane. E fapono mae utou. Homae hoe te peu ree no te ta parau, e te Paper, e te Ink, e te Pen, earahe noa mae te pen, te peu te peu ree eaha roa etoe te peu ree no te ta parau.


DOMARE, the King of Otaheite, who has long been in the habit of visiting, and familiarly conversing Ehoama. Terara, tera roa tu tau with, the British Missionaries at Ma- parau ea utou na. Eto utou henaaro tavai, in that island, has assiduously ete haapee ea Tahete nee. applied himself, for a considerable time, under their direction, to attain the art of writing, which at length he has acquired.

roata ea. eáu, te huru aea e muraa ebo aeta eete maetae, e mea maetae hoe te na te re, uatea roa ea u, ua faa rue te peu eno roatu. Tau parau mau te na e ene te parau haa vare e parau may roatu te na. Terara roara ua hope tau paru.

Ehoama. Eta mae utou ete parau ea ete hoe au e ta uton parau. Eaoranautonehoama, ea ora hoe au. Eaora toa hoe ta tou ea,

A letter having been sent to Pomare by the Directors of the Missionary Society, the Missionaries carefully translated it, and laid it before him. The following answer, in the Taheitan language, was composed entire ly by himself; it was then translated by the Missionaries into English, which translation was copied by the King. The annexed is an exact copy of his Na English letter, and may be considered as a literary curiosity.

The Letter in the Taheitan Language.

Matavae, Tahete, Jan. 1st, 1907.

Eaorana utou ehoama ete nohoraa ete fenua, e ete faapee ra mae ete fenua eeno nee ete fenua maamaa nee ete fenua parau eno nee ete fenua ete ore ete peu maetatae, ete fenua ete ore ete Atua mau nee, ete fenua haapao ata nee. Eaorana utou ehoama, eaora hoe au, Eaora hoe ta tou ea Jehovah.

Ehoama. Teee tau parau ea utou, eta utou parau eta mae na, eto ntou tere, eto utou henaaro. Uatea roatu eau; uatea varu váu ea, na ea Oro hopoe maore Oea e Raeatea.

Ehoama. Ua faaroo maore ou, eta utou parau.

Ehoama. Teee hoe tou henaara. E faatea mae hoe utou e tou henaaro, e faatono mae hoe utou ete Taota ea rahe, e te vahene, e te tamaetete. Ehoama, Homae hoe te ta oa ree, e te Ahu no matou, e haapee hoe matou ete peu no Peretane. Ehoama. Homae hoe te pupuhe ea rahe e te Powder ea rahe hoe, e fenua ta máe rahe to matou. Ea pohe au aeta Ooutou


te mau hoa nou,

na Missionary Society,
Tee London.


Malavae, Otahete, Jan. 1st, 1807.

I wish you every blessing friends in your residence in your country, with success in teaching this bad land, this foolish land, this wicked land, this land which is ignorant of good, this land that knoweth not the true God, this regardless land.

Friends, I wish you health and prosperity, may I also live, and may Jehovah save us all.

Friends, with respect to your letter you wrote to me, I have this to say to you, that your business with me, and your wishes I fully consent to, and shall consequently banish Oro, and send him to Raeatea.

Friends, I do therefore believe and shall obey your word.

Friends, I hope you also will consent to my request, which is this: I wish you to send a great number of men, women, and children here.

Friends, send also property, and cloth for us, and we also will adopt English customs.

Friends send also plenty of muskets

and powder, for wars are frequent in per distance, and with all the advanour country. Should I be killed, you tages of an extensive contrast. It is will have nothing in Tahete: do not with him as with the traveller; by an come here when I am dead, Tahete attentive observation of the manners is a regardless country, and should I and customs of foreign countries, his die with sickness, do not come here. eyes are opened to the prevailing errors This also I wish, that you would send and prejudices in his own; but he me all the curious things that you also returns with a lively sense of its have in England. Also send me every advantages, of many of which he can thing necessary for writing. Paper, hardly be conscious, who never left Ink, and Pens in abundance, let no behind him the bounds of his native land. writing utensil be wanting.

Friends, I have done, and have no- Of the modern nations of Europe, thing at all more to ask you for. As there are five of which the drama has for your desire to instruct Tahete, tis attracted any attention; the English, what I fully acquiesce in. Tis a com- French, and German: and in a more mon thing for people not to under- limited degree, the Italian and Spastand at first, but your object is good, nish. The English enjoy many inand I fully consent to it, and shall portant advantages for a national drama cast off all evil customs.

over the others: their country has

What I say is truth, and no lie, it been long an illustrious theatre of is the real truth. glory; and they have been always This is all I have to write, I have more deeply pervaded by a common done.

Friends write to me, that I may know what you have to say.

I wish you life and every blessing, May I also live, and may Jehovah

save us all.



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benefit to be

patriotic feeling than any of their neighbours. The French history is not deficient in instances of heroic magnanimity, though far inferior in this respect to our own; but they have never yet been known to avail themselves of their real advantages; and their tragedy remains yet a stranger to every light of inspiration, to every bold and spirited delineation of character. The Germans have no common country, no common interest, and are united together merely by the tie of language. To them, however, science and the best in

are strongly in

rived from an acquaintance with fo- debted; for we owe to them the first reign literature, whether ancient or successful efforts against religious modern, would be unnecessary in this usurpation, from which necessarily enlightened age. The disadvantages followed the civil and religious liberty under which he labours whose know- and toleration, now so universally enledge of literature extends not beyond joyed. But these effects, however the productions of his own country, much they merit the grateful adoare very obvious. The sphere of ration of the philosopher, are too enjoyment of the purest pleasure of modest for the drama. The Germans our nature, is to him bounded and have struggled, however, successfully circumscribed and even of his own for Dramatic fame; and if they native literature, he can in general yield in strength and variety of chapossess neither the same keen per- racter to the English, they have left ception of the faults, nor the same the other nations, in these and other sensibility to the beauties, as the man, respects, far behind them; while, for who, throwing aside the distinctions overpowering pathos, they stand unof country and age, has formed his rivalled. The Spaniards were once taste on the broad principles of hu- an enterprising people, renowned in man nature. To the latter a wider arts and arms; and their early theatrifield of observation is opened; and cal efforts are said, with all their irhe beholds his object from the pro- regularity, to bear strong marks of UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. IX. 3 N

genius; but civil and religious tyran- was strongly penetrated with an opiny have long exercised their baneful nion of the degeneracy of his countryinfluence over this once gallant na- men; he saw in past ages every thing tion, and have swept before them fancy and inspiration, and destroyed even the germ of genius; and the Spanish name is now only adduced as a melancholy illustration of the instability of human grandeur.

that could ennoble humanity, and no trace of dignity in his own: and he wished to rouse his contemporaries from the lethargy in which he conceived them to be plunged. His efforts in favour of liberty were conThe Italians were long in posses- fined to the pen, but he was passive sion of a theatre before any of the merely through want of opportunity; other nations of Europe. While the and from the very singular dedication rest of Europe was plunged in dark- of one of his plays to General Washness, they were successfuly cultivating ington, may be easily seen with what most of the departments of literature; alacrity he was ready to carry his but whether from the universal im- principles into execution. His admorality, and the almost total want miration of antiquity was excessive, of patriot feeling for which Italy was and without discrimination. Withlong remarkable, from the want of out reflecting that ancient liberty was interest and elevation in the disputes often but another name for outrage of the petty republics and principali- and abuse, with him it supplies the ties of which it was composed, or place of every virtue, and sanctions from whatever cause, the efforts of every enormity. Liberty forms the the dramatic muse in that country sole subject of nearly the half of his have, however unwearied, been till plays. Nothing can be conceived very lately at least, highly unsuccess- more irksome and more devoid of ful. They had, indeed, in direct op. interest, than to hear this subject position to what has happened in bandied about in the most commonother countries where the tragic muse place declamations, from the beginhas almost always preceded the comic, ning to the close of the piece, without very early some good comedies; for gradual preparation, and without rethe comedies of Macchiavelli, how- lief from a proper admixture of the ever immoral, abound in wit and hu- avowed principles of our nature. It mour, and faithfully paint the man- is hardly possible to fire the mind of ners of his age: but even the genius the spectator with the sound of abof a Tasso was unable to rescue their stract terms. He may feel strongly tragedy from neglect, which can only for particular instances of oppression, date its proper existence with the when strongly depicted and bodied exertions of a Mafiei, an Alfieri, and out before him in the semblance of a Monti. Even yet, however, their reality; but if general liberty or genetragedy can scarcely be called na- ral oppression are the subjects, he will tional; for with the exception of the always be disposed to lend an unwil conspiracy of the Pazzi, the subject is ling ear. uniformly foreign, and the sentiments slightly, if at all, characteristic of the genius and modes of thinking of the people of Italy.

"Non satis est pulchra esse poemata; dulcia


Et quocunque volent animum auditoris



Primum ipsi tibi."

Altieri was descended from a noble. Ut ridentibus arrident, ita filentibus adfient family of Piedmont, and bred at the Humani vultus: si vis me fiere, dolendum court of Turin. With every advantage of birth, fortune, and figure, the usual fashionable amusements and oc- In the unities of time and place cupations appeared to him, at an Alfieri is completely regular; and be early age, empty and unsatisfactory; has banished all confidents and inand with an ardour for liberty rarely ferior personages from the stage. to be exampled, he exiled himself From beginning to end he never for from his family, friends, and native a moment loses sight of the main accountry, where wealth and honours tion. What he has gained in this way awaited him, to enjoy independence in steadiness of effect, he has more in one of the free states of Italy. He than lost in another, by neglecting to

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