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content myself with a very cursory view of the most important objects. The Document marked A is a Report of Major General Brown on the state of the Army. The dispersed situation of the Infantry of the Army in various garrisons, and frequently so reduced as rarely to exceed a Captain's Command at any one place, was attended with great inconvenience and injury to the service, and their utility bad in many instances been superseded by our rapidly extending settlements. It was desirable to alter this state of things : to effect it, a concentration of the Army, as far as practicable, was ordered on the right bank of the Mississippi, a few miles below St. Louis, at the cantonment Jeffer

The advantages of this position are obvious. The Troops can be easily transported to the eastern or western Frontier, whenever the publick exigencies may require their presence.

In a salubrious and fertile region, their health will be preserved, and their supplies may be cheaply obtained, and delivered with facility. But the leading consideration remains to be noticed-the effect of the movement on the discipline and good character of the Army. It is admitted by the most intelligent, that both these desirable qualities are more generally found in large masses of Troops than in small de tached commands. Profiting by the presence of Officers of a superior grade, and greater professional skill, emulation is excited by the presence and rivalry of so many Aspirants for reputation, and subjected to the wholesome control of the opinion of an increased number of brother Officers, to whose eye the conduct of each is exposed, their discipline and morality must be greatly improved.

Reports of the Quarter-Master-General, Commissary-General of subsistence, Pay-Master-General, Surgeon-General, Commissary-General of Purchases, and Ordnance Department, marked B, C, D, E, F, and G, disclose all the information needful to be communicated on the administration of these branches of the publick service. I add with pleasure my testimony to the fidelity of all the Officers, superior and inferior, connected with these branches, among whom not a single delinquency has occurred.

From the Report of the visiters at West Point, that Establishment continues to equal the publick expectation, by annually presenting to its Country a large number of youths prepared to defend it in War, or to adorn it in Peace. Legislative aid is still necessary to the improvement of this Establishment. Its wants are presented, and an estimate for the necessary Appropriation, furnished by the Chief Engineer is submitted in the Annual Estimates of this Department.

The Document H is the Report of the Engineer Department. The duties performed by both Corps will at once ascertain, that great efforts have been made to perform, as far as practicable, the services expected of them. From the present number, more could not be accomplished; and yet, from the various calls made upon the Department for recon

Qoissances, it has been utterly impracticable to comply with the wishes of many of our Citizens; and such must continue to be the case without an increase of the Corps. I beg leave to refer you to this Report, and to that of the Quarter Master General as showing the measures which have been pursued in execution of the special Acts of Congress at their last and former Sessions, in relation to Roads, Harbours, and Canals.

In executing the resolution of Congress assigning to this Department the duty of having prepared a system of Cavalry Tactics, and a system of instructions for Artillery, for the use of the Cavalry and Artillery of the Militia, I thought I could not fulfil the wishes of Congress more effectually than by convening a Board, composed of Officers of the Militia and of the Army, whose various experience united gould enable it to digest the best and most practical system. The occasion was too favourable to be lost, and was, therefore, eagerly seized, of profiting by this collection of talent and experience, to review our present defective Militia system, and if possible, by an entirely new organization, to place it on a footing which would realize the expectations and wishes of every Patriot, in relation to this great arm of national defence. If there be any one maxim in our political creed which challenges universal approbation, it is that a well organized Militia is the natural depository of our protection against Foreign invasion, or intestine violence. This maxim has been consecrated by the Bill of Rights of all the States; and yet the opinion is as universal, that the present organization is both defective and onerous. Important changes in the present system are indispensable to make the Militia any way equal to the standard assigned it by the wishes of the Patriot. To the end that every source from which information might be collected should be approached, I addressed a Circular Letter to the Governor of every State and Territory, and to many Citizens, distinguished alike by their intelligence and experience, asking for information on this interesting subject. By so doing, I hoped to become possessed of the information which might lead to a result that would reconcile, as far as practicable, the various circumstances, moral and physical, belonging to so extensive a field, and thereby conciliate the publick sentiment to such changes as the wisdom of Congress might think proper to adopt. Communications in reply to this Letter have been received, some of which shed much light on this difficult, delicate, and highly national object. These Communications were laid before the Board, who, uniting their own experience and intelligence with the informatiou thus imparted, it was hoped might find itself in a condition to point out the defects of the existing system, and the probable remedies. They were directed to report to me the result of their reflections, which they accordingly did; and their Report, marked I, with the answers to my Letters, is herewith submitted. The systems of

tactics for Cavalry, and of instruction for Artillery, have been digested, and are in the hands of a copyist, and will be communicated in a few days.

I intentionally forbear making any remarks on the various alterations recommended by the Board of Officers. The wisdom of those to whom they are submitted, should Congress determine to legislate on the subject, will correct any errors into which they may have been betrayed, and supply any defect which may have escaped their observation. I cannot, however, abstain from calling your attention to the highly interesting fact, that we have, according to the last census, 2,000,000 of male Citizens between the ages of 18 and 45. The difference indicated between that number, and those embodied in the Returns of the Militia from the States, results from the exemptions from Militia service, which, in some of the States, are equal to one half of their whole number, which, from their ages, should be enrolled. From our happy position in regard to Europe, and from the no less fortunate relations maintained with our neighbours, and their actual condition, it would appear that, keeping up a system of the Militia so extensive as the present, and burthensome, without any advantage, to a large class of our Citizens, was altogether unnecessary. A different organization, therefore, by which at least 1,500,000 of our most useful Citizens would be relieved from the unprofitable pageantry of Military parade, for 5 or 6 days in the Year, constituting so injurious a draft on their industry, must be one which cannot fail to be well received by the American People; and when, too, it is believed, that, notwithstanding this relief, a superior efficiency will be imparted to this natural arm of the national defence.

The Document K is the Report of the Officer particularly charged with Indian Affairs, by which it will be seen that several Treaties have been negotiated with various tribes, and which are herewith submitted. By two of which, large tracts of land within the limits of Indiana have been relieved from the incumbrance of the Indian title. Although the proper measures were adopted to effect a similar result in other quarters, they, unfortunately, have not been successful.

During the recess, information was continually communicated to the Department, that a bloody, and most probably an exterminating War, was about to break out between the Osages and Delawares, and their numerous Allies, which it was urged, nothing could avert, but the employment of a respectable portion of the Army of The United States. The power of the Executive, without Legislative provision to that effect, was deemed tou questionable to justify the measure; all that could be done, was immediately performed to prevent the threatened mischief. A part of our military force was ordered to make a demonstration in the direction of the probable scene of hostility, whose object, not being known, might have the effect of overawing the

Indians, and the Chiefs of the various Tribes were assembled to impress on their minds the calamities which would ensue from a perseverance in their hostile purposes. Contrary to expectation, we suc. ceeded in pacifying them for the present. The duration of this state of things, is, however, most uncertain, and the subject is brought particularly to view for the consideration of Congress. The mischief likely to result from placing in the same neighbourhood, without a controlling power on the part of the Executive of the United States, different and hostile Tribes, have already been submitted in a Report from this Department to Congress at their last Session. The events just referred to have tended to confirm the views formerly taken, and I feel myself impelled by an irresistible sense of duty to state, that, unless a preventive is speedily furnished by Law, I fear that, at no distant period, those unfortunate and unhappy people will be exterminated by intestine Wars, and thereby, that a subject fruitful of unavailing regret will become a portion of the inheritance of the American People.

I have the honour to be, &c. The President of The United States.



(A.)Letter of General Brown to the Secretary of War.

Head Quarters of the Army.

Washington, November 30, 1826. In compliance with your instructions of the 3d ultimo, I have the honour to lay before you the following Returns and Statements, viz:

A Statement of the organization of the Army, conformable to the Acts of Congress.

A Return of the actual strength of the Army, from the last regimental and other returns.

A Return shewing the distribution of the troops in the Eastern De. partment.

A Return shewing the distribution of the Troops in the Western Department.

A Statement shewing the number of men enlisted, the amount of money advanced for the purposes of recruiting, and the amount for which recruiting Accounts have been rendered for settlement, from the Ist of October, 1825, to the 30th September, 1826.

An Estimate of the amount which will be required for the current expenses of the recruiting service for the year 1827.

By Statement E, it will be seen, that the sum of 10,850 dollars 63, remains unexpended in the hands of the Recruiting Officers. This amount is in a regular course of application to the Recruiting Service, and will doubtless, in due season, be properly accounted for.

In the early part of the year, Brevet Major General Scott commenced a tour of inspection and review of the Military Posts in the Eastern Department, which tour was extended southwardly as far as St. Augustine, but, on account of serious indisposition, he was prevented from prosecuting his tour to the north and east.

Brevet Major General Gaines has commenced a tour of inspection of all the Posts in the Western Department.

Colonel Wool has inspected during the last year the Posts of Fortress Monroe, Charleston, Pensacola, New Orleans, St. Philip, Petite, Coquille, cantonment Jesup, cantonment Towson, cantonment Gibson, Fort Mackinac, Green Bay, Sackett's Harbour, West Point, Eastport, Portland, Portsmouth, Boston, Newport, New London, New York, Detroit, Niagara, Plattsburgh, Castine, Salem, and Marblehead. The six posts last named are unoccupied by Troops, but contain ordnance and ordnance stores requiring inspection. To these are to be added, the arsenal of Baton Rouge, Augusta, Richmond, Watervliet, Rome, and Watertown, and The United States armory at Springfield.

Colonel Croghan has completed an inspection of the remote posts of the Northwestern Frontier, including the cantonments at St. Peter's and Council Bluffs, but his Reports have not yet been received.

The Companies of the Artillery Regiments have been generally inspected by the Field Officers thereof, but their detailed Reports are not yet received at General Head Quarters.

By information gathered from inspection Reports, as well as from personal observation, it is found that the general condition of the Army continues to be as favourable as circumstances will allow. In discipline and instruction, a decided improvement is perceptible, and, in the Departments of Administration, there is no want of due regularity and promptitude.

The necessary evils resulting from a wide dispersion of our Forces, and the number of small commands which are consequent to the system, have been, in some degree, corrected in the Artillery Regi. ments, by the operation of the school of practice. Although destitute of the aid which has been sought at the head of Legislation, and still struggling with exceedingly limited resources, this establishment has already afforded the most decided evidences of its usefulness, and an earnest of the salutary effects, on the efficiency and welfare of the Artillery, which must result from its preservation and prosperity.

It is a truth which cannot be disguised that the virtues of an Army, employed during a long period of Peace and inaction in little else than the ordinary course of Garrison Service, are in danger of deterioration. In order to preserve the energies and the active vigor of our ranks, and to guard against the approaches of sloth and imbecility, it seemed necessary to adopt some measure which might operate, at least partially, if not effectually, in favour of these desirable objects. The influence of concentration, as a system, independently of the various branches of theoretical and practical instruction which might be em braced in it, would, of itself, prove sufficiently beneficial to justify the

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