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The declaration of the Colombian Army which saved Peru, in favour of the Constitution of its own Country, left the Peruvian People at liberty to demand, that fundamental Laws should be decreed by their legitimate Representatives. A change has taken place in the latter Government; and the latest advices affirm, that this change is in conformity with the interests and wishes of the Peruvians.

The War between the Argentine Republick and the Emperor of Brazil still continues, although it is very probable that their differences will soon be terminated, the more especially as the Cabinet of Rio Janeiro, by the nomination of Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Congress of Tacubaya, has manifested the fraternal intentions which animate it towards the new American States.

Nothing is known to have disturbed the prosperous course of affairs in the Republick of Chili.

The Peace of the Republick of Colombia was upon the point of being disturbed, when its President, Simon Bolivar, returned thither; but it appears, from every data and the official communications, that the fears of a retrogradation in that Republick are vanishing; a retrogradation which might have proved fatal, in its results, to the cause of its liberty.

The events which have taken place in The United States of Central America are much to be regretted; but I do not contemplate, as very distant, the epoch of the re-establishment of tranquillity in that Country; which has been disturbed by an inexperience, productive of fatal errors: these will, however, disappear, so soon as the Parties agitated shall have listened to the counsels of prudence, and to those of the sincere friends of that precious part of the new World.

Mexico, and all the other Nations of America, continue happily united by their vows, and by the conformity of their interests and obligations.

Spain, having involved itself with Portugal, by its false and perfidious conduct, has been obliged to make the greatest efforts for its own defence; since its ancient Allies have abandoned it to the consequences of its own capricious measures. The present situation of Spain leaves no probability of her being able to renew her hopeless attempt upon America.

Our Credit with Foreign Nations maintains its superiority over that of the other modern Republicks. Up to the month of March, our securities were at a high price in London.

The soil we possess is, throughout its extent, the most highly gifted by nature. The intelligence, zeal, and activity, which have been displayed by the Representatives of the Nation, during the Session which closes this day; in the organization of the system of Finance, and, in the further improvements, which are expected from their continued exertions, induce us to believe that our political existence will be irrevo. cably consolidated, to the admiration of all other Nations.

The Statement of the Publick Revenue was laid before the Chambers at the Opening of the Session, in the Memorial of the Minister of that Department, including the last Financial Year, which ended in June, 1826. It was therein shewn, that the natural Revenue of the Country was sufficient to bear our ordinary expences; and, in order to continue to us so great a felicity, the Executive has decreed the necessary measures, for the better regulation of that part of the administration, which is within the sphere of its authority. For the completion, so urgently required, of this system, the Government has proposed various plans to the Chambers. It is very much to be regretted that the Law, which appoints this day for the Closing of the Session, should not have left you a few days more to finish the new commercial Tariff, in which you have manifested such profound know. ledge, and have proved that you have listened to the salutary lessous of experience. Unfortunately time has vanished away, without your having been able to provide for the Regulation of the Maritime Customhouses and Commissariats General, for which the plans were formed and presented to you; in order to put a stop to provisional Appointments, which are ever prejudicial and ruinous, and to fix proper Salaries for such Officers as are absolutely requisite, so that they may dedicate themselves with every interest to the discharge of their duties. These important affairs will ere long again employ your attention.

The administration of Justice has been improved as much as circumstances have permitted. The establishment of the Federal Tribunals, being entirely new, has experienced those difficulties which are natural to all new Systems. These have been partly overcome, and will be entirely removed, by such efficacious measures as have been suggested, by observation, and by a perfect knowledge of the diffi. culties to which the first trials have given rise. Before the close of last Year, important information was obtained upon this subject; and the Minister of that Department, in his Memorial of this Year, sets forth the state of the administration of Justice, and suggests the measures which should be adopted to give it due impulse. The time which has elapsed has been advantageously employed, in an extensive inquiry into all its defects, according as practice has discovered them; thus deriving from them, as from the most certain source, the indications for remedy,

Grounded upon the preceding data, the Executive has, in repeated communications, laid before Congress the special cases, doubts, and difficulties, as they have occurred, and has also brought under one general view the questions most important and worthy of its consideration; and, latterly, as the result of its experience, it has presented a Project of the Law, which in its opinion, it would be proper to adopt,

and in which it believes all the hitherto doubtful points are comprehended and explained. This branch of the Government is consequently in the most advanced state of which it is at present susceptible: it is of incalculable advantage to be fully acquainted with the action and resistance of the machinery, and to have at hand the correctives ready to apply to it; and this, I have no doubt, will be undertaken, in the first Sittings of the Legislative Body.

Although, up to the present time, it has not been possible to arrange our Ecclesiastical affairs, they do not present any obstacles capable of disturbing or impediug, in any manner, the course of the Publick Administration. Our Envoy to Rome remains in Brussels, awaiting the Instructions which Congress may judge proper to send to him, in order to open a communication and settle our relations with the Apostolick See.

The necessary orders have been issued by the Executive, for the purpose of giving effect to the Laws; respecting the conveyance of military baggage; the Militia on service; the Adjutant Inspectors of the Interior States; the Company of Halberdiers; and the supreme Tribunal of War and Marine.

A part of the Navy has been employed on actual service, in sight of the Enemy, since December last; and, although with an inferior force, our renowned Commander sustains the honour of our Flag with advantage, causes great damage to the trade of Cuba, and has taken various Prizes, without any unfortunate event having, hitherto, happened to our Vessels.

The War with the Yaqui Indians, in the Western Interior State, has been brought to a close.

The disturbances which have been caused by some Northern Adventurers in Nacogdoches have been happily terminated by their dispersion, and the death of their Leaders. The Government, in order to prevent the repetition of similar attempts, will put that Frontier in a respectable state of defence.

The military riot at Durango was quelled, by the salutary Law dictated by the Chambers, and by the activity of the measures of Government Order and tranquillity liave been restored, to the satisfaction of the Inhabitants of that State.

The Army continues well organized, and maintains its brilliant discipline.

In the States of Chiapas, Tabasco, and Yucatan, the epidemic small-pox made its appearance but without causing much havoc; owing to the precautionary measures adopted by their respective Governments, to arrest the progress of the distemper, and to those of the State of Vera Cruz, for preventing the contagion.

The new establishment of the Mines is usefully engaged in the labours, with which it was charged by the Law for its formation;

and the Commission for Drains at Huchuatoca proceeds with its operations.

Being convinced of the urgent necessity of setting on foot the most desirable plan for Publick Education, in the Federal District and Territories, I have nominated a Junta of known literary talents, who have begun to fulfil the object in view.

During the course of the present Year, a discovery has been made of the few Enemies who still strove to destroy the liberties of more than 6,000,000 of Mexicans. The punishment of the Delinquents shall satisfy the Publick vengeance.

The Mexican Nation, which so highly distinguishes itself by its love of liberty, is no less an admirer of publick order. “Love of liberty, explains every thing; love of order, and respect for the Laws and Customs: with liberty, property is inviolable; the life of the innocent is sacred; no one is declared guilty but by the Law; every thing is guarantied; every thing prospers. Liberty, severe in its principles, dreads licentiousness as much as tyranny; and the acquirement of it, and, above all, its preservation, is less the reward of valour than the triumph of virtue.” These maxims happily guide the conduct of the great Mexican People ; and your example, Citizens, Representatives of the Nation, has contributed to maintain this glory without a stain.


SPEECH of the Commissioners, on the Opening of the

Chambers of Portugal.20 January, 1827. (Translation.)


OF THE PORTUGUESE NATION, AFTER a short interruption, your cares and labours for the service of the Country are about to be resumed. The Country calls upon you, through the medium of the Law, and it never appeals in vain to Portuguese who are proud of bearing that honourable name.

You shewed in the short space of the last Session, which elosed on the 23d of December last, that you knew the evils which required to be remedied, and that you wished to apply the remedies promptly. You have commenced this work, no less difficult than important, in the manner which circumstances permitted ; and the zeal and prudence of which you have given proofs, leave no doubt that it will be considerably advanced in the course of the present Session.

The necessity for the regulatory Laws, contemplated by the Constitutional Charter, is urgent, and the execution of the latter would be imperfect without them. On the perfect execution of the Charter depend the political advantages which it promises, and on those advan

tages the respect and love which the Citizens ought to bear towards the Charter; and the surest means of obtaining that respect and love is to enact the requisite Laws. The Most Serene Senhora Infanta Regent knows, that such is your intention, and Her Highness hopes that you will fulfil it, with that steadiness and consideration which so important a business requires, and with the perfect concord of the two Chambers with each other and with the Throne,-a concord in which the perfection of Government, where the Powers are divided, consists.

From the most remote periods, and especially from the origin of our Monarchy, the Portuguese have shewn that they are endowed with penetrating and judicious heads, and noble and courageous hearts. From these qualities have flowed an exalted love of Country, and an intimate union of greatness in plans, prudence in council, and courage in execution.

The 15th century, and the middle of the 17th, are, for the Portuguese, glorious and memorable epochs, which the Nations, that have now the most right to boast of their progress, cannot fail to admire with astonishment; and we may say, to them, that these epochs have not their equals in history.

The Portuguese Nation, however small in number, has nevertheless performed great things, by its courage, the wisdom of its councils, and its union; and if it be still as inconsiderable in number as heretofore, it will by that courage, those councils, and that union, renew its ancient high deeds.

It would be useless to attempt to re-animate Portuguese courage. History presents no epoch in which it was lost or decayed.

After a long Peace, and from the bosom of tranquil security,-even of apathy -we have seen arise amongst us, Soldiers, who required only to be disciplined, to stand immediately on a level with those of the most warlike Nations.

It is not, however, useless to speak of the want of union. Without the union of Citizens, Political Society ceases to exist; without the harmony of powers, the good government of a State is impossible.

A truth, so essential and so evident, cannot be unknown to the Chambers, who, in the pure love of their Country, will not lose a moment to put it in practice. The zeal and prudence which you have already shewn, leave no doubt, but afford a complete assurance, that you will proceed with unanimity, in the difficult path of establishing a wise and durable Legislation, calculated to meet the hopes of the Nation.

The disunion which has prevailed amongst us, had its origin in the perversity of some seditious Men, and in the errors of inconsiderate Persons; but it is approaching its end. Her Highness, the Senhora Infanta Regent, hopes, that the moment is not far distant, when there

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