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whose romantic'* feats, instead of being allowed to shine forth, bedizened out as Sir Tristian, Don Belianis,'

• Don Belianis,' the Peers of Charlemagne,' or any other tale of • fiction' or mock-heroic, are presented to the world under the specious garb of "FAITHFUL HISTORY,'

* Analectic Magazine and Nav. Chron. Vol. VII. p. 296.

London, May 16th, 1818.

MILITARY OCCURRENCES,

&c.

&c.

CHAPTER J.

Origin of the late war with the United States--Pre-,

sident's message-American declaration of war- . Pacific views of the British_Determined hosti-, lity of the Americans-Prince regent's manim. festo in answer to the president's message Impressed Americans-Native and naturalized citizens--Case of Elijah Clarke- A resident in the Canadas shot as a deserter by an American officer-Acquittal of the officer-An opposite, principle afterwards broached by the American government-Cause of Indian hatred to the Americans.

The defensive measures adopted by the British government, in contravention of the Berlin and Milan decrees, no longer permitting the subjects of the United States, under the disguise of neutrals, to be the carriers of France, the ablest politieians in the republic were engaged to prepare a

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specious manifesto, representing the United States as the aggrieved, and Great Britain as the aggressing party. A moment of continental pressure upon the latter was deemed the fittest for promulgating this angry state-paper. Accordingly, on the 1st of June, 1812, Mr. Madison, the American president, sent the following message to the two houses of congress :

“Without going back beyond the renewal, in 1803; of the war in which Great Britain isengaged, and omitting unrepaired wrongs of inferior magnitude, the conduct of her government presents a series of acts hostile to the United States, as an independent and neutral nation.

--66 British cruisers have been in thie continued practice of violating the American flag on the great highway of nations, and of seizing and carrying off persons sailing under it; not in the exercise of a belligerent right, founded on the law of nations, against an enemy, but of a municipal prerogative over British subjects. British jurisdiction is thus extended to neutral vessels, in a situation where no laws can operate but the law of nations, and the laws of the country to which the vessels belong; and a selfredress is assumed, which, if British subjects were wrongfully detained and alone concerned, is that substitution of force for a resort to the responsible sovereign, which falls within the de.

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finition of war. Could the seizure of British subjects, in such cases, be regarded as within the exercise of a belligerent right, the acknowledged laws of wars, which forbid an article of captured property to be adjudged, without a regular investigation before a competent tribunal, would imperiously demand the fairest trial, where the sacred rights of persons were at issue. In place of such trial, these rights are subjected to the will of every petty commander. ...5. The practice, hence, is so far from affecting British subjects alone, that 'under the pretext of searching for these, thousands of American citi: zens, under the safeguard of public laws, and of their national flag, have been torn from their country, and from every thing dear to them; have been dragged on board ships of war of a foreign nation, and exposed under the severities of their discipline, to be exiled to the most dis. tant and deadly climes, to risk their lives in the battles of their oppressors, and to be the melancholy instruments of taking away those of their own brethren.

Against this crying enormity, which Great Britain would be so prompt to avenge, if committedagainst herself, the United States have in vain exhausted remonstrances and expostula. tions. And that no proof might be wanting of their conciliatorý disposition, and no pretext left for a continuance of the practice, the British government was formally assured of the readiness of the United States to enter into arrangements, such as could not be rejected, if the recovery of British subjects were the real and the sole object. The communication passed without effect. :,“ British cruisers have also been in the practice of violating the rights and the peace of our coasts. They hover over and harass our entering and departing commerce. To the most insulting pretensions they have added the most law. Jess proceedings in our very harbours, and have wantonly spilt American blood within the sanctuary of our territorial jurisdiction. The principles and rules enforced by that nation, when a neutral nation, against armed vessels of belligerents hovering near her coasts, and disturbing her commerce, are well known. When called on, nevertheless, by the United States, to punish the greater offences committed by her own vessels, her government has bestowed on their commanders additional marks of honour and confi. dence. -"*Under pretended blockades, without the presence of an adequate force, and sometimes without the practicability of applying one, our commerce has been plundered in every sea; the great staples of our country have been cut off

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